Auxerre

Last updated

Auxerre
Auxerre- Les Quais.jpg
Auxerre, Cathedral and Abbey by Yonne riverfront
Blason de la ville de Auxerre (Yonne).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Auxerre
Auxerre
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Auxerre
Bourgogne-Franche-Comte region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Auxerre
Coordinates: 47°47′55″N3°34′02″E / 47.7986°N 3.5672°E / 47.7986; 3.5672 Coordinates: 47°47′55″N3°34′02″E / 47.7986°N 3.5672°E / 47.7986; 3.5672
Country France
Region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Department Yonne
Arrondissement Auxerre
Canton Auxerre-1, Auxerre-2, Auxerre-3, Auxerre-4
Intercommunality CA Auxerrois
Government
  Mayor (2014–2020) Guy Ferez
Area
1
49.95 km2 (19.29 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01) [1]
34,634
  Density690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
89024 /89000
Elevation93–217 m (305–712 ft)
(avg. 102 m or 335 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Auxerre ( /ˈsɛər/ oh-SAIR, [2] French:  [osɛʁ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy. Auxerre's population today is about 35,000; [3] the metropolitan area comprises roughly 92,000 inhabitants.[ citation needed ] Residents of Auxerre are referred to as Auxerrois.

Contents

Auxerre is a commercial and industrial centre, with industries including food production, woodworking and batteries. It is also noted for its production of Burgundy wine, including world-famous Chablis. In 1995 Auxerre was named "Town of Art and History". [4] [ circular reference ]

History

Place Charles Lepere seen from rue du Temple Auxerre old slide.jpg
Place Charles Lepère seen from rue du Temple

Auxerre was a flourishing Gallo-Roman centre, then called Autissiodorum, through which passed one of the main roads of the area, the Via Agrippa (1st century AD) which crossed the Yonne (Gallo-Roman Icauna) here. In the third century it became the seat of a bishop [5] and a provincial capital of the Roman Empire. In the 5th century it received a cathedral. In the late 11th-early 12th century the existing communities were included inside a new line of walls built by the feudal counts of Auxerre.

Bourgeois activities accompanied the traditional land and wine cultivations starting from the twelfth century, and Auxerre developed into a commune with a Town Hall of its own. The Burgundian city, which became part of France under King Louis XI, suffered during the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of Religion. In 1567 it was captured by the Huguenots, and many of the Catholic edifices were damaged. The medieval ramparts were demolished in the 18th century.

In the 19th century numerous heavy infrastructures were built, including a railway station, a psychiatric hospital and the courts, and new quarters were developed on the right bank of the Yonne.

Up until the early 20th century, Auxerre was one of the most prosperous cities in the departement. But the local authorities of that period refused the railway that was subsequently set in the then village of Migennes, and signed the economic decline of the town. [ citation needed ]

Climate

Climate data for Auxerre (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.8
(62.2)
23.0
(73.4)
26.6
(79.9)
29.8
(85.6)
32.1
(89.8)
37.7
(99.9)
39.6
(103.3)
41.1
(106.0)
35.3
(95.5)
31.3
(88.3)
22.8
(73.0)
18.4
(65.1)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F)6.3
(43.3)
7.9
(46.2)
12.2
(54.0)
15.6
(60.1)
19.8
(67.6)
23.0
(73.4)
26.1
(79.0)
25.8
(78.4)
21.5
(70.7)
16.6
(61.9)
10.2
(50.4)
6.7
(44.1)
16.0
(60.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.8
(46.0)
10.5
(50.9)
14.5
(58.1)
17.7
(63.9)
20.2
(68.4)
20.0
(68.0)
16.3
(61.3)
12.4
(54.3)
7.1
(44.8)
4.1
(39.4)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
0.9
(33.6)
3.3
(37.9)
5.3
(41.5)
9.2
(48.6)
12.3
(54.1)
14.4
(57.9)
14.1
(57.4)
11.0
(51.8)
8.2
(46.8)
4.0
(39.2)
1.6
(34.9)
7.1
(44.8)
Record low °C (°F)−20.2
(−4.4)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−11.6
(11.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.0
(37.4)
5.8
(42.4)
4.0
(39.2)
0.5
(32.9)
−2.9
(26.8)
−8.8
(16.2)
−15.1
(4.8)
−20.2
(−4.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)56.3
(2.22)
47.7
(1.88)
48.9
(1.93)
56.0
(2.20)
69.5
(2.74)
61.5
(2.42)
53.9
(2.12)
59.3
(2.33)
61.1
(2.41)
70.8
(2.79)
61.1
(2.41)
61.2
(2.41)
707.3
(27.85)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)11.29.610.69.911.39.77.67.88.510.311.011.6119.1
Average relative humidity (%)87827772767471737885878879.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.789.2135.2173.9198.0213.9245.2229.6177.2121.270.153.31,768.5
Source 1: Meteo climat [6] [7]
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990) [8]

Main sights

A view of Auxerre's old town with Saint-Germain Abbey in the background. Auxerre 003.JPG
A view of Auxerre's old town with Saint-Germain Abbey in the background.
Church of St. Pierre en Vallee, listed as monument. Auxerre - Saint Pierre Church.jpg
Church of St. Pierre en Vallée, listed as monument.

Notable people

Specialties

Famous regional wines

The whole region of Burgundy produces over 200 million bottles per year.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Auxerre is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Chardonnay green-skinned grape variety used in wine production

Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine. The variety originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France, but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions, growing Chardonnay is seen as a ‘rite of passage’ and an easy entry into the international wine market.

Burgundy Region of France

Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period.

Chablis wine French white wine

The Chablis region is the northernmost wine district of the Burgundy region in France. The cool climate of this region produces wines with more acidity and flavors less fruity than Chardonnay wines grown in warmer climates. These wines often have a "flinty" note, sometimes described as "goût de pierre à fusil", and sometimes as "steely". The Chablis Appellation d'origine contrôlée is required to use Chardonnay grapes solely.

Burgundy wine Category of wines

Burgundy wine is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône. The most famous wines produced here—those commonly referred to as "Burgundies"—are dry red wines made from pinot noir grapes and white wines made from chardonnay grapes.

Aligoté grape variety

Aligoté is a white grape used to make dry white wines, especially in the Burgundy region of France where it was first recorded in the 18th century. Since it is tolerant to cold, this variety is also cultivated in Eastern European countries. In 2004, it was the 22nd most planted vine variety in the world at 45,000 hectares.

Mâconnais

The Mâconnais district is located in the south of the Burgundy wine region in France, west of the Saône river. It takes its name from the town of Mâcon. It is best known as a source of good value white wines made from the Chardonnay grape; the wines from Pouilly-Fuissé are particularly sought-after. Almost all the wine made in the Mâconnais is white wine. Chardonnay is the main grape grown in the district—in fact, there is a village of that name in the far north of the region. Some plantations of Gamay and Pinot noir are made into red and rosé Mâcon, making up no more than 30% of the total wine production. Gamay is grown in the Beaujolais cru of Moulin-à-Vent, which extends into the Mâconnais, but has little in common with the wines north of the border.

Chablis Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Chablis is a town and commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France.

Jura wine

Jura wine is French wine produced in the Jura département. Located between Burgundy and Switzerland, this cool climate wine region produces wines with some similarity to Burgundy and Swiss wine. Jura wines are distinctive and unusual wines, the most famous being vin jaune, which is made by a similar process to Sherry, developing under a flor-like strain of yeast. This is made from the local Savagnin grape variety. Other grape varieties include Poulsard, Trousseau, and Chardonnay. Other wine styles found in Jura includes a vin de paille made from Chardonnay, Poulsard and Savagnin, a sparkling Crémant du Jura made from slightly unripe Chardonnay grapes, and a vin de liqueur known as Macvin du Jura made by adding marc to halt fermentation. The renowned French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur was born and raised in the Jura region and owned a vineyard near Arbois.

Côte Chalonnaise

Côte Chalonnaise is a subregion of the Burgundy wine region of France. Côte Chalonnaise lies to the south of the Côte d'Or continuing the same geology southward. It is still in the main area of Burgundy wine production but it includes no Grand cru vineyards. Like the Côte d'Or, it is at the western edge of the broad valley of the river Saône, on the rising ground overlooking the town of Chalon-sur-Saône which is about six kilometers out into the plain. To the north, across the River Dheune, lies the Côte de Beaune. To the south is the Mâconnais. The grapes of the region are predominantly Pinot noir and Chardonnay with some Aligoté and Gamay also grown in vineyards spread over a stretch of 25 kilometers long and 7 kilometers wide of undulating land in which vineyards are interspersed with orchards and other forms of farming.

Saint-Bris-le-Vineux Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Saint-Bris-le-Vineux is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France.

Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOC wine producing region

Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for wine from the region of Burgundy in France. Most Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains, which is sometimes written unhyphenated as Bourgogne Passetoutgrains, is red although rosé wine may also be produced. Unlike other Burgundy wines, which are primarily produced from a single grape variety, Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains is essentially a cuvée of Gamay and Pinot noir.

Sacy (grape)

Sacy is a white wine grape grown primarily in the central and northeastern France within the Yonne and Allier départments.

Irancy Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Irancy is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France. It is located southwest of Chablis in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

Bouzeron Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Bouzeron is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Bourgogne in eastern France.

Roublot

Roublot is a traditional French variety of white wine grape that is a sibling of Chardonnay. It was once quite widely grown near Auxerre.

Loire Valley (wine) French wine region

The Loire Valley wine region includes the French wine regions situated along the Loire River from the Muscadet region near the city of Nantes on the Atlantic coast to the region of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France. In between are the regions of Anjou, Saumur, Bourgueil, Chinon, and Vouvray. The Loire Valley itself follows the river through the Loire province to the river's origins in the Cévennes but the majority of the wine production takes place in the regions noted above. The area includes 87 appellations under the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC), Vin Délimité de Qualité Superieure (VDQS) and Vin de pays systems. While the majority of production is white wine from the Chenin blanc, Sauvignon blanc and Melon de Bourgogne grapes, there are red wines made from Cabernet franc. In addition to still wines, rosé, sparkling and dessert wines are also produced. With Crémant production throughout the Loire, it is the second largest sparkling wine producer in France after Champagne. Among these different wine styles, Loire wines tend to exhibit characteristic fruitiness with fresh, crisp flavors-especially in their youth. The Loire Valley has a long history of winemaking dating back to the 1st century. In the High Middle Ages, the wines of the Loire Valley were the most esteemed wines in England and France, even more prized than those from Bordeaux.

Saint-Bris AOC

Saint-Bris is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for white wine in the Burgundy wine region of France. This AOC is located around the village Saint-Bris-le-Vineux in the Yonne department, a few kilometers southwest of the Chablis AOC area, and southeast of the city of Auxerre, which places it roughly halfway between Paris and Burgundy's heartland in Côte d'Or. The approximately 100 hectares of vineyard in the appellation are situated in the communes Chitry, Irancy, Quenne, Saint-Bris-le-Vineux and Vincelottes.

Chassey-le-Camp Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Chassey-le-Camp is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

Bouzeron is an appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for white wine produced in the French communes of Bouzeron and Chassey-le-Camp in the Côte Chalonnaise subregion of Burgundy. Bouzeron wine is produced from the grape variety Aligoté, and Bouzeron AOC is therefore the only communal-level Burgundy appellation for Aligoté-based wines. Other Aligoté wines from Burgundy are restricted to the regional appellation Bourgogne Aligoté AOC, and all other white Burgundy wines from communal appellations are Chardonnay-based. However, Pinot blanc is technically allowed.

Coteaux Bourguignons is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for white, red and rosé wine from the region of Burgundy in France. In late 2011, it replaced the earlier appellation Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire. The name Coteaux Bourguignons translates as "Burgundian hills".

References

  1. "Populations légales 2017". INSEE . Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN   978-1-4058-8118-0.
  3. Dossier complet commune d’Auxerre, INSEE
  4. fr:Villes et Pays d'art et d'histoire
  5. Councils were held here in 578 and 1147.
  6. "Moyennes 1981/2010: Région Bourgogne" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  7. "STATION Auxerre" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  8. "Normes et records 1961-1990: Auxerre (89) - altitude 207m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  9. Howard Eves (1990). An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (sixth ed.). Saunders College Publishing.
  10. Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
  11. "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.