Auxology, sometimes called auxanology (from Greek αὔξω, auxō, or αὐξάνω, auxanō, "grow"; and -λογία, -logia ), is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth. (Although, it is also fundamental of biology.) Auxology is a multi-disciplinary science involving health sciences/medicine (pediatrics, general practice, endocrinology, neuroendocrinology, physiology, epidemiology), and to a lesser extent: nutrition, genetics, anthropology, anthropometry, ergonomics, history, economic history, economics, socioeconomics, sociology, public health, and psychology, among others.
The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.
-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia). The earliest English examples were anglicizations of the French -logie, which was in turn inherited from the Latin -logia. The suffix became productive in English from the 18th century, allowing the formation of new terms with no Latin or Greek precedent.
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies.
Barry Bogin is an American physical anthropologist trained at Temple University who researches physical growth in Guatemalan Maya children, and is a theorist upon the evolutionary origins of human childhood. He is a professor at Loughborough University in the UK, after professorships at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, and Wayne State University. During 1974–1976, he was a visiting Professor at the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala.
Stanley Lewis Engerman is an economist and economic historian at the University of Rochester. He received his Ph.D. in economics in 1962 from Johns Hopkins University. Engerman is known for his quantitative historical work along with Nobel Prize–winning economist Robert Fogel. His first major book, co-authored with Robert Fogel in 1974, was Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery. This significant work, winner of the Bancroft Prize in American history, challenged readers to think critically about the economics of slavery. Engerman has also published over 100 articles and has authored, co-authored or edited 16 book-length studies.
Robert William Fogel was an American economic historian and scientist, and winner of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. As of his death, he was the Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of American Institutions and director of the Center for Population Economics (CPE) at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He is best known as an advocate of new economic history (cliometrics) – the use of quantitative methods in history.
Anthropometric history is the study of the history of human height and weight. It has historical roots. In the 1830s, Adolphe Quetelet and Louis R. Villermé studied the physical stature of populations. In the 1960s, French historians analyzed the relationship between socio-economic variables and human height. Anthropometric history was established as field of study in the late 1970s when economic historians Robert Fogel, John Komlos, Richard Steckel and other academics began to study the history of human physical stature and its relationship to economic development. A branch of cliometrics, it uses trends and cross-sectional patterns in human physical stature to understand historical processes.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics, and sociocultural influences. It is closely related to biological anthropology and other biological fields tying in various aspects of human functionality. It wasn't until the 20th century when well-known biogerontologist, Raymond Pearl, author of the journal Human Biology, phrased the term "human biology" in a way to describe a separate subsection apart from biology.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer, usually in centimetres when using the metric system, or feet and inches when using the imperial system.
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation". It views humans from multidimensional and ecological perspectives. It is one of the most highly developed areas of anthropology and applied anthropology, and is a subfield of social and cultural anthropology that examines the ways in which culture and society are organized around or influenced by issues of health, health care and related issues.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology, and philosophical anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life, while economic anthropology studies human economic behavior. Biological (physical), forensic, and medical anthropology study the biological development of humans, the application of biological anthropology in a legal setting, and the study of diseases and their impacts on humans over time, respectively.
The MacArthur Fellows Program, MacArthur Fellowship, commonly but unofficially known as a "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 individuals, working in any field, who have shown "extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction" and are citizens or residents of the United States.
Houston Methodist Hospital is the flagship hospital of Houston Methodist. Located in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas, Houston Methodist Hospital was established in 1919 during the height of the Spanish influenza epidemic as an outreach ministry of Methodist Episcopal Church. Houston Methodist comprises seven community hospitals, a continuing care hospital as well as several emergency centers and physical therapy clinics throughout greater Houston.
The Michigan State University College of Human Medicine (MSUCHM) is an academic division of Michigan State University (MSU), and grants the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. CHM was founded in 1964 as the first community-integrated medical school, and has a program that emphasizes patient-centered care and a biopsychosocial approach to caring for patients. Required courses at the college reinforce the importance of ethics and professionalism in medicine. In 2013, U.S. News & World Report ranked the college 51st for primary care. The college was also ranked for family medicine and rural medicine. More than 4,000 M.D.s have graduated from the College. Pre-clinical campuses are located on MSU's main campus in East Lansing, Michigan and in downtown Grand Rapids, Michigan, while the clinical rotations are at seven community campuses located throughout Michigan.
John Komlos is an American economic historian of Hungarian descent and former holder of the Chair of Economic History at the University of Munich for eighteen years. In the 1980s, Komlos was instrumental in the emergence of anthropometric history, the study of the effect of economic development on human biological outcomes such as physical stature.
Biocultural anthropology can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture. "Instead of looking for the underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations."
The Faculty of Human, Social, and Political Science at the University of Cambridge was created in 2011 out of a merger of the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology and the Faculty of Politics, Psychology, Sociology and International Studies. According to the Cambridge HSPS website: graduates pursue careers in "research, the Civil Service, journalism, management consultancy, museums, conservation and heritage management, national and international NGOs and development agencies, the Law, teaching, publishing, health management, and public relations."
Felipe R. Solís Olguín was a Mexican archaeologist, anthropologist, and historian as well as curator and Director of the National Anthropology Museum from 2000 until his death on April 23, 2009.
Michael Hermanussen is a German pediatrician and professor at the University of Kiel. He is known for his work on growth and nutrition.
Richard L. Jantz is an American anthropologist. He served as the director of the University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility from 1998–2011 and he is the current Professor Emeritus of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. His research focuses primarily on forensic anthropology, skeletal biology, dermatoglyphics, anthropometry, anthropological genetics, and human variation, as well as developing computerized databases in these areas which aid in anthropological research. The author of over a hundred journal articles and other publications, his research has helped lead and shape the field of physical and forensic anthropology for many years.
Social anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe, where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology.
Richard Hall Steckel is an American heterodox economist with a focus on economic history. Steckel is the SBS Distinguished Professor of Economics, Anthropology and History at Ohio State University (OSU) and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). He is well known for his work on health and well-being, in which he is a major contributor to anthropometric history along with John Komlos. Their work was highlighted in a 1996 Time magazine front page article. Between 2004 and 2005 he served as president of the Social Science History Association.
The Viking Fund Medal is an annual award given out by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research for distinguishing research or publication in the field of Anthropology. From 1946 to 1961, nominees were selected by their respective societies; The American Anthropological Association, Society for American Archaeology, and American Association of Physical Anthropologists. In 1961 the selection procedures was modified for international nominees selection; To increase the amount of qualified applicants. Before the 1961 modification, a nominee from three fields of Anthropology were selected; General Anthropology, Archaeology, and Physical Anthropology. After 1961 the Viking Fund Medal has no longer been awarded annually, with many years between awards.
Judith P. Klinman is an American chemist, biochemist, and molecular biologist known for her work on enzyme catalysis. She earned her A.B. from University of Pennsylvania in 1962 and Ph.D. from the same university in 1966. In 1978 she was the first female faculty member in the physical sciences at the University of California, Berkeley. Her group has discovered that room temperature nuclear tunneling occurs among various enzymatic reactions, and clarified the dynamics of tunneling process through data analysis. They have also discovered the quino-enzymes.
William "Bill" Irons is an American evolutionary anthropologist and professor emeritus in anthropology at the Northwestern University known for his research on the Yomut Turkmen, in northern Iran. His research interests include evolutionary ecology, reproductive strategies, demography and the evolutionary foundations of morality and religion.
Karen B. Strier is a primatologist. She is Vilas Research Professor and Irven DeVore Professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and co-editor-in-chief of Annual Review of Anthropology. The main subject of her research is the northern muriqui, a type of spider monkey found in Brazil.
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In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.
PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology, and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge.