Avala Tower

Last updated
Avala Tower
Авалски торањ
Avalski toranj
Avala Tower.jpg
Avala Tower
Avala Tower
General information
Type Telecommunication and observation
Location Belgrade, Serbia
Coordinates 44°41′45.5″N20°30′52″E / 44.695972°N 20.51444°E / 44.695972; 20.51444 Coordinates: 44°41′45.5″N20°30′52″E / 44.695972°N 20.51444°E / 44.695972; 20.51444
Construction started1961 (original)
December 21, 2006 (reconstruction)
Completed1965 (original)
October 23, 2009 (reconstruction)
DestroyedApril 29, 1999 (original)
Antenna spire204.68 m (672 ft)
Technical details
Floor count6
Design and construction
Architect Uglješa Bogunović and Slobodan Janjić

The Avala Tower (Serbian : Авалски торањ, romanized: Avalski toranj) is a 204.68 m (672 ft) tall telecommunications tower located on Mount Avala, in Belgrade, Serbia. The original tower was finished in 1965, but was destroyed on 29 April 1999, during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. The tower's reconstruction commenced on 21 December 2006 and it was officially opened on 21 April 2010. [2]




The tower was designed by architects Uglješa Bogunović and Slobodan Janjić, and engineer Milan Krstić. Contractor was the "Rad" construction company. Construction started on 14 October 1961 and was completed four years later, in 1965. [3] The tower weighed 4,000 tonnes (3,900 long tons; 4,400 short tons). Between 102 m (335 ft) and 135 m (443 ft), there was an enclosed observation deck, entered at 122 m (400 ft) and reached via two quick elevators. It was the only tower in the world to have an equilateral triangle as its cross section, and one of very few towers not perched directly into the ground, but standing on its legs. The legs formed a tripod, the symbol of Serbian tripod chair (tronožac). [3] It is one of the small number of towers to be constructed in that manner.

The tower was surmounted by an antenna, which was at first used for black and white television transmission. In 1971 the antenna was replaced by a new one for color TV transmission and the emitting of the TV Belgrade's Second program in color began on 31 December 1971. Also, the first digital terrestrial television in Serbia was emitted from the tower. [3]

The project, which was of high risk, was finished without any worker injuries or deaths, which was unusual for a project of its size.

1999 bombing

The Avala Tower was destroyed on 29 April 1999 [3] by NATO bombardment. Previously the power supply to the station was destroyed, but a senior military officer installed a backup generator. The intent of the bombing was to put Radio Television Serbia (RTS) permanently off the air for the duration of the war; however RTS was relayed on a network of local TV stations which relayed its programming throughout the whole of Serbia. The Avala Tower was a symbol of pride and a famous landmark, not only of Belgrade and Serbia, but of the former Yugoslavia too. The tower was one of the last buildings to be destroyed before the end of the NATO operation. The tower was destroyed by two laser-guided bombs GBU-27 that hit one leg of the tower, causing its collapse.


The idea of the tower's reconstruction at the same place it was destroyed originated from the Journalists' Association of Serbia in October 2002. In the early 2004, Radio Television Serbia (RTS) joined in with the media promotion of the project and commenced a series of fund-raising events in order to collect money for the construction. The project was endorsed and supported by numerous media, painters, writers, actors, musicians, athletes and businessmen. It is estimated that a million people, through various activities, supported the project. [4]

An agreement regarding its construction was signed by Dušan Basara, director of the construction sector of the Ratko Mitrović Company — which was in charge of the construction of the tower — and general director of RTS, Aleksandar Tijanić. Many fund-raising events have been held for the collection of funds so a new tower can be constructed. One of the first was a match between Serbian grand slam-winning tennis players Ana Ivanovic and Novak Djokovic. All the proceeds went to the Avala Tower fund. Ceca Ražnatović (a Serbian folk singer) held a concert on 15 June 2006, with all the proceeds going to the Avala Tower fund. RTS ran commercials for donations to rebuild the tower. According to a December 2006 report, when it was announced that the construction of a new Avala Tower would commence that same month, over €1 million was collected through fund-raising and donations.

As the NATO used projectiles with depleted uranium, the military first conducted surveys to check for the contamination of the debris, before giving the green light for construction works. Clearing of the site began on 21 June 2005. Over one million tons of rubble was removed. Seismic survey followed and the construction works started on 21 December 2006. [4] Initially, completion of the new tower was expected in August 2008, but construction works were severely delayed. The opening date was pushed back to 29 April 2009, the tenth anniversary of its destruction. Radio Television Serbia reported on 23 October 2009 that the tower had been completed. [5]

The rebuilt tower was opened on 21 April 2010 and with 204.68 m (671.5 ft), it is 2 m (6 ft 7 in) higher than the demolished one. Materials used include 5,880 tons of concrete and 500 tons of reinforcement bars. [3] The height of the reinforced concrete section is 136.65 metres (448.3 ft), while the steel antenna construction, and the antenna itself, are 68 metres (223 ft) tall. [4]


The tower had 137,000 visitors in 2016, [6] 155,000 in 2017 [7] and 185,000 in 2018. [8] In June 2017 the tourist complex was opened at the base of the tower. It includes, among other facilities, a restaurant, ethno-gallery, souvenir shop, sports fields and outdoor gym. [9] By August 2017, a 105 cement prints of the people who helped the reconstruction were displayed, including those of tennis players Novak Djokovic and Ana Ivanovic and a new lift, for the parents with children and the disabled, have been constructed. [3]

In 2018 the children area at the base was expanded with the elf village, consisting of houses connected by a small bridge. A classroom in the open was set in the pine forest and the artificial climbing rock was built. On 19 October 2018, a colorful decorative light on the entire tower became operational. [10]

Avala tower at night.jpg

Radio and TV frequencies

FM radio:

DVB-T2 digital television:

See also

Related Research Articles

Zemun Municipality in Belgrade, Serbia

Zemun is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. Zemun was a separate town that was absorbed into Belgrade in 1934. The development of New Belgrade in the late 20th century affected the expansion of the continuous urban area of Belgrade.


The Beograđanka, officially Belgrade Palace is a modern high-rise building in the Belgrade downtown area.

Radio Television of Serbia National public broadcasting service of Serbia

Radio Television of Serbia is Serbia's public broadcaster. It broadcasts and produces news, drama, and sports programming through radio, television and the Internet. RTS is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. Radio Television of Serbia has four organizational units - radio, television, music production, and record label (PGP-RTS). It is financed primarily through monthly subscription fees and advertising revenue.

Tašmajdan Park

Tašmajdan Park, colloquially Tašmajdan or simply just Taš, is a public park and the surrounding urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Palilula. In 2010–2011 the entire park saw its largest reconstruction since its creation in 1954.

Avala Mountain in Serbia

Avala is a mountain in Serbia, overlooking Belgrade. It is situated in the south-eastern corner of the city and provides a great panoramic view of Belgrade, Vojvodina and Šumadija, as the surrounding area on all sides is mostly lowlands. It stands at 511 metres (1,677 ft) above sea level, which means that it enters the locally defined mountain category just by 11 m (36 ft).

New Belgrade Municipality in Belgrade, Serbia

New Belgrade is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It is a planned city, built since 1948 in a previously uninhabited area on the left bank of the Sava river, opposite old Belgrade. In recent years, it has become the central business district of Belgrade and its fastest developing area, with many businesses moving to the new part of the city, due to more modern infrastructure and larger available space. With 212,104 inhabitants, it is the second most populous municipality of Serbia after Novi Sad.

Palilula is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It has the largest area of all municipalities of Belgrade. The core of Palilula is close to the center of the city, but the municipality also includes sparsely populated land left of the Danube.

Western City Gate Building in Belgrade, Serbia

The Western City Gate, also known as the Genex Tower is a 36-story skyscraper in Belgrade, Serbia, which was designed in 1977 by Mihajlo Mitrović in the brutalist style. It is formed by two towers connected with a two-story bridge and revolving restaurant at the top. It is 117 m (384 ft) tall and is the second-tallest high-rise in Belgrade after Ušće Tower.

Winter Hill transmitting station

The Winter Hill transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications site on Winter Hill, at the southern boundary of the Borough of Chorley, Lancashire and above Bolton. It is owned and operated by Arqiva.

Ušće Towers Skyscraper in Belgrade, Serbia

The Ušće Towers are two 25-story mixed-use skyscrapers located at Mihajlo Pupin Boulevard in the New Belgrade municipality of Belgrade, Serbia. The first tower, 98 meters tall, was the tallest building in Serbia until 1979 and construction of Genex Tower, and the second-tallest freestanding structure, after the Avala Tower. Construction of the second tower, designed as a twin of the first, began in 2018 and it was opened in June 2020.

Slavija Square Urban neighbourhood in Vračar, Belgrade, Serbia

Slavija Square is a major commercial junction, situated between the intersections of Kralja Milana, Beogradska, Makenzijeva, Svetosavska, Bulevar oslobođenja, Deligradska and Nemanjina streets in Belgrade. The square was previously named Dimitrije Tucović Square after the prominent Serbian socialist.

Bubanj Potok Suburban settlement in Voždovac, Belgrade, Serbia

Bubanj Potok is a non-residential suburban settlement of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Voždovac.

Ada Huja Urban neighborhood in Palilula, Belgrade, Serbia

Ada Huja is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Palilula.

Vinča Suburban settlement in Grocka, Belgrade, Serbia

Vinča is a suburban settlement of Belgrade, Serbia. It is part of the municipality of Grocka. Vinča-Belo Brdo, an important archaeological site that gives its name to the Neolithic Vinča culture, is located in the village.


Topčiderska River, or colloquially Topčiderka, or Topčiderski Creek, is a river in north-central Serbia, a 30 km-long right tributary to the Sava river to which it flows in the urban section of Belgrade. It is one of the 40 rivers, streams and creeks that flow or used to flow through Belgrade.

Ripanj Suburban neighbourhood in Voždovac, Belgrade, Serbia

Ripanj is a suburban settlement of Belgrade, Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Voždovac. It has a distinction of being "the largest village of Serbia" taking in account its number of population, but also because it has the largest area of all rural settlements in the country.

Gazela Bridge

The Gazela Bridge is the most important bridge over the Sava river in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is a part of the city highway and it lies on European route E75, on the highway passing through the wider city center, connecting Belgrade with Niš to the south, and Novi Sad to the north. The bridge was designed by a group of engineers led by Milan Đurić, and built by the Mostogradnja company.

Ada Bridge

The Ada Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge over the Sava river in Belgrade, Serbia. The bridge crosses the tip of Ada Ciganlija island, connecting the municipalities of Čukarica and New Belgrade. The bridge pylon is located on the tip of the island, which has been reinforced with large amounts of concrete and has been slightly enlarged to provide stronger foundations. Construction began in 2008, and the bridge opened on 1 January 2012. Adjoining roads were completed in 2013.

Yuri Gagarin Street, Belgrade

Yuri Gagarin Street is a major street in New Belgrade, named after Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space.

Ostružnica Bridge is a six-lane girder bridge carrying the Belgrade bypass over the Sava at Ostružnica. First half was constructed by Mostogradnja between 1990 and 1998. Total length of the bridge is 1,789.6 m (5,871 ft), with a 588 m (1,929 ft) long continuous steel structure crossing the river in five spans. The largest span is 198 m. The bridge was bombed by NATO during the Kosovo War in 1999 and fully reconstructed by 2004. Additional three lanes on the parallel, twin bridge were built from 2016 to 2020.


  1. Avala Tower at Emporis
  2. Naš toranj
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dejan Aleksić (8 August 2017), "Sve više turista pohodi emisiono srce Srbije", Politika (in Serbian), p. 16
  4. 1 2 3 Miloš Bato Milatović (23 April 2021). Феникс с Авале плаве[Phoenix from Avala blue]. Politika (in Serbian). p. 14.
  5. RTS article on tower completion, (in Serbian).
  6. Milan Janković (12 June 2017), "Uređen turistički kompleks oko Avalskog tornja", Politika (in Serbian), p. 16
  7. Ana Vuković, Dejan Aleksić, Daliborka Mučibabić (6 January 2018). "Razbijanje straha od visine i planinarenje". Politika (in Serbian). p. 20.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. "Девети рођендан Авалског торња" [Avala Tower's 9th birthday]. Politika (in Serbian). 22 April 2019. p. 15.
  9. Ana Vuković (10 June 2017), "Kompleks na Avali dobio novi izgled", Politika (in Serbian), p. 14
  10. Ana Vuković (19 October 2018). "Декоративна расвета на Авалском торњу" [Decorative lights on the Avala Tower]. Politika (in Serbian). p. 13.