Avignon

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Avignon

Avinhon  (Occitan)
Vue aerienne 2 JP Campomar.jpg
Park beim Papstpalast in Avignon01 (cropped).jpg
Avignon, Palais des Papes depuis Tour Philippe le Bel by JM Rosier (cropped).jpg
Cathedrale Notre-Dame des Doms d'Avignon sous l'orage.jpg
Avignon festival 2006 asobu popes palace.jpg
Le Pont d'Avignon (cropped).jpg
Blason ville fr Avignon (Vaucluse).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Avignon
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Avignon
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'azur region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Avignon
Coordinates: 43°57′N4°49′E / 43.95°N 4.81°E / 43.95; 4.81 Coordinates: 43°57′N4°49′E / 43.95°N 4.81°E / 43.95; 4.81
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Vaucluse
Arrondissement Avignon
Canton Avignon-1, Avignon-2, Avignon-3
Intercommunality CA Grand Avignon
Government
  Mayor (2014–2020) Cécile Helle (PS)
Area
1
64.78 km2 (25.01 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
94,200
  Density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
84007 /84000
Elevation10–122 m (33–400 ft)
(avg. 23 m or 75 ft)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameHistoric Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge
Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iv
Reference 228
Inscription1995 (19th Session)
Area8.2 ha
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Avignon ( UK: /ˈævɪnjɒ̃/ , US: /ˌævənˈjn, ˌɑːvnˈjɔːn/ , [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] French:  [aviɲɔ̃] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Provençal : Avinhon(Classical norm) or Avignoun(Mistralian norm) [aviˈɲun] ; Latin : Avenio) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city (as of 2011), about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts.

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. It is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Provençal dialect dialect of Occitan

Provençal is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence. In the English-speaking world, the term Provençal has historically also been used to refer to all of Occitan, but is now mainly understood to refer to the variety spoken in Provence.

Contents

Between 1309 and 1377, during the Avignon Papacy, seven successive popes resided in Avignon and in 1348 Pope Clement VI bought the town from Joanna I of Naples. Papal control persisted until 1791 when, during the French Revolution, it became part of France. The town is now the capital of the Vaucluse department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its ramparts.

Avignon Papacy Period during which the popes resided in Avignon, France

The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years. This absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy".

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Pope Clement VI (1291–1352) fourth of the Avignon Popes, 1342–1352

Pope Clement VI, born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement reigned during the first visitation of the Black Death (1348–1350), during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague.

The historic centre, which includes the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, and the Pont d'Avignon, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. The medieval monuments and the annual Festival d'Avignon have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism.

Palais des Papes palace and museum in Avignon, France

The Palais des Papes is an historical palace located in Avignon, Southern France. It is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. Once a fortress and palace, the papal residence was the seat of Western Christianity during the 14th century. Six papal conclaves were held in the Palais, leading to the elections of Benedict XII in 1334, Clement VI in 1342, Innocent VI in 1352, Urban V in 1362, Gregory XI in 1370 and Antipope Benedict XIII in 1394.

Avignon Cathedral cathedral in France

Avignon Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located next to the Palais des Papes in Avignon, France. The cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Avignon.

Pont Saint-Bénézet bridge in France

The Pont Saint-Bénézet, also known as the Pont d'Avignon, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France.

Toponymy

The earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks: [7] АὐενιὼνAueniṑn (Stephen of Byzantium, Strabo, IV, 1, 11) and ΆουεννίωνAouenníōn (Ptolemy II, x).

The Roman name Avennĭo Cavărum (Mela, II, 575, Pliny III, 36), i.e. "Avignon of Cavares" accurately shows that Avignon was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of Cavares, along with Cavaillon and Orange.

Cavares

The Cavares were a Gallic tribe, or a federation of tribes, located in the lower Rhone valley. Their strongholds were Avignon (Avennio), Orange (Arausio) and Cavaillon (Cabellio). Their closest neighbours were the Segallauni, the Tricastini, the Salyes, the Albici and the Vocontii.

Cavaillon Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Cavaillon is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It is situated in the Durance Valley and the Luberon National Park.

Orange, Vaucluse Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about 21 km (13 mi) north of Avignon. It has a primarily agricultural economy.

The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European [7] or pre-Latin [8] theme ab-ên with the suffix -i-ōn(e). [7] [8] This theme would be a hydronym – i.e. a name linked to the river (Rhône), but perhaps also an oronym of terrain (the Rocher des Doms).

A hydronym is a proper name of a body of water. Hydronymy, a subset of toponymy, the taxonomic study of place-names, is the study of the names of bodies of water, the origins of those names, and how they are transmitted through history. Hydronyms may include the names of rivers (potamonyms), lakes, and even oceanic elements.

The Auenion of the 1st century BC was Latinized to Avennĭo (or Avēnĭo), -ōnis in the 1st century and is written Avinhon in classic Occitan spelling [9] or Avignoun in Mistralian spelling. [10] The inhabitants of the commune are called avinhonencs or avignounen in both standard Occitan and Provençal dialect.

History

Geography

Avignon is on the left bank of the Rhône river, a few kilometres above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km (360 mi) south-east of Paris, 229 km (142 mi) south of Lyon and 85 km (53 mi) north-north-west of Marseille. On the west it shares a border with the department of Gard and the communes of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon and Les Angles and to the south it borders the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and the communes of Barbentane, Rognonas, Châteaurenard, and Noves.

The city is in the vicinity of Orange (north), Nîmes, Montpellier (south-west), Arles (to the south), Salon-de-Provence, and Marseille (south-east). Directly contiguous to the east and north are the communes of Caumont-sur-Durance, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, and Sorgues.

Geology and terrain

Aerial view of Avignon P1280052 - Avignon.JPG
Aerial view of Avignon

The region around Avignon is very rich in limestone which is used for building material. For example, the current ramparts, measuring 4,330 metres long, were built with the soft limestone abundant in the region called mollasse burdigalienne. [11]

Enclosed by the ramparts, the Rocher des Doms is a limestone elevation of urgonian type, 35 metres high [12] (and therefore safe from flooding of the Rhone which it overlooks) and is the original core of the city. Several limestone massifs are present around the commune (the Massif des Angles, Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, Alpilles...) and they are partly the result of the oceanisation of the Ligurian-Provençal basin following the migration of the Sardo-Corsican block. [11]

The other significant elevation in the commune is the Montfavet Hill – a wooded hill in the east of the commune. [11]

The Rhone Valley is an old alluvial zone: loose deposits cover much of the ground. It consists of sandy alluvium more or less coloured with pebbles consisting mainly of siliceous rocks. The islands in the Rhone, such as the Île de la Barthelasse, were created by the accumulation of alluvial deposits and also by the work of man. The relief is quite low despite the creation of mounds allowing local protection from flooding. [11]

In the land around the city there are clay, silt, sand, and limestone present. [11]

Hydrography

Bridges on the Grand Rhone. Vue des ponts d'Avignon par JM Rosier.JPG
Bridges on the Grand Rhône .
The Pont d'Avignon on the Petit Rhone. In the background is Mont Ventoux. Pont d'Avignon.jpg
The Pont d'Avignon on the Petit Rhône. In the background is Mont Ventoux.

The Rhone passes the western edge of the city but is divided into two branches: the Petit Rhône, or "dead arm", for the part that passes next to Avignon and the Grand Rhône, or "live arm", for the western channel which passes Villeneuve-lès-Avignon in the Gard department. The two branches are separated by an island, the Île de la Barthelasse. The southernmost tip of the Île de la Barthelasse once formed of a separated island, the L'Île de Piot. [13]

The banks of the Rhone and the Île de la Barthelasse are often subject to flooding during autumn and March. The publication Floods in France since the 6th century until today – research and documentation [14] by Maurice Champion tells about a number of them (until 1862, the flood of 1856 was one of the largest, which destroyed part of the walls). They have never really stopped as shown by the floods in 1943–1944 [15] and again on 23 January 1955 [16] and remain important today – such as the floods of 2 December 2003. [17] As a result, a new risk mapping has been developed.

The Durance flows along the southern boundary of the commune into the Rhone and marks the departmental boundary with Bouches-du-Rhône. [18] It is a river that is considered "capricious" and once feared for its floods (it was once called the "3rd scourge of Provence" [lower-alpha 1] as well as for its low water: the Durance has both Alpine and Mediterranean morphology which is unusual.

There are many natural and artificial water lakes in the commune such as the Lake of Saint-Chamand east of the city.

Artificial diversions

A mill on the Vaucluse Canal in the Pont des 2 eaux district Moulin Parc chico mendes 6.jpg
A mill on the Vaucluse Canal in the Pont des 2 eaux district

There have been many diversions [19] throughout the course of history, such as feeding the moat surrounding Avignon or irrigating crops.

In the 10th century part of the waters from the Sorgue d'Entraigues were diverted and today pass under the ramparts to enter the city. (See Sorgue). This watercourse is called the Vaucluse Canal but Avignon people still call it the Sorgue or Sorguette. It is visible in the city in the famous Rue des teinturiers (street of dyers). It fed the moat around the first ramparts then fed the moat on the newer eastern city walls (14th century). [ citation needed ] In the 13th century (under an Act signed in 1229) part of the waters of the Durance were diverted to increase the water available for the moats starting from Bonpas. This river was later called the Durançole. [ citation needed ] The Durançole fed the western moats of the city and was also used to irrigate crops at Montfavet. In the city these streams are often hidden beneath the streets and houses and are currently used to collect sewerage. [ citation needed ]

The Hospital Canal (joining the Durançole) and the Crillon Canal (1775) were dug to irrigate the territories of Montfavet, Pontet, and Vedène. [ citation needed ] They were divided into numerous "fioles" or "filioles" (in Provençal filhòlas or fiolo). Similarly, to irrigate the gardens of the wealthy south of Avignon, the Puy Canal was dug (1808). All of these canals took their water from the Durance. These canals were initially used to flood the land, which was very stony, to fertilize them by deposition of silt. [ citation needed ]

All of these canals have been used to operate many mills.

Seismicity

The leaning bell tower of the Church of the Augustinians. Clocher de l'eglise des Augustins (Place des Carmes) Avignon, by JM Rosier.JPG
The leaning bell tower of the Church of the Augustinians.

Under the new seismic zoning of France defined in Decree No. 2010-1255 of 22 October 2010 concerning the delimitation of the seismicity of the French territory and which entered into force on 1 May 2011, Avignon is located in an area of moderate seismicity. The previous zoning is shown below for reference.

"The cantons of Bonnieux, Apt, Cadenet, Cavaillon, and Pertuis are classified in zone Ib (low risk). All other cantons the Vaucluse department, including Avignon, are classified Ia (very low risk). This zoning is for exceptional seismicity resulting in the destruction of buildings.". [20]

The presence of faults in the limestone substrate shows that significant tectonic shift has caused earthquakes in different geological ages. The last major earthquake of significant magnitude was on 11 June 1909. [lower-alpha 2] It left a visible trace in the centre of the city since the bell tower of the Augustinians, which is surmounted by an ancient campanile of wrought iron, located in Rue Carreterie, remained slightly leaning as a result of this earthquake.

Climate

Avignon has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification), with mild-cool winters and hot summers, with moderate rainfall year-round. July and August are the hottest months with average daily maximum temperatures of around 28 °C, and January and February the coldest with average daily maximum temperatures of around 9 °C. The wettest month is September, with a rain average of 102 millimetres, and the driest month is July, when the monthly average rainfall is 37 millimetres. The city is often subject to windy weather; the strongest wind is the mistral. A medieval Latin proverb said of the city: Avenie ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento fastidiosa (Windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, wind-pestered when there is). [21]

Climate data for Avignon (1981–2010 averages, extremes 1958–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.9
(69.6)
22.3
(72.1)
26.5
(79.7)
31.1
(88.0)
34.1
(93.4)
37.7
(99.9)
39.7
(103.5)
40.5
(104.9)
35.3
(95.5)
30.8
(87.4)
24.3
(75.7)
21.0
(69.8)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F)10.2
(50.4)
11.8
(53.2)
15.6
(60.1)
18.6
(65.5)
23.1
(73.6)
27.3
(81.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.0
(86.0)
25.3
(77.5)
20.2
(68.4)
14.0
(57.2)
10.5
(50.9)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.9
(42.6)
7.1
(44.8)
10.3
(50.5)
13.1
(55.6)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.2
(75.6)
23.7
(74.7)
19.6
(67.3)
15.4
(59.7)
9.9
(49.8)
6.6
(43.9)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F)1.6
(34.9)
2.3
(36.1)
5.1
(41.2)
7.5
(45.5)
11.4
(52.5)
15.2
(59.4)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
14.0
(57.2)
10.5
(50.9)
5.8
(42.4)
2.7
(36.9)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F)−13
(9)
−14
(7)
−9.5
(14.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.3
(34.3)
4.4
(39.9)
8.6
(47.5)
8.0
(46.4)
3.9
(39.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−7.4
(18.7)
−14
(7)
−14
(7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48.7
(1.92)
37.6
(1.48)
38.6
(1.52)
66.1
(2.60)
62.5
(2.46)
41.0
(1.61)
26.6
(1.05)
45.8
(1.80)
97.6
(3.84)
91.4
(3.60)
71.1
(2.80)
49.0
(1.93)
676.0
(26.61)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.44.84.47.16.54.32.43.35.37.26.75.662.9
Source: Météo France [22]

According to Météo-France the number of days per year with rain above 2.5 litres per square metre is 45 and the amount of water, rain and snow combined is 660 litres per square metre. Average temperatures vary between 0 and 30 °C depending on the season. The record temperature record since the existence of the weather station at Orange is 40.7 °C on 26 July 1983 and the record lowest was −14.5 °C on 2 February 1956. [23]

The mistral

The prevailing wind is the mistral for which the windspeed can be beyond 110 km/h. It blows between 120 and 160 days per year with an average speed of 90 km/h in gusts. [24] The following table shows the different speeds of the mistral recorded by Orange and Carpentras Serres stations in the southern Rhone valley and its frequency in 2006. Normal corresponds to the average of the last 53 years from Orange weather reports and that of the last 42 at Carpentras. [25]

Legend: "=" same as normal; "+" Higher than normal; "-" Lower than normal.

Speed of Mistral winds
Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.Jun.Jul.Aug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.
Maximum recorded speed by month106 km/h127 km/h119 km/h97 km/h94 km/h144 km/h90 km/h90 km/h90 km/h87 km/h91 km/h118 km/h
Tendency: Days with speed
> 16 m/s (58 km/h)
--+++---++++++++==+++++---=++

Demographics

In 2010, the commune had 89,683 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.

Population change (See database)
179318001806182118311836184118461851
24,00021,41223,78929,40729,88931,78633,84435,16935,890
185618611866187218761881188618911896
37,07736,08136,42738,19638,00837,65741,00743,45345,107
190119061911192119261931193619461954
46,89648,31249,30448,17751,68557,22859,47260,05362,768
19621968197519821990199920062010-
72,71786,09690,78689,13286,93985,93590,80089,683-

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Administration

Avignon is the prefecture (capital) of Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region. It forms the core of the Grand Avignon metropolitan area ( communauté d'agglomération ), which comprises 15 communes on both sides of the river: [26]

List of Mayors

List of Successive Mayors [27]

Mayors from the French Revolution to 1940
FromToName
17901790Jean-Baptiste d'Armand
17901791Antoine Agricol Richard
17911792Levieux-Laverne
17921793Jean-Ettienne Duprat
17931793Jean-André Cartoux
17931793Jean-François ROCHETIN
17951795Guillaume François Ignace Puy
17951796Alexis Bruny
17961796Père Minvielle
17961797Faulcon
17971798Père Minvielle
17981799Cadet Garrigan
17991800Père Niel
18001806Guillaume François Ignace PUY
18061811Agricol Joseph Xavier Bertrand
18111815Guillaume François Ignace Puy
18151815Hippolyte Roque de Saint-Pregnan
18151819Charles de Camis-Lezan
18191820Louis Duplessis de Pouzilhac
18201826Charles Soullier
18261830Louis Pertuis de Montfaucon
18301832François Jillian
18321833Balthazar Delorme
18341837Hippolyte Roque de Saint-Pregnan
18371841Dominique Geoffroy
18411843Albert d'Olivier de Pezet
18431847Eugène Poncet
18471848Hyacinthe Chauffard
18481848Alphonse Gent
18481848Frédéric Granier
18481850Gabriel Vinay
18501852Martial BOSSE
18521853Eugène Poncet
18531865Paul Pamard
18651870Paul Poncet
18701871Paul Bourges
18711874Paul Poncet
18741878Roger du Demaine
18781881Paul Poncet
18811881Eugène Millo
18811884Charles Deville
18841888Paul Poncet
18881903Gaston Pourquery de Boisserin
19031904Alexandre Dibon
19041910Henri Guigou
19101919Louis Valayer
19191925Ferdinand Bec
19251928Louis Gros
19291940Louis Nouveau
Mayors from 1940
FromToNamePartyPosition
19401942Jean Gauger
19421944Edmond Pailheret
19441945Louis Gros
19451947Georges Pons
19471948Paul Rouvier
19481950Henri Mazo
19501953Noël Hermitte
19531958 Edouard Daladier
19581983Henri Duffaut PS
19831989Jean-Pierre Roux RPR
19891995 Guy Ravier PS
19952014Marie-José Roig UMP
20142020Cécile Helle PS

(Not all data is known)

Twinning

Avignon has twinning associations with: [28]

Evolution of the borders of the commune

Avignon absorbed Montfavet between 1790 and 1794 then ceded Morières-lès-Avignon in 1870 and Le Pontet in 1925. [30] On 16 May 2007 the commune of Les Angles in Gard ceded 13 hectares to Avignon. [31]

Area and population

The city of Avignon has an area of 64.78 km2 and a population of 92,078 inhabitants in 2010 and is ranked as follows: [31]

RankLand AreaPopulationDensity
France 524th46th632nd
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur 105th5th23rd
Vaucluse 6th1st2nd

Economy

Avignon is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Vaucluse which manages the Avignon – Caumont Airport and the Avignon-Le Pontet Docks.

Avignon has 7,000 businesses, 1,550 associations, 1,764 shops, and 1,305 service providers. [32] The urban area has one of the largest catchment areas in Europe with more than 300,000 square metres of retail space and 469 m2 per thousand population against 270 on average in France. [33] The commercial area of Avignon Nord is one of the largest in Europe. [34]

The tertiary sector is the most dynamic in the department by far on the basis of the significant production of early fruit and vegetables in Vaucluse, The MIN (Market of National Importance) has become the pivotal hub of commercial activity in the department, taking precedence over other local markets (including that of Carpentras).

A Sensitive urban zone was created for companies wanting to relocate with exemptions from tax and social issues. [35] It is located south of Avignon between the city walls and the Durance located in the districts of Croix Rouge, Monclar, Saint-Chamand, and La Rocade. [36]

Areas of economic activity

There are nine main areas of economic activity in Avignon. [37]

The Courtine area is the largest with nearly 300 businesses (of which roughly half are service establishments, one third are shops, and the rest related to industry) and more than 3,600 jobs. [37] The site covers an area of 300 hectares and is located south-west of the city at the TGV railway station.

Then comes the Fontcouverte area with a hundred establishments representing a thousand jobs. It is, however, more oriented towards shops than the Courtine area. [37]

The MIN area of Avignon is the Agroparc area [lower-alpha 3] (or "Technopole Agroparc"). The Cristole area is contiguous and both have a little less than a hundred establishments. [37]

Finally, the areas of Castelette, Croix de Noves, Realpanier, and the airport each have fewer than 25 establishments spread between service activities and shops. The area of the Castelette alone represents more than 600 jobs – i.e. 100 more than Cristole. [37]

Tourism

Four million visitors come annually to visit the city and the region and also for its festival. [32] In 2011 the most popular tourist attraction was the Palais des Papes with 572,972 paying visitors. [38] The annual Festival d'Avignon is the most important cultural event in the city. The official festival attracted 135,800 people in 2012. [38]

A cruise boat at the quay at Avignon. Viking Burgundy (ship, 2000) 001.jpg
A cruise boat at the quay at Avignon.

River tourism began in 1994 with three river boat-hotels. [ citation needed ] In 2011 there is a fleet of 21 river boat-hotel vessels, including six sight-seeing boats which are anchored on the quay along the Oulle walkways. In addition, a free shuttle boat connects Avignon to the Île de la Barthelasse and, as of 1987, a harbor master has managed all river traffic.

The commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. [39]

Agriculture

Fruit and Vegetables at the Markets of Avignon Fruits et legumes aux Halles.jpg
Fruit and Vegetables at the Markets of Avignon

The city is the headquarters of the International Association of the Mediterranean tomato , the World Council of the tomato industry , and the Inter-Rhône organisation.

Industry

Only EDF (Grand Delta) with about 850 employees and Onet Propreté [lower-alpha 4] with just over 300 exceed 100 employees. [40]

Public sector (excluding government)

The Henri Duffaut hospital, the City of Avignon, and the CHS of Montfavet are the largest employers in the town with about 2,000 employees each. Then comes the General Council of Vaucluse with about 1,300 employees. [40]

Employment

In 2011 the unemployment rate was 15.6% while it was 13.7% in 2006. [41] There are 39,100 people in the Avignon workforce: 78 (0.2%) agricultural workers, 2,191 (5.6%) tradesmen, shopkeepers, and business managers, 4,945 (12.6%) managers and intellectuals, 8,875 (22.6%) middle managers, 12,257 (31.3%) employees, and 9,603 (24.6%) workers. [41]

Transport

Roads

Avignon is close to two highways:

The main roads are:

The city has nine paid parking buildings with a total of 7,100 parking spaces, parking buildings under surveillance with a capacity for 2,050 cars with a free shuttle to the city centre, as well as five other free parking areas with a capacity of 900 cars. [42]

Railways

Avignon is served by two railway stations: the historic train station built in 1860, the Gare d'Avignon-Centre , located just outside the city walls, which can accommodate any type of train and, since 2001, the Gare d'Avignon TGV in the "Courtine" district south of the city, on the LGV Méditerranée line. Since December 2013 the two stations have been connected by a link line – the Virgule. The Montfavet district, which was formerly a separate commune, also has a station. [43]

Airports

The Avignon - Caumont Airport on the south-eastern commune border has several international routes to England. The major airport in the region with domestic and international scheduled passenger service is the Marseille Provence Airport.

Water transport

A Water taxi departing from its berth Avignon - Navette Fluviale.JPG
A Water taxi departing from its berth

The Rhône has for many centuries been an important means of transportation for the city. River traffic in Avignon has two commercial ports, docking stations for boat cruises, and various riverfront developments. A free shuttle boat has been established between the quay near the ramparts and the opposite bank (the île de la Barthelasse).

A velopop cycle station next to the city walls StationVelopop.JPG
A vélopop cycle station next to the city walls

Public transport

The Transports en Commun de la Région d'Avignon  [ fr ], also known by the acronym TCRA, is the public transport operator for the commune of Avignon and its surrounding suburbs. TCRA operates bus services, as well as bike sharing and car pooling services. Two tram lines are under construction and projected to open in 2016. [44] [45]

Bicycles

Avignon has 110 km (68 mi) of bicycle paths. [32] In 2009 the TCRA introduced a bicycle sharing system called the Vélopop' . [46]

Cultural heritage

Avignon has a very large number of sites and buildings (173) that are registered as historical monuments. [47]

Rue de la Republique, the city's central boulevard Avignon shops.jpg
Rue de la République, the city's central boulevard

In the part of the city within the walls the buildings are old but in most areas they have been restored or reconstructed (such as the post office and the Lycée Frédéric Mistral). [48] The buildings along the main street, Rue de la République, date from the Second Empire (1852–70) with Haussmann façades and amenities around Place de l'Horloge (the central square), the neoclassical city hall, and the theatre district.

Statues gaze over the Place de l'Horloge in the town centre Avignon statues.jpg
Statues gaze over the Place de l'Horloge in the town centre
Paintings on the facades of buildings in the town centre Avignon facades.jpg
Paintings on the façades of buildings in the town centre
Avignon France Clock Tower landscape photo Avignon Clock Tower - L'horloge.jpg
Avignon France Clock Tower landscape photo

Listed below are the major sites of interest with those sites registered as historical monuments indicated:

Religious historical objects

The commune houses an extremely large number of religious items which are listed as historical objects. To see a comprehensive list of objects in each location click on the numbers in the table below:

Locations of Historical Objects

LocationNo. of Objects
Cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms 268 objects
Chapel of the Oratory 1 object
Chapel of the White penitents 5 objects
Chapel of the Grey penitents 3 objects
Chapel of the Black penitents 9 objects
Chapel of the Grand Seminary 1 object
College of Saint-Joseph 3 objects
Hospice of Saint-Louis 1 object
Hospital Sainte-Marthe 26 objects
Hotel of Saint-Priest d'Urgel (Hotel de Monery) 27 objects
House of King René 1 object
Calvet Museum 3 objects
Arch-episcopal Palace 1 object
Palais des Papes 3 objects
Synagogue 4 objects
Church of Saint-Agricol 43 objects
Church of Saint-Didier 21 objects
Church of Saint-Pierre 23 objects
Church of Saint-Symphorien 12 objects
Church of Montfavet 4 objects
Total Objects459

Culture

Avignon Festival

A famous theatre festival is held annually in Avignon. Founded in 1947, the Avignon Festival comprises traditional theatrical events as well as other art forms such as dance, music, and cinema, making good use of the town's historical monuments. Every summer approximately 100,000 people attend the festival. [61] There are really two festivals that take place: the more formal "Festival In", which presents plays inside the Palace of the Popes and the more bohemian "Festival Off", which is known for its presentation of largely undiscovered plays and street performances.

The International Congress Centre

The centre was created in 1976 within the premises of the Palace of the Popes and hosts many events throughout the entire year. The Congress Centre, designed for conventions, seminars, and meetings for 10 to 550 persons, now occupies two wings of the Popes' Palace. [62]

"Sur le Pont d'Avignon"

Avignon Panorama.jpg
View over the Rhône looking northeast, with the Pont Saint-Bénézet or "Pont d'Avignon" at left

Avignon is commemorated by the French song, "Sur le Pont d'Avignon" ("On the bridge of Avignon"), which describes folk dancing. The song dates from the mid-19th century when Adolphe Adam included it in the Opéra comique Le Sourd ou l'Auberge Pleine which was first performed in Paris in 1853. The opera was an adaptation of the 1790 comedy by Desforges. [63]

The bridge of the song is the Saint-Bénézet bridge over the Rhône of which only four arches (out of the initial 22) now remain. A bridge across the Rhone was built between 1171 and 1185, with a length of some 900 m (2950 ft), but was destroyed during the siege of Avignon by Louis VIII of France in 1226. It was rebuilt but suffered frequent collapses during floods and had to be continually repaired. Several arches were already missing (and spanned by wooden sections) before the remainder was abandoned in 1669. [64]

Sport

Sporting Olympique Avignon is the local rugby league football team. During the 20th century it produced a number of French international representative players.

AC Arles-Avignon was a professional association football team. They competed in Ligue 2, after a season 2010–2011 competing in Ligue 1 and being relegated back down the following season and ultimately folding in 2016. They played at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Nuclear pollution

On 8 July 2008 waste containing unenriched uranium leaked into two rivers from Tricastin nuclear plant in southern France. Some 30,000 litres (7,925 gallons) of solution containing 12g of uranium per litre spilled from an overflowing reservoir at the facility – which handles liquids contaminated by uranium – into the ground and into the Gaffiere and Lauzon rivers. The authorities kept this a secret from the public for 12 hours then issued a statement prohibiting swimming and fishing in the Gaffiere and Lauzon rivers. [65]

Education

The schools within the commune of Avignon are administered by the Académie d'Aix-Marseille. There are 26 state nursery schools (Écoles maternelles) for children up to 6, and 32 state primary schools (Écoles élémentaires) up to 11. There are also 4 private schools. [66]

University of Avignon

Entrance to the main university building. This 18th century portico was once the entrance to the Hopital Sainte-Marthe. UniversiteAvignon-Entree.jpg
Entrance to the main university building. This 18th century portico was once the entrance to the Hôpital Sainte-Marthe.

University before the Revolution

The medieval University of Avignon, formed from the existing schools of the city, was formally constituted in 1303 by Boniface VIII in a Papal Bull. Boniface VIII and King Charles II of Naples were the first great protectors and benefactors to the university. The Law department was the most important department covering both civil and ecclesiastical law. The law department existed nearly exclusively for some time after the university's formation and remained its most important department throughout its existence. [67]

In 1413 Antipope John XXIII founded the university's department of theology, which for quite some time had only a few students. It was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that the school developed a department of medicine. The bishop of Avignon was chancellor of the university from 1303 to 1475. After 1475 the bishop became an archbishop but remained chancellor of the university. The papal vice-legate, generally a bishop, represented the civil power (in this case the pope) and was chiefly a judicial officer who ranked higher than the Primicerius (Rector). [67]

The Primicerius was elected by the Doctors of Law. In 1503 the Doctors of Law had 4 Theologians and in 1784 two Doctors of Medicine added to their ranks. Since the Pope was the spiritual head and, after 1348, the temporal ruler of Avignon, he was able to have a great deal of influence in all university affairs. In 1413 John XXIII granted the university extensive special privileges, such as university jurisdiction and tax exempt status. Political, geographical, and educational circumstances in the latter part of the university's existence caused it to seek favour from Paris rather than Rome for protection. During the chaos of the French Revolution the university started to gradually disappear and, in 1792, the university was abandoned and closed. [67]

Modern university

A university annex of the Faculté des Sciences d'Aix-Marseille was opened in Avignon in 1963. Over the next 20 years various changes were made to the provision of tertiary education in the town until finally in 1984 the Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse was created. This was nearly 200 years after the demise of the original Avignon university. [68] The main campus lies to the east of the city centre within the city ramparts. The university occupies the 18th century buildings of the Hôpital Sainte-Marthe. The main building has an elegant façade with a central portico. The right hand side was designed by Jean-Baptiste Franque and built between 1743 and 1745. Franque was assisted by his son François in the design of the portico. The hospital moved out in the 1980s and, after major works, the building opened for students in 1997. [69] [70] In 2009–2010 there were 7,125 students registered at the university. [71]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. Provençal tradition says that the first two were the mistral and the Parliament of Aix
  2. The épicentre was at Lambesc – a village in Bouches-du-Rhône.
  3. This area has had the INRA Centre which carries out scientific research in engineering environmental management for cultivated land and forests since 1953.
  4. Cleaning company.

Related Research Articles

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Fort Saint-André (Villeneuve-lès-Avignon)

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Tour Philippe-le-Bel

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History of Avignon aspect of history

The following is a history of Avignon, France.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Avignon, France.

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