|Azərbaycan dili, آذربایجان دیلی, Азәрбајҹан дили|
|Region||Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan) and Caucasus|
|23 million (2018)|
Shirvani (In Azerbaijan Republic)
Tabrizi (In Iranian Azerbaijan region)
Official language in
Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia
regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority
regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minority
|Part of a series on|
|Traditional areas of settlement|
Azerbaijani ( // ) or Azeri ( /, -, -/ ), also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who live mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan (former Soviet) where the North Azerbaijani variety is spoken and in Iranian region of Azerbaijan where the South Azerbaijani variety is spoken. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are some significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax and sources of loanwords.
North Azerbaijani has official status in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (a federal subject of Russia) but South Azerbaijani does not have official status in Iran, where the majority of Azerbaijani people live. It is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia and Turkey and by diaspora communities, primarily in Europe and North America.
Both Azerbaijani varieties are members of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. The standardized form of North Azerbaijani (spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) is based on the Shirvani dialect, while Iranian Azerbaijani uses the Tabrizi dialect as its prestige variety. Azerbaijani is closely related to Gagauz, Qashqai, Crimean Tatar, Turkish and Turkmen, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages.According to linguistic comparative studies, the closest relative of Azerbaijani is the Turkmen language.
Historically the language was referred by its native speakers as Türkimeaning "Turkic" or Azərbaycan türkcəsi meaning "Azerbaijani Turkic". Prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, who adopted the name of "Azerbaijan" for political reasons in 1918, the name of "Azerbaijan" was exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. After the establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR, on the order of Soviet leader Stalin, the "name of the formal language" of the Azerbaijan SSR was "changed from Turkic to Azerbaijani".
Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic")which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe, and northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations. Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian. Azerbaijani is, perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian languages have exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax, and vocabulary, less in morphology.
The Turkic language of Azerbaijan gradually supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northern Iran, and a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus, particularly Udi and Old Azeri. By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region, and was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids and Afsharids.
The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (c. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian, and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.
Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in what is now the Azerbaijan Republic, popularized by the scholars such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski. Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.
The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted the development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes– from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script – while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956. After independence, the Azerbaijan Republic decided to switch back to a modified Latin script.
The development of Azerbaijani literature is closely associated with Anatolian Turkish, written in Perso-Arabic script. Examples of its detachment date to the 14th century or earlier.Kadi Burhan al-Din, Hesenoghlu, and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azerbaiijani as a literary language in the 14th century through poetry and other works. The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī (which means "sinner" in Persian) during the fifteenth century During the 16th century, the poet, writer and thinker Fuzûlî wrote mainly in Azerbaijani but also translated his poems into Arabic and Persian.
Starting in the 1830s, several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani. In 1875 Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی ) ("The Ploughman") became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire. It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi, a journalist and education advocate. Following the rule of the Qajar dynasty, Iran was ruled by Reza Shah who banned the publication of texts in Azerbaijani.[ citation needed ] Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan it is based on the Tabrizi dialect.
Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry. His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world. It was translated into more than 30 languages.
In the mid-19th century, Azerbaijani literature was taught at schools in Baku, Ganja, Shaki, Tbilisi, and Yerevan. Since 1845, it has also been taught in the Saint Petersburg State University in Russia. In 2018, Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Indiana University, UCLA, and University of Texas at Austin.The vast majority, if not all Azerbaijani language courses teach North Azerbaijani written in the Latin script and not South Azerbaijani written in the Perso-Arabic script.
Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is primarily based on the Shirvani dialect, while in the Iranian Azerbaijan region (historic Azerbaijan) it is based on the Tabrizi one.
Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan,the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian. From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. Per the 1829 Caucasus School Statute, Azerbaijani was to be taught in all district schools of Ganja, Shusha, Nukha (present-day Shaki), Shamakhi, Quba, Baku, Derbent, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Akhaltsikhe, and Lankaran. Beginning in 1834, it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.
Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Ethnologue classifies North Azerbaijani (spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran, Iraq, and Syria) as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords."
Svante Cornell wrote in his 2001 book Small Nations and Great Powers that "it is certain that Russian and Iranian words (sic), respectively, have entered the vocabulary on either side of the Araxes river, but this has not occurred to an extent that it could pose difficulties for communication.".There are numerous dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects identified by Ethnologue.
Four varieties have been accorded ISO 639-3 language codes: North Azerbaijani, South Azerbaijani, Salchuq, and Qashqai. The Glottolog 4.1 database classifies North Azerbaijani, with 20 dialects, and South Azerbaijani, with 13 dialects, under the Modern Azeric family, a branch of Central Oghuz.
According to the Linguasphere Observatory, all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages".[ citation needed ]
North Azerbaijani,or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern-day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey. It is also spoken in southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia. As of 2011, there are some 9.23 million speakers of North Azerbaijani including 4 million monolingual speakers (many North Azerbaijani speakers also speak Russian, as is common throughout former USSR countries).
The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since 1992, it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late 1990s.
Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: Quba, Derbend, Baku, Shamakhi, Salyan, Lenkaran, Qazakh, Airym, Borcala, Terekeme, Qyzylbash, Nukha, Zaqatala (Mugaly), Qabala, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Ganja, Shusha (Karabakh), Karapapak.
South Azerbaijani,is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan) and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Turkey and Iraq, with smaller communities in Syria. In Iran, the Persian word for Azerbaijani is borrowed as Torki "Turkic". In Iran, it is spoken mainly in East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. It is also widely spoken in Tehran and across Tehran Province, as Azerbaijanis form by far the largest minority in the city and the wider province, comprising about 1/3, of its total population. The CIA World Factbook reports in 2010 the percentage of Iranian Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide, and ethnic Azeris form by far the second largest ethnic group of Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation. Ethnologue reports 10.9 million Iranian Azerbaijani in Iran in 2016 and 13,823,350 worldwide. Dialects of South Azerbaijani include: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Qarapapaq, Tabrizi, Qashqai, Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Muqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragözlü, Pishaqchi, Bayatlu, Qajar, Marandli.
Historically, Azerbaijani and Turkish speakers have been able to communicate with relative ease. One example of this is when Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (who spoke Azerbaijani) met with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey (who spoke Turkish) in 1934.
Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can, to an extent, communicate with each other as both languages have substantial variation and are to a degree mutually intelligible.
Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language, unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed.
Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azerbaijani and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:
Azerbaijani phonotactics is similar to other Oghuz Turkic languages, except:
|Stop||p||b||t||d||t͡ʃ||d͡ʒ||c||( ɟ )||( k )||ɡ|
The vowels of the Azerbaijani are, in alphabetical order, /ɑ/, e/e/, ə/æ/, ı/ɯ/, i/i/, o/o/, ö/ø/, u/u/, ü/y/. There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.V boundary or fixing the pair as VC/CV pair, depending on the word.a
This section needs expansionwith: complete vowel allophonies. You can help by adding to it.(December 2018)
The typical phonetic quality of South Azerbaijani vowels is as follows:
Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Perso-Arabic alphabet. In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow.For instance, until an Aliyev decree on the matter in 2001, newspapers would routinely write headlines in the Latin script, leaving the stories in Cyrillic; the transition also resulted in some misrendering of İ as Ì.
In Iran, Azerbaijani is still written in the Persian alphabet, and in Dagestan, in Cyrillic script.
The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter. The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility. The letters Әə, Xx, and Qq are available only in Azerbaijani for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish.
no longer in use;
replaced by 1991 version)
|A a||А а||آ / ـا||/ɑ/|
|B в||B b||Б б||ﺏ||/b/|
|Ç ç||C c||Ҹ ҹ||ﺝ||/dʒ/|
|C c||Ç ç||Ч ч||چ||/tʃ/|
|D d||Д д||ﺩ||/d/|
|E e||Е е||ئ||/e/|
|Ə ə||Ә ә||ا / َ / ە||/æ/|
|F f||Ф ф||ﻑ||/f/|
|G g||Ҝ ҝ||گ||/ɟ/|
|Ƣ ƣ||Ğ ğ||Ғ ғ||ﻍ||/ɣ/|
|H h||Һ һ||ﺡ / ﻩ||/h/|
|X x||Х х||خ||/x/|
|Ь ь||I ı||Ы ы||یٛ||/ɯ/|
|I i||İ i||И и||ی||/i/|
|Ƶ ƶ||J j||Ж ж||ژ||/ʒ/|
|K k||К к||ک||/c/, /k/|
|Q q||Г г||ﻕ||/ɡ/|
|L l||Л л||ﻝ||/l/|
|M m||М м||ﻡ||/m/|
|N n||Н н||ﻥ||/n/|
|Ꞑ ꞑ||Ng ng||Нҝ нҝ||ݣ / نگ||/ŋ/|
|O o||О о||وْ||/o/|
|Ө ө||Ö ö||Ө ө||ؤ||/ø/|
|P p||П п||پ||/p/|
|R r||Р р||ﺭ||/r/|
|S s||С с||ﺙ / ﺱ / ﺹ||/s/|
|Ş ş||Ш ш||ﺵ||/ʃ/|
|T t||Т т||ﺕ / ﻁ||/t/|
|U u||У у||ۇ||/u/|
|Y y||Ü ü||Ү ү||ۆ||/y/|
|V v||В в||ﻭ||/v/|
|J j||Y y||Ј ј||ی||/j/|
|Z z||З з||ﺫ / ﺯ / ﺽ / ﻅ||/z/|
Northern Azerbaijani, unlike Turkish, respells foreign names to conform with Latin Azerbaijani spelling, e.g. Bush is spelled Buş and Schröder becomes Şröder. Hyphenation across lines directly corresponds to spoken syllables as in other Turkic languages.
Some samples include:
Azerbaijani has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is a strong tu-vous distinction in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish (as well as in many other languages). The informal "you" is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal "you" is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example).
As in many Turkic languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Azerbaijani has a phonetic writing system, so pronunciation is easy: most words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled in the modern Azerbaijani alphabet.
|Category||English||North Azerbaijani (in Latin script)|
|Basic expressions||yes||hə/hæ/ (informal), bəli (formal)|
|no||yox/jox/ (informal), xeyr (formal)|
|goodbye||sağ ol/ˈsɑɣ ol/|
|sağ olun/ˈsɑɣ olun/ (formal)|
|good morning||sabahınız xeyır/sɑbɑhɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/|
|good afternoon||günortanız xeyır/ɟynoɾt(ɯn)ɯz xejiɾ/|
|good evening||axşamın xeyır/ɑxʃɑmɯn xejiɾ/|
|axşamınız xeyır/ɑxʃɑmɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/|
|brown||qəhvəyi / qonur|
For numbers 11–19, the numbers literally mean "10 one, 10 two" and so on.
Greater numbers are constructed by combining in tens and thousands larger to smaller in the same way, without using a conjunction in between.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.
Kazakh or Kazak, is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia. It is closely related to Nogai, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Kazakh is also spoken by many ethnic Kazakhs through the former Soviet Union, Germany, Iran, Turkey and Afghanistan.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the first official and only declared national language of Uzbekistan. The language of Uzbeks, it is spoken by some 27 million native speakers in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in Central Asia (2015), making it the second-most widely spoken Turkic language after Turkish.
KyrgyzКыргызча/QırğızçaKyrgyz pronunciation: [qɯɾʁɯzˈtʃɑ], also spelled as Kirghiz, Kirgiz and Qirghiz, is a Turkic language spoken in Central Asia. Kyrgyz is the official language of Kyrgyz Republic and a significant minority language in the Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province of Tajikistan. Kyrgyz belongs to the Kipchak branch of Turkic language family. There is very high degree of mutual intelligibility between Kazakh and Kyrgyz.
The Tatar language is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, as well as Siberia. It should not be confused with the Crimean Tatar or Siberian Tatar which are closely related but belong to different subgroups of the Kipchak languages.
Turkmen is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Turkmens of Central Asia and the official language of Turkmenistan. It has an estimated five million native speakers in Turkmenistan, a further 719,000 speakers in Northeastern Iran and 1.5 million people in Northwestern Afghanistan.
Tajik or Tajiki, also called Tajiki Persian and Tadzhiki, is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks. It is closely related to neighboring Dari Persian with which it forms a continuum of mutually intelligible varieties. Since the beginning of the twentieth century and independence of Tajikistan from Soviet Union, Tajik has been considered by a number of writers and researchers to be a variety of Persian. The popularity of this conception of Tajik as a variety of Persian was such that, during the period in which Tajik intellectuals were trying to establish Tajik as a language separate from Persian language, Sadriddin Ayni, who was a prominent intellectual and educator, made a statement that Tajik was not a "bastardized dialect" of Persian. The issue of whether Tajik and Persian are to be considered two dialects of a single language or two discrete languages has political sides to it.
The Uyghur or Uighur language is a Turkic language with 10 to 15 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China. Significant communities of Uyghur speakers are located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities. Uyghur is an official language of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is widely used in both social and official spheres, as well as in print, television and radio and is used as a common language by other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang.
Bashkir is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.2 million native speakers in Russia. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern.
Avar or, also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family primarily spoken in Dagestan.
The Azerbaijani alphabet has two versions. North Azerbaijani of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a modified Latin alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language. This superseded previous versions based on Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic scripts after the fall of Soviet Union and independence of Azerbaijan.
Crimean Tatar, also called Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Tatarstan and adjacent regions in Russia; the languages are related, but belong to two different subgroups of the Kipchak languages and thus are not mutually intelligible. It has been extensively influenced by nearby Oghuz dialects.
Nogai is a Turkic language spoken in Southwestern European Russia and in Turkey. Three distinct dialects are recognized:
Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan. It is divided into two dialects, Northeastern Karakalpak and Southeastern Karakalpak. It developed alongside neighboring Kazakh and Uzbek languages, being markedly influenced by both. Typologically, Karakalpak belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, thus being closely related to and partially mutually intelligible to Kazakh.
Judeo-Tat or Juhuri is the traditional language of the Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Azerbaijan and Dagestan, now mainly spoken in Israel.
Bukhori, also known as Bukharian, is a dialect of the Tajik branch of the Persian language spoken by Bukharian Jews.
The Lak language is a Northeast Caucasian language forming its own branch within this family. It is the language of the Lak people from the Russian autonomous republic of Dagestan, where it is one of six standardized languages. It is spoken by about 157,000 people.
Khorasani Turkic is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in the North Khorasan Province and the Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.
The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Kashmiri and Mandinka, among others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after the Latin and Chinese scripts.
Native speakers of Azerbaijani reside, in addition to the Republic of Azerbaijan (where North Azerbaijani is spoken), in Iran (South Azerbaijani), Dagestan, Georgia, Turkey, Syria and Iraq. North Azerbaijani is marked by Russian loanwords and South Azerbaijani is distinguished by Persian loanwords.
The collapse of the Turkmen-Azerbaijani. Despite all the assurances that Azerbaijani is the closest relative of Turkish, this is not so. The closest relative of it (Azerbaijani) is Turkmen. The collapse of this unity falls on around 1180. It is amazing. Because it matches with the period of collapse of the Great Seljuk Empire. This state, which included lands south of the Amu Darya: Afghanistan, Iran, the territory of modern Iraq, including Baghdad, Northern Syria, etc., was disintegrating. Then, the Khwarazmshahs appeared, but direct contacts between the population that was “ east of the Caspian Sea " and the population that was in the region of Tabriz, the heart of Azerbaijan and the Great Seljuk Empire, ceased.
Until 1918, when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.
The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to 1918, unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.
Through the 1990s and early 2000s Cyrillic script was still in use for newspapers, shops, and restaurants. Only in 2001 did then president Heydar Aliyev declare "a mandatory shift from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet" ... The transition has progressed slowly.
|Azerbaijani edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|South Azerbaijani edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Azerbaijani .|
|Azerbaijani language test of Wikinews at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Azerbaijani language .|