Bács-Kiskun County

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Bács-Kiskun County

Bács-Kiskun megye
Sugovica Baja.jpg
Cifra Palace (1903), Kecskemet 2016 Hungary.jpg
Descending, from top: Sand dunes near Fülöpháza, Sugovica river near Baja, and Cifra Palace in Kecskemét
FLAG-Bacs-Kiskun-megye.svg
Flag
Bacs-kiskun-megye.svg
Coat of arms
HU county Bacs-Kiskun.svg
Bács-Kiskun County within Hungary
Country Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Region Southern Great Plain
County seat Kecskemét
Districts
Government
  President of the General AssemblyLászló Rideg (Fidesz-KDNP)
Area
  Total8,444.81 km2 (3,260.56 sq mi)
Area rank 1st in Hungary
Population
 (2015)
  Total513,687 [1]
  Rank 5th in Hungary
Postal code
60xx – 65xx
Area code(s) (+36) 76, 77, 78, 79
ISO 3166 code HU-BK
Website bacskiskun.hu

Bács-Kiskun (Hungarian : Bács-Kiskun megye, pronounced  [ˈbaːt͡ʃ ˈkiʃkun] ) is a county (megye in Hungarian) located in southern Hungary. It was created as a result of World War II, merging the pre war Bács-Bodrog and the southern parts of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun counties. With an area of 8,445 km2, Bács-Kiskun is the largest county in the country. The terrain is mostly flat with slight emergences around Baja. The county seat and largest city of Bács-Kiskun is Kecskemét.

Contents

The county is also part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa euroregion.

Geography

The county is known across Europe for its natural environment.[ citation needed ] Kiskunság National Park is located in the area.

Location

Bács-Kiskun borders Baranya, Tolna, and Fejér on the west (across the Danube River); Pest to the north, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Csongrád on the east, across the Tisza River. To the south Bács-Kiskun shares the international border with Serbia.

Bács-Kiskun lies on the Great Hungarian Plain. The difference between its highest and lowest elevations is only 80 m.

Rivers

Lakes

Symbols

Etymology

In German, it is known as Komitat Bács-Kiskun, in Croatian and Serbian as Bačko-kiškunska županija and in Slovak as Báčsko-malokumánska župa.

Coat of arms and flag

Coat of arms of Bács-Kiskun County is a modern creation based on older arms. The escutcheon is stading and shredded shield. The shield has a foam skirt with silver and blue shield. The arched upper edge of the shield has a three-barrel, oval-shaped, closed-door, golden wall clock. [2]

Bacs-kiskun-megye.svg
  • On the left field is a figure of St. Paul the Apostle, barefooted, bearded and long-haired, a silver sword with a silver pommel in his right hand, bearing a book on his left, on a blue background; meant to signify the coat of arms of the former Bács, then Bács-Bodrog County.
  • The right coat of arms shows a laughing knight gallant with holding a drawn sword, wearing a gold boots, wearing a red boots and a red glove, holding silver sword in his right, resting his left hand on his hip; meant to signify the former Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun County.
  • The alternating silver-blue waves refer to the location of the county between two rivers (Danube and Tisza).

The flag is vertically divided into two equal sections (blue and white), with the coat of arms on it. Its ratio is 2:1. The use of both coat of arms and flag is regulated by the county council. [3]

History

Bács-Kiskun county was created from the pre-1938 counties Bács-Bodrog and Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun. The county came into existence by the unification of some areas of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun (southern half) and Bács-Bodrog county after World War II. The name Bács derives from the city of the same name, Bač in modern Serbia (known as Bács in Hungarian), while Kiskun is Hungarian name for the region of Little Cumania.

Demographics

Religion in Bács-Kiskun County (2011 census)

   Catholic Church (49.7%)
   Greek Catholicism (0.2%)
   Calvinism (8.8%)
   Lutheranism (2.6%)
   Orthodoxy (0.1%)
  Other religions (1.8%)
   Non-religious (11.9%)
   Atheists (0.9%)
  Undeclared (24.0%)

In 2015, it had a population of 513,687 and the population density was 61/km2.

Although the population is decreasing, the birth rate in the county is positive, unlike in any other regions in Hungary.

YearCounty population [4] Change
1949591,482 (record)n/a
1960Decrease2.svg 589,744-0.29%
1970Decrease2.svg 570,064-3.34%
1980Increase2.svg 571,4480.24%
1990Decrease2.svg 546,898-4.30%
2001Decrease2.svg 546,517-0.07%
2011Decrease2.svg 520,331-4.79%

Ethnicity

The population of the county is almost homogeneous, with a Hungarian majority (94.1%). Some Croatian, German and Serbian people live around Hajós and Baja.

Total population (2011 census): 520,331
Ethnic groups (2011 census): [5] Identified themselves: 475 004 persons:

Approx. 67,000 persons in Bács-Kiskun County did not declare their ethnic group at the 2011 census.

Religion

Religious adherence in the county according to 2011 census: [6]

Economy

Bács-Kiskun county accounted for 3.7% of the Gross Value Added of Hungary in 2001. With almost EUR 1.9 billion, the GVA in Bács-Kiskun had increased by 50% compared to 1995.

Sectors

The primary sector accounted for 12.3% of the Gross Value Added of the county in 2001, and this was the highest share of any county. However, this share is declining over the years: it was 15.6% in 1995.

The share of the secondary sector is relatively constant over the years, with 30.9% of the Gross Value Added in 2001 (compared to 29.5% in 1995). The tertiary sector's GVA has increased most, although it still had a low share (56.8%) compared to the country as a whole (64.4%).

Service and trade

Service and trade are the dominant sectors of Bács-Kiskun's economy, where privatisation occurred first.

80% of the industrial output is represented by the food, machine, wood, and printing industries. The more substantial companies in the region attracted more investment. In the course of privatisation the Kecskemét cannery was purchased by Heinz, the Kiskunhalas textile mill partially by Levi's. During the privatisation, the Danube Knitting Mill in Baja was acquired by an American financial investment group

Among the industrial companies operating in the area of Baja are UNILEVER Rt. producing deep-frozen products, the Bread factory of Bácska Sütoipari Rt., the abattoir of DÉLHÚS and the Pannonia Brewery. The local government of Baja are encouraging the expansion of foreign capital by reducing local taxes.

There are approximately 39,600 firms in the county, representing 4.6% of the national total. The majority of companies employ only several people; indeed, 95% have 10 or fewer employees. Two percent of companies belong in the medium category, employing between 21 and 50 people, while the number and proportion of those employing 300 or more is very small.

Agriculture

Fruit, vegetable, corn and wheat production are the most successful branches of the region's agriculture. Compared to the other Hungarian counties, Bács-Kiskun has the second largest number of pigs (10% of the Hungarian pig stock) and 7% of cattle stock. The stock of sheep made up 194,000 at the end of 2002, 17.6% of Hungary's total stock and the largest in Hungary.

Transport

Road

On account of its central location, a great deal of the nation's traffic necessarily crosses the county. The total length of main roads in the county was 2,213 kilometres in 2002 so for every 100 square kilometres of land area, there are 26 kilometres of main road. Despite the fact that a great deal of labour has gone into improving the quality of the roads in the last decade, there has been a deterioration in their condition on account of their intensive use. Fifty-six kilometres of motorways crossed the county in 2002, making the road link with Serbia and the Balkans.

Highway M5 and Road 5 go through Bács-Kiskun. There are many second-class roads throughout the county, giving easy access to every village. The international railroad lines Budapest-Subotica-Belgrade and the national railroad Budapest-Cegléd-Szeged pass through Bács-Kiskun as well.

Rail

The length of railways was of 641 kilometres in 2001 (32% electrified) and the most important lines in the county are between Budapest and Szeged and the route of the international express trains crossing Hungary in northwestern-southeastern direction leading to Belgrade. In addition to the main and secondary lines, there are a number of narrow gauge tracks for 'nostalgia trains' which operate as tourist attractions.

Baja is the most important traffic junction of the southern part of the country. Its rail and public road junction is especially important due to the presence of the Danube bridge which provides a link between the Southern Great Plain and the Transdanubian region. The city has the best-equipped port in the country, where further development possibilities await the investors. At present a 120 places ro-ro port terminal is under construction.

Air

The only airport in the county, in Kecskemét, is a military one, chiefly used for the delivery of goods and occasionally for receiving civil aircraft. However, the county can be reached from the nearby Ferihegy Airport of Budapest in less than an hour.

Politics

The county is governed by the County board of supervisors, which is located in the county seat.

The Bács-Kiskun County Council, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 23 counselors, [7] with the following party composition:

PartySeatsCurrent County Assembly
  Fidesz-KDNP 16                
  Momentum Movement 2                
  Democratic Coalition 2                
  Jobbik 2                
  Our Homeland Movement 1                

Presidents of the General Assembly

List of Presidents, from 1990 [8]
Mihály Kőtörő (SZDSZ)1990–1994
László Balogh (MSZP)1994–1998
Endre Sándor (Fidesz)1998–2002
László Balogh (MSZP)2002–2006
Gábor Bányai (Fidesz-KDNP)2006–2014
László Rideg (Fidesz-KDNP)2014–

Regional structure

District of Bacs-Kiskun County Bacs-Kiskun districts.png
District of Bács-Kiskun County
No.English and
Hungarian names
Area
(km2)
Population
(2011)
Density
(pop./km2)
SeatNo. of
municipalities
1 Bácsalmás District
Bácsalmási járás
522.5420,09438 Bácsalmás 10
2 Baja District
Bajai járás
1,008.8066,50166 Baja 17
3 Jánoshalma District
Jánoshalmai járás
439.0317,34139 Jánoshalma 5
4 Kalocsa District
Kalocsai járás
1,062.2752,47949 Kalocsa 21
5 Kecskemét District
Kecskeméti járás
1,212.21155,481128 Kecskemét 16
6 Kiskőrös District
Kiskőrösi járás
1,130.3354,62548 Kiskőrös 15
7 Kiskunfélegyháza District
Kiskunfélegyházi járás
582.3737,45564 Kiskunfélegyháza 6
8 Kiskunhalas District
Kiskunhalasi járás
826.3543,84953 Kiskunhalas 9
9 Kiskunmajsa District
Kiskunmajsai járás
485.1318,90839 Kiskunmajsa 6
10 Kunszentmiklós District
Kunszentmiklósi járás
769.8129,99839 Kunszentmiklós 9
11 Tiszakécske District
Tiszakécskei járás
405.9923,58258 Tiszakécske 5
Bács-Kiskun County8,444.81520,33162 Kecskemét 119

Municipalities

Aerial photography: Kecskemet - Hungary Megyeszekhelyek - Bacs-Kiskun megye - Kecskemet.jpg
Aerial photography: Kecskemét – Hungary

Bács-Kiskun County has 1 urban county, 21 towns, 7 large villages and 90 villages.

Two-thirds of the population lives in the twenty cities/towns, among which the largest is the county seat, Kecskemét, where one-sixth of the total population resides. The town with the largest population density is Kalocsa (353/km2), the lowest population density is in the village of Újsolt (6/km2). City/towns have an average population density of 126, while villages have an average of 36/km2.

Even though Bács-Kiskun is the fifth largest county of Hungary by population, the population density is less than half of the country's average. The villages are typically large. 13% of the population lives on farms and homesteads.

City with county rights

(ordered by population, as of 2011 census)

Towns
Villages

Red pog.svg municipalities are large villages.

There are also public, religion and private schools in Bács- Kiskun county. Primaries are almost in all of the villages and towns. Some of them are quite big, but there are actually small schools with only a few students. One of the oldest schools is the Calvinist Grammar School, which was founded in 1564. Religion schools are important in the county, as well as it is in this way all around in Hungary (in the county: Calvinist Grammar Schools- Kecskemét, Kiskunhalas, "Piarista" Catholic Grammar School, Kecskemét- for boys only-, "Angolkisasszonyok" Catholic Grammar School, Kecskemét- for girls only.). 100 years ago children could only learn in these schools, the first public grammar schools were founded only in the 1950s. Almost all of the religion schools were closed in the 1940s by the communist government, and were refounded only in the 1990s (like all of the Calvinist schools). The main public grammar schools of the county are the Bibó István Grammar School (Kiskunhalas), Bányai Júlia Grammar School (Kecskemét), Katona József Grammar School (Kecskemét) and III. Béla Grammar School (Baja). There are many competitions to the children in almost all of the subjects (mainly in Hungarian, English, German and Mathematics). There's only one University in Kecskemét, the Károli Gáspár Calvinist University of Law (it used to be the Calvinist Grammar School from 1991 to 1997). The College of Kecskemét have several fields of study, like Teacher, Gardener, and so on.

Miscellaneous topics

List of notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

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This is a list of articles that have something substantive to do with the county of Bács-Kiskun.

BACS is the Bankers Automated Clearing Services, a scheme for the electronic processing of financial transactions.

Őrbottyán Place in Central Hungary, Hungary

Őrbottyán is a town in Pest county, Hungary.

Baja District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Baja is a district in south-western part of Bács-Kiskun County. Baja is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Jánoshalma District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Jánoshalma is a district in southern part of Bács-Kiskun County. Jánoshalma is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Kalocsa District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Kalocsa is a district in western part of Bács-Kiskun County. Kalocsa is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Kecskemét District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Kecskemét is a district in northern part of Bács-Kiskun County. Kecskemét is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Kiskőrös District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Kiskőrös is a district in central part of Bács-Kiskun County. Kiskőrös is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Kiskunhalas District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Kiskunhalas is a district in south-eastern part of Bács-Kiskun County. Kiskunhalas is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Kunszentmiklós District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Kunszentmiklós is a district in north-western part of Bács-Kiskun County. Kunszentmiklós is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

References

  1. nepesseg.com, population data of Hungaraian settlements
  2. magyarcimerek.hu, "Coat of arms of Bács-Kiskun County"
  3. A megyei zászló leírása (in Hungarian)
  4. népesség.com, "Bács-Kiskun megye népessége 1870-2015"
  5. 1.1.6. A népesség anyanyelv, nemzetiség és nemek szerint – Frissítve: 2013.04.17.; Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian)
  6. 2011. ÉVI NÉPSZÁMLÁLÁS, 3. Területi adatok, 3.2 Bács-Kiskun megye, (in Hungarian) Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Megyei közgyűlés tagjai 2019-2024 (Bács-Kiskun megye)". valasztas.hu. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  8. Önkormányzati választások eredményei (in Hungarian)

Coordinates: 46°30′N19°25′E / 46.500°N 19.417°E / 46.500; 19.417