Bácum

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Santa Rosa de Lima church, the local temple of Bacum. Santa Rosa de Lima, Bacum.jpg
Santa Rosa de Lima church, the local temple of Bácum.

Bácum is a small city and the county seat of Bácum Municipality, located in the south of the Mexican state of Sonora at 27°32′N110°05′W / 27.533°N 110.083°W / 27.533; -110.083 .

Bácum Municipality Municipality in Sonora, Mexico

Bácum Municipality is a municipality of southwestern Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. The population was 21,322 in 2005.

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Contents

It is one of eight mission villages founded in the early seventeenth century by colonial Spanish Jesuit missionaries for the Indian Reductions of the Yaqui people. The Yaqui developed their own syncretic form of the religion.

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

History

The town of Bácum is one of the eight historical Spanish mission towns of the Yaqui Indians, founded in 1617 by the Jesuit missionaries Andrés Pérez de Ribas and Tomás Basilio. They called it Santa Rosa de Bácum.

Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert

The Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert are a series of Jesuit Catholic religious outposts established by the Spanish Catholic Jesuits and other orders for religious conversions of the Pima and Tohono O'odham indigenous peoples residing in the Sonoran Desert. An added goal was giving Spain a colonial presence in their frontier territory of the Sonora y Sinaloa Province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and relocating by Indian Reductions settlements and encomiendas for agricultural, ranching, and mining labor.

Andrés Pérez De Ribas was a Spanish Jesuit missionary, and historian of north-western Mexico.

In 1930 the town was incorporated into the municipality of Cajeme, and it was granted autonomy within the new Bácum Municipality in 1931. In 1949 the Yaqui River overflowed its banks, causing severe damage to agriculture and livestock raising. The river is now controlled by the Álvaro Obregón Dam upriver.

Álvaro Obregón Dam dam in Sonora, Mexico

The Álvaro Obregón Dam is an embankment dam on the Yaqui River north of Ciudad Obregón, in Sonora, Mexico. The purpose of the dam is water supply for irrigation, flood control and hydroelectric power production. The dam supports a power station with two generators and a 19 MW installed capacity.

Geography

Bácum Municipality is bounded by the Municipalities of Cajeme in the east and Guaymas in the west — and the Gulf of California in the south.

Cajeme is one of the municipalities of the northwestern state of Sonora, Mexico. It is named after Cajemé, a Yaqui leader. The municipality has an area of 3,312.05 km² and with a population of 433,050 inhabitants as of 2015.

Gulf of California A gulf of the Pacific Ocean between the Baja peninsula and the Mexican mainland

The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa with a coastline of approximately 4,000 km (2,500 mi). Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Fuerte, Mayo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the Yaqui. The gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi). Depth soundings in the gulf have ranged from fording depth at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in the deepest parts.

Area and population

The area of the municipality is 1,409.7 km² (544.3 mi²); and the population was 21,322 in 2005. Of these, 3,600 resided in the town of Bácum. The town is situated at an elevation of 50 meters (160 ft) above sea level.

Economy

The municipality's main economic activity is intensive agriculture, with more than 300 square kilometers under irrigation by canal. The main crops are wheat, corn, soybeans, barley, cotton, and garden vegetables, as well as seasonal crops such as alfalfa and some fruits.

Irrigation artificial application of water to the land or soil

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.

The municipality's coastline south of the town is 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) long. Some fishing is practiced. Industries are small, and consist chiefly of packing houses for vegetables and liquid fertilizer production.

See also

Sources

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