Béjaïa

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Béjaïa

بجاية / Vgayet/ Bgayet
Bejaia (Algerie).jpg
Dz - Bejaia (Wilaya de Bejaia) location map.svg
Location of Béjaïa, Algeria within Béjaïa Province
Algeria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Béjaïa
Location of Béjaïa, Algeria within Béjaïa Province
Coordinates: 36°45′N5°04′E / 36.750°N 5.067°E / 36.750; 5.067 Coordinates: 36°45′N5°04′E / 36.750°N 5.067°E / 36.750; 5.067
Country Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
Province Béjaïa Province
District Béjaïa District
Area
  Total120.22 km2 (46.42 sq mi)
Elevation
949 m (3,114 ft)
Population
 (2008 census)
  Total177,988
  Density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
Postal code
06000
Climate Csa

Béjaïa (Arabic : بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Berber languages : Bgayet, Bgayeth), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia. Béjaïa is the largest principally Kabyle-speaking city in the Kabylie region of Algeria. The history of Béjaïa explains the diversity of the local population.

Berber languages Family of languages and dialects indigenous to North Africa

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related languages spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa. The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.

Algeria Country in North Africa

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, and the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties). It has the highest human development index of all the non-island African countries.

Kabyle language Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people

Kabyle, or Kabylian, is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria. It is spoken primarily in Kabylie, east of the capital Algiers and in Algiers itself, but also by various groups near Blida, such as the Beni Salah and Beni Bou Yaqob.(extinct?)

Contents

Geography

Monkey Peak (Pic des singes). Pic des singes.jpg
Monkey Peak ( Pic des singes ).

The town is overlooked by the mountain Yemma Gouraya, whose profile is said to resemble a sleeping woman. Other nearby scenic spots include the Aiguades beach and the Pic des Singes (Monkey Peak); the latter site is a habitat for the endangered Barbary macaque, which prehistorically had a much broader distribution than at present. All three of these geographic features are located in the Gouraya National Park. The Soummam river runs past the town.

Pic des Singes

Pic des Singes is a peak in northern Algeria, northwest of the town of Béjaïa. It is located in the Cap Carbon area of the Tell Atlas range, on the Mediterranean coast.

Habitat ecological or environmental area inhabited by a particular species; natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population

In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction.

Barbary macaque The only native nonhuman primate in Europe

The Barbary macaque, also known as Barbary ape or magot, is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia. Found in the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Morocco along with a small population of uncertain origin in Gibraltar, the Barbary macaque is one of the best-known Old World monkey species.

Under French rule, it was formerly known under various European names, such as Budschaja in German, Bugia in Italian, and Bougie [buˈʒi] in French. The French and Italian versions, due to the town's wax trade, eventually acquired the metonymic meaning of "candle". [1]

Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept

Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.

Candle solid block of wax with embedded wick

A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance. A candle can also provide heat, or be used as a method of keeping time. The candle can be used during the event of a power outage to provide light.

History

Antiquity and Byzantine era

The Western Roman empire in the second century AD during the reign of Hadrian. Saldae can be seen on the south coast of the Mediterranean. Western-mediterranean-rome-hadrian.jpg
The Western Roman empire in the second century AD during the reign of Hadrian. Saldae can be seen on the south coast of the Mediterranean.

According to Al-Bakri, the bay was first inhabited by Andalusians. [2]

Abū ʿUbayd ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb ibn ʿAmr al-Bakrī, or simply al-Bakrī was an Andalusian Arab historian and the greatest geographer of the Muslim West.

Béjaïa stands on the site of the ancient city of Saldae, a minor port in Carthaginian and Roman times, in an area at first inhabited by Numidian Berbers and founded as a colony for old soldiers by emperor Augustus. It was an important town and a bishopric in the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and later Sitifensis.

Ancient Carthage Phoenician city-state and empire

Carthage was a Phoenician state that included, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence known as the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of Northwest Africa as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia and the islands of the western Mediterranean Sea.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–476 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, North Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and its city of Rome as sole capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided into a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when it sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople following the capture of Ravenna by the barbarians of Odoacer and the subsequent deposition of Romulus Augustus. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to Germanic kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

Augustus Princeps Civitatis

Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

Coin of the Hafsids, with ornamental Kufic script, from Bejaia hi, 1249-1276. Hafsids Bougie Algeria 1249 1276 ornemental Kufic.JPG
Coin of the Hafsids, with ornamental Kufic script, from Béjaïa hi, 1249-1276.

In the fifth century, Saldae became the capital of the short-lived Vandal Kingdom of the Germanic Vandals, which ended in about 533 with the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and later the Exarchate of Carthage.

Vandal Kingdom Kingdom existed in North Africa from 429 to 534

The Vandal Kingdom or Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans was established by the Germanic Vandal people under Genseric, and ruled in North Africa and the Mediterranean from 435 AD to 534 AD.

Vandals East Germanic tribe

The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland. Some later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established Vandal kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula, on western Mediterranean islands and in North Africa in the 5th century.

Byzantine Empire Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military force in Europe. "Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Muslim and feudal rulers

After the 7th-century Muslim conquest, it was refounded as "Béjaïa"; the Hammadid dynasty made it their capital, and it became an important port and centre of culture.

Historic map of Algiers and Bejaia by Piri Reis Algiers and Bejaia by Piri Reis.jpg
Historic map of Algiers and Béjaïa by Piri Reis

The son of a Pisan merchant (and probably consul), posthumously known as Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250), there learned about mathematics (which he called "Modus Indorum") and Hindu-Arabic numerals. He introduced modern mathematics into medieval Europe. [3] A mathematical-historical analysis of Fibonacci's context and proximity to Béjaïa, an important exporter of wax in his time, has suggested that it was actually the bee-keepers of Béjaïa and the knowledge of the bee ancestries that truly inspired the Fibonacci sequence rather than the rabbit reproduction model as presented in his famous book Liber Abaci . [4]

According to Muhammad al-Idrisi, the port was, in the 11th century, a market place between Mediterranean merchant ships and caravans coming from the Sahara desert. Christian merchants settled fundunqs (or Khans) in Bejaïa. The Italian city of Pisa was closely tied to Béjaïa, where it built one of its two permanent consulates in the African continent. [2]

In 1315, Ramon Llull died as a result of being stoned at Béjaïa, [5] [6] where, a few years before, Peter Armengaudius (Peter Armengol) is reputed to have been hanged. [6] [7]

After a Spanish occupation (1510–55), the city was taken by the Ottoman Turks in the Capture of Bougie in 1555. For nearly three centuries, Béjaïa was a stronghold of the Barbary pirates (see Barbary States). The city consisted of Arabic-speaking Moors, Moriscos and Jews increased by Jewish refugees from Spain, with the Berber peoples not in the city but occupying the surrounding villages and travelling to the city occasionally for the market days.

City landmarks include a 16th-century mosque and a fortress built by the Spanish in 1545.

A picture of the Orientalist painter Maurice Boitel, who painted in the city for a while, can be found in the museum of Béjaïa.

French colonial rule

It was captured by the French in 1833 and became a part of colonial Algeria. Most of the time it was the seat ('sous-préfecture') of an arrondissement (mid 20th century, 513,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 'Bougiates' in the city itself) in the Département of Constantine, until Bougie was promoted to département itself in 1957.

Battle of Béjaïa

During World War II, Operation Torch landed forces in North Africa, including a battalion of the British Royal West Kent Regiment at Béjaïa on November 11, 1942.

That same day, at 4:40 PM, a German Luftwaffe air raid struck Béjaïa with thirty Ju 88 bombers and torpedo planes. The transports Awatea and Cathay were sunk and the monitor HMS Roberts was damaged. The following day, the anti-aircraft ship SS Tynwald was torpedoed and sank, while the transport Karanja was bombed and destroyed. [8]

Algerian republic

After Algerian independence, it became the eponymous capital of Béjaïa Province, covering part of the eastern Berber region Kabylia.

Ecclesiastical history

With the spread of Christianity, Saldae became a bishopric. Its bishop Paschasius was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric summoned to Carthage in 484 and then exiled.

Christianity survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old city of Saldae, and the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter from Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085) exists, addressed to clero et populo Buzee (the clergy and people of Béjaïa), in which he writes of the consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian North Africa. [5] [6] [9]

No longer a residential bishopric, Saldae (v.) is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. [10] and still has incumbents by that title (mostly of the lowest (episcopal) rank, some of the intermediary archiepiscopal rank).

Titular see of Bugia

This titular see was for a long time, alternatively and concurrently with the city's authentic Roman Latin name Saldae (v.), called Bugia, the Italian language form (used in the Roman Curia) of Béjaïa.

The 'modern' form and title, Bugia, seems out of use, after having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

Climate

Béjaïa, like most cities along the coast of Algeria, has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with very warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters.

Climate data for Béjaïa
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)27.7
(81.9)
32.0
(89.6)
37.0
(98.6)
33.0
(91.4)
37.3
(99.1)
42.8
(109.0)
44.7
(112.5)
47.6
(117.7)
42.5
(108.5)
40.0
(104.0)
37.4
(99.3)
33.0
(91.4)
47.6
(117.7)
Average high °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
16.8
(62.2)
17.7
(63.9)
19.3
(66.7)
22.0
(71.6)
25.3
(77.5)
28.7
(83.7)
29.3
(84.7)
27.8
(82.0)
24.3
(75.7)
20.3
(68.5)
16.9
(62.4)
22.1
(71.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)12.1
(53.8)
12.3
(54.1)
13.1
(55.6)
14.7
(58.5)
17.6
(63.7)
21.0
(69.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.8
(76.6)
23.2
(73.8)
19.7
(67.5)
15.8
(60.4)
12.7
(54.9)
17.6
(63.7)
Average low °C (°F)7.7
(45.9)
7.6
(45.7)
8.5
(47.3)
10.1
(50.2)
13.1
(55.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.3
(66.7)
20.2
(68.4)
18.5
(65.3)
15.0
(59.0)
11.2
(52.2)
8.4
(47.1)
13.0
(55.4)
Record low °C (°F)−1.0
(30.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
2.0
(35.6)
5.8
(42.4)
7.8
(46.0)
13.0
(55.4)
11.0
(51.8)
11.0
(51.8)
8.0
(46.4)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)99.7
(3.93)
85.9
(3.38)
100.4
(3.95)
70.7
(2.78)
41.2
(1.62)
16.2
(0.64)
5.8
(0.23)
13.0
(0.51)
40.4
(1.59)
89.5
(3.52)
99.7
(3.93)
135.0
(5.31)
797.5
(31.39)
Average relative humidity (%)78.577.677.977.979.976.975.074.676.476.375.376.076.9
Source #1: NOAA (1968-1990) [11]
Source #2: climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity) [12]

Demography

Cap Carbon Lighthouse
Phare du Cap Carbon.jpg
Cap Carbon Lighthouse in 2013
Algeria relief location map.jpg
Lighthouse icon centered.svg
Algeria
LocationCap Carbonbr
Béjaïa
Coordinates 36°46′34.25″N5°6′14.83″E / 36.7761806°N 5.1041194°E / 36.7761806; 5.1041194
Year first constructed1906 [13]
Constructionmasonry tower
Tower shapecylindrical tower with balcony and lantern rising from the keeper’s house
Markings / patternwhite tower, black lantern roof
Tower height14.60 metres (47.9 ft) [13]
Focal height224.10 metres (735.2 ft) [13]
Range29 nautical miles (54 km; 33 mi) [13]
Characteristic Fl (3) W 20s. [14]
Admiralty numberE6572
NGA number22328
ARLHS numberALG-007 [15]
Managing agentOffice Nationale de Signalisation Maritime

The population of the city in 2008 in the latest census was 177,988.

Historical populations [16]
YearPopulation
190114,600
190617,500
191110,000
192119,400
192615,900
193125,300
193630,700
194828,500
195443,900
196063,000
196649,900
1974104,000
197774,000
1987114,500
1998144,400
2008177,988

Economy

Maritime front of Bejaia: a view of its industrial facilities and the airport. Aeroport, terminal container, usine Cevital a Bejaia 2.jpg
Maritime front of Béjaïa: a view of its industrial facilities and the airport.

The northern terminus of the Hassi Messaoud oil pipeline from the Sahara, Béjaïa is the principal oil port of the Western Mediterranean. Exports, aside from crude petroleum, include iron, phosphates, wines, dried figs, and plums. The city also has textile and cork industries.[ citation needed ]

Cevital has its head office in the city. [17]

The city's soccer team is JSM Béjaïa and currently plays in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 2.

Friendly relationship

Béjaïa has an official friendly relationship (protocole d'amitié) with:

See also

Related people

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "Bougie (n)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 November 2012. Etymology: < French bougie wax candle, < Bougie (Arabic Bijiyah), a town in Algeria which carried on a trade in waxAvailable online to subscribers
  2. 1 2 Bejaia - Algeria, Muslimheritage.com
  3. Stephen Ramsay, Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism, (University of Illinois Press, 2011), 64.
  4. Scott, T.C.; Marketos, P. (March 2014), On the Origin of the Fibonacci Sequence (PDF), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
  5. 1 2 Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, p. 269
  6. 1 2 3 H. Jaubert, Anciens évêchés et ruines chrétiennes de la Numidie et de la Sitifienne, in Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine, vol. 46, 1913, pp. 127-129
  7. J. Frank Henderson, "Moslems and the Roman Catholic Liturgical Calendar. Documentation" (2003), p. 18
  8. Atkinson 2002.
  9. J. Mesnage, L'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 8 e 268-269
  10. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN   978-88-209-9070-1), p. 963
  11. "Climate Normals for Béjaïa" . Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  12. "Béjaïa, Algeria". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  13. 1 2 3 4 "Cap Carbon". Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime. Ministere des Travaux Publics. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  14. List of Lights, Pub. 113: The West Coasts of Europe and Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Azovskoye More (Sea of Azov) (PDF). List of Lights . United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2015.
  15. "Eastern Algeria". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  16. populstat.info Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  17. "Cevital & vous Archived 12 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine ." Cevital. Retrieved on 26 August 2011. "Adresse : Nouveau Qaui Port de -Béjaïa - Algérie"

Atkinson, An Army At Dawn