BACH motif

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BACH motif
The BACH motif
"b-a-c-h is beginning and end of all music" (Max Reger 1912) B-a-c-h Reger.jpg
"b-a-c-h is beginning and end of all music" (Max Reger 1912)

In music, the BACH motif is the motif, a succession of notes important or characteristic to a piece, B flat, A, C, B natural. In German musical nomenclature, in which the note B natural is named H and the B flat named B, it forms Johann Sebastian Bach's family name. One of the most frequently occurring examples of a musical cryptogram, the motif has been used by countless composers, especially after the Bach Revival in the first half of the 19th century.

Contents

Origin

Johann Gottfried Walther's Musicalisches Lexikon (1732) contains the only biographical sketch of Johann Sebastian Bach published during the composer's lifetime. There the motif is mentioned thus: [1]

...all those who carried the name [Bach] were as far as known committed to music, which may be explained by the fact that even the letters b a c h in this order form a melody. (This peculiarity was discovered by Mr. Bach of Leipzig.)

This reference work thus indicates Bach as the inventor of the motif.

Usage in compositions

BACH motif in the last fugue of The Art of Fugue Bach-Thema.png
BACH motif in the last fugue of The Art of Fugue
BACH motif followed by transposed version from Schumann's Sechs Fugen uber den Namen B-A-C-H, Op. 60, No. 4, mm. 1-3 Play (help*info)
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Note that C and H are transposed down, leaving the spelling unaffected but changing the melodic contour. Schumann, Sechs Fugen uber den Namen B-A-C-H, op. 60, no. 4, mm. 1-3.png
BACH motif followed by transposed version from Schumann's Sechs Fugen über den Namen B-A-C-H , Op. 60, No. 4, mm. 1–3 Loudspeaker.svg Play  .
Note that C and H are transposed down, leaving the spelling unaffected but changing the melodic contour.
Schumann, Sechs Fugen for organ, Op. 60, No. 5, mm. 1-4 Play (help*info)
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The motif may be used in different ways: here it is only the beginning of an extended melody. Schumann, Sechs Fugen for organ, op. 60, no. 5, mm. 1-4.png
Schumann, Sechs Fugen for organ, Op. 60, No. 5, mm. 1–4 Loudspeaker.svg Play  .
The motif may be used in different ways: here it is only the beginning of an extended melody.
Charles Ives, 3-Page Sonata (1905), first mvt., first fugal complex Play (help*info)
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The BACH motif from The Art of Fugue Contrapunctus XIXc is the "'1st Theme'/fugue subject" of Ives' combined sonata-allegro and fugal procedures. Charles Ives, 3-Page Sonata, 1st mvt., Bach motif.png
Charles Ives, 3-Page Sonata (1905), first mvt., first fugal complex Loudspeaker.svg Play  .
The BACH motif from The Art of Fugue Contrapunctus XIXc is the "'1st Theme'/fugue subject" of Ives' combined sonata-allegro and fugal procedures.
BACH motif
Webern's String Quartet, Op. 28, tone row, composed of three tetrachords: P I RI, with P = the BACH motif, I = it inverted, and RI = it inverted and backwards.[ citation needed ]

In a comprehensive study published in the catalogue for the 1985 exhibition "300 Jahre Johann Sebastian Bach" ("300 years of Johann Sebastian Bach") in Stuttgart, Germany, Ulrich Prinz lists 409 works by 330 composers from the 17th to the 20th century using the BACH motif. [5] A similar list is available in Malcolm Boyd's volume on Bach: it also contains some 400 works. [6] [ page needed ]

Bach used the motif in a number of works, most famously as a fugue subject in the last Contrapunctus of The Art of Fugue . The motif also appears in the end of the fourth variation of Bach's Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her" , as well as in other pieces. [7] For example, the first measure of the Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795 includes a transposed version of the motif (a'-g'-b'-a') followed by the original in measure 17. [8]

Later commentators wrote: "The figure occurs so often in Bach's bass lines that it cannot have been accidental." [9] Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht goes as far as to reconstruct Bach's putative intentions as an expression of Lutheran thought, imagining Bach to be saying, "I am identified with the tonic and it is my desire to reach it ... Like you I am human. I am in need of salvation; I am certain in the hope of salvation, and have been saved by grace," through his use of the motif rather than a standard changing tone figure (B-A-C-B) in the double discant clausula in the fourth fugue of The Art of Fugue . [10]

The motif was used as a fugue subject by Bach's son Johann Christian, and by his pupil Johann Ludwig Krebs. It also appears in a work by Georg Philipp Telemann. [11]

The motif's wide popularity came only after the start of the Bach Revival in the first half of the 19th century. [7] A few mid-19th century works that feature the motif prominently are:

Composers found that the motif could be easily incorporated not only into the advanced harmonic writing of the 19th century, but also into the totally chromatic idiom of the Second Viennese School; so it was used by Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and their disciples and followers. A few 20th-century works that feature the motif prominently are:

In the 21st century, composers continue writing works using the motif, frequently in homage to Johann Sebastian Bach. [7]

Related Research Articles

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Johann Pachelbel was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ schools to their peak. He composed a large body of sacred and secular music, and his contributions to the development of the chorale prelude and fugue have earned him a place among the most important composers of the middle Baroque era.

Violin Concerto (Berg)

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The String Quartet, Op. 28 by Anton Webern is written for the standard string quartet group of two violins, viola and cello. It was the last piece of chamber music that Webern wrote.

A prelude is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece. While, during the Baroque era, for example, it may have served as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that were usually longer and more complex, it may also have been a stand-alone piece of work during the Romantic era. It generally features a small number of rhythmic and melodic motifs that recur through the piece. Stylistically, the prelude is improvisatory in nature. The prelude also may refer to an overture, particularly to those seen in an opera or an oratorio.

<i>The Art of Fugue</i> Musical work by Johann Sebastian Bach

The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080, is an incomplete musical work of unspecified instrumentation by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750). Written in the last decade of his life, The Art of Fugue is the culmination of Bach's experimentation with monothematic instrumental works.

Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565 Organ music by Johann Sebastian Bach

The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750). The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. Scholars differ as to when it was composed. It could have been as early as c. 1704. Alternatively, a date as late as the 1750s has been suggested. To a large extent, the piece conforms to the characteristics deemed typical of the north German organ school of the Baroque era with divergent stylistic influences, such as south German characteristics.

Subject (music)

In music, a subject is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based. In forms other than the fugue, this may be known as the theme.

Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582 Organ piece by Johann Sebastian Bach

Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor is an organ piece by Johann Sebastian Bach. Presumably composed early in Bach's career, it is one of his most important and well-known works, and an important influence on 19th and 20th century passacaglias: Robert Schumann described the variations of the passacaglia as "intertwined so ingeniously that one can never cease to be amazed."

Musical historicism signifies the use of historical materials, structures, styles, techniques, media, conceptual content, etc., whether by a single composer or those associated with a particular school, movement, or period.

Johann Sebastian Bach 18th-century German composer

Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos and the Goldberg Variations, and for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival, he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.

Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543

Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543 is a piece of organ music written by Johann Sebastian Bach sometime around his years as court organist to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1708–1713).

A musical cryptogram is a cryptogrammatic sequence of musical symbols, a sequence which can be taken to refer to an extra-musical text by some 'logical' relationship, usually between note names and letters. The most common and best known examples result from composers using ciphered versions of their own or their friends' names as themes or motifs in their compositions. Much rarer is the use of music notation to encode messages for reasons of espionage or personal security called steganography.

<i>The Well-Tempered Clavier</i> Collection of keyboard music by J.S. Bach

The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two sets of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach. In Bach's time Clavier (keyboard) was a generic name indicating a variety of keyboard instruments, most typically a harpsichord or clavichord – but not excluding an organ.

<i>Clavier-Übung III</i> Collection of organ compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach

The Clavier-Übung III, sometimes referred to as the German Organ Mass, is a collection of compositions for organ by Johann Sebastian Bach, started in 1735–36 and published in 1739. It is considered Bach's most significant and extensive work for organ, containing some of his most musically complex and technically demanding compositions for that instrument.

Carl Weinrich was an American organist, choral conductor, and teacher. He was particularly known for his recitals and recordings of Bach's organ music and as a leader in the revival of Baroque organ music in the United States during the 1930s.

References

  1. Johann Gottfried Walther Musicalisches Lexicon oder Musicalische Bibliothec, p. 64. Leipzig, W. Deer. 1732.
  2. 1 2 Christopher Alan Reynolds (2003). Motives for Allusion: Context and Content in Nineteenth-Century Music, p.31. ISBN   0-674-01037-X.
  3. Daverio, John (1997). Robert Schumann: Herald of a "New Poetic Age", p.309. ISBN   0-19-509180-9.
  4. Crist, Stephen (2002). Bach Perspectives: Vol. 5: Bach in America, p.175. ISBN   0-252-02788-4. "The reference could not be more clear."
  5. Ulrich Prinz, Joachim Dorfmüller and Konrad Küster (1985). Die Tonfolge B–A–C–H in Kompositionen des 17. bis 20. Jahrhunderts: ein Verzeichnis, in: 300 Jahre Sebastian Bach (exhibition catalogue), pp. 389–419. ISBN   3-7952-0459-3
  6. Malcolm Boyd (1999). Bach. Oxford University Press. 2006 edition: ISBN   0-19-530771-2.
  7. 1 2 3 Boyd, Malcolm (2001). "B-A-C-H". In Root, Deane L. (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . Oxford University Press.
  8. Schulenberg, David (2006). The Keyboard Music of J.S. Bach, p.197. ISBN   0-415-97399-6.
  9. Marshall, Robert (2003). Eighteenth-Century Keyboard Music, p.201 and p.224n18. ISBN   0-415-96642-6. See Godt 1979.
  10. Eggebrecht (1993:8) cited in Cumming, Naomi (2001). The Sonic Self: Musical Subjectivity and Signification, p.256. ISBN   0-253-33754-2.
  11. Jones, Ben. "B-A-C-H motif in Oboe Concerto, TWV 51:D6 (Telemann, Georg Philipp)". IMSLP. Retrieved 1 October 2019. there is a clear B.A.C.H. motif at the beginning of the Adagio
  12. 1 2 Platt, Heather Anne (2003). Johannes Brahms, p.243. ISBN   0-8153-3850-3.
  13. Arnold, Ben (2002). The Liszt Companion, p.173. ISBN   0-313-30689-3.
  14. Stein, Erwin (ed.). 1987. Arnold Schoenberg letters, p. 206. University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-520-06009-8
  15. Bailey, Kathryn. 2006. The Twelve-note Music of Anton Webern: Old Forms In a New Language, p. 24. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-54796-3
  16. 1 2 3 Fearn, Raymond (2003). The Music of Luigi Dallapiccola. 2005: ISBN   1-58046-078-X.
  17. Schmelz, Peter J. (2009). Such Freedom, If Only Musical, p. 255–56. ISBN   0-19-534193-7.
  18. Ivashkin, Alexander (2009) Liner notes to BIS complete symphony cycle, BIS-CD-1767-68

Further reading