BBVA Compass Stadium

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BBVA Compass Stadium
The Oven, The Orange Box
BBVA Compass Stadium logo.png
BBVA Compass Stadium, Skyline View.JPG
View from inside the stadium with the Downtown Houston skyline in the background
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BBVA Compass Stadium
Location in Downtown Houston
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BBVA Compass Stadium
Location in Texas
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BBVA Compass Stadium
Location in the United States
Address2200 Texas Avenue
Location Houston, Texas
Coordinates 29°45.132′N95°21.144′W / 29.752200°N 95.352400°W / 29.752200; -95.352400 Coordinates: 29°45.132′N95°21.144′W / 29.752200°N 95.352400°W / 29.752200; -95.352400
Public transit HoustonMetroLogoOnly.svg EaDo/Stadium HoustonMetroGreenLine.svg HoustonMetroPurpleLine.svg
OwnerHarris County–Houston Sports Authority
Operator Anschutz Entertainment Group
Capacity 22,039
Field size115 yd × 73 yd (105 m × 67 m) [1]
Surface'Celebration' Bermuda grass
Broke groundFebruary 5, 2011
OpenedMay 12, 2012
Construction cost$95 million
($104 million in 2018 dollars [2] )
Architect Populous
Project managerHarris County – Houston Sports Authority/ICON Venue
Structural engineer Walter P. Moore [3]
Services engineerM–E Engineers, Inc. [4]
General contractor Manhattan Construction Company [5]
Houston Dynamo (MLS) (2012–present)
Texas Southern Tigers (NCAA) (2012–present)
Houston Cougars (NCAA) (2013)
Houston Baptist Huskies (NCAA) (2013)
Houston Dash (NWSL) (2014–present)

BBVA Compass Stadium is an American multi-purpose stadium located in Houston, Texas that is home to the Houston Dynamo, a Major League Soccer club, the Houston Dash of the National Women's Soccer League, and to Texas Southern Tigers football. The stadium is the result of combined commitments of $35.5 million from the city of Houston and $60 million from the Houston Dynamo. Harris County agreed to pay for half of the land in exchange for the ability to jointly own the stadium after its completion date in May 2012. [6] BBVA Compass, a subsidiary of Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, is the stadium's sponsor company.

Multi-purpose stadium type of stadium

Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could potentially host more than one type of sport or event, this concept usually refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity. It is used most commonly in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on a diamond and large outfield. This requires a particular design to accommodate both, usually an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it also imposes some challenges.

Houston City in Texas, United States

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles (1,620 km2), Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States. It is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is similarly not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though primarily in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.


The stadium is located on a tract of land bordered by Texas, Walker, Emancipation, and Hutchins in East Downtown and east of Interstate 69/U.S. Route 59 and Downtown Houston. [7] [8]

Interstate 69 in Texas highway in Texas

Interstate 69 (I-69) in the U.S. state of Texas is an extension of that existing Interstate Highway that will pass through the eastern part of the state and along the Gulf Coast to Victoria, where it will split into multiple segments with I-69E terminating in Brownsville, I-69C terminating in Pharr, and I-69W terminating in Laredo.

Construction history: 2009–2011

Construction site for the stadium Houstondynamostadiumconstruction2011423.JPG
Construction site for the stadium

In June 2009, negotiations and financing began to fall into place with construction of the stadium originally beginning as early as Fall 2009. Banks and investors were in the books to finance the project and only minor details were being worked out. [9] Various locations the Dynamo were interested in building a stadium since their arrival were the former Astroworld site, Pearland, Sugar Land, and Northeast Houston near the Lake Houston area. [9]

Six Flags AstroWorld Defunct theme park in Houston, Texas

Six Flags AstroWorld or more commonly AstroWorld was a seasonally operated theme park located on approximately 57 acres (23 ha) of land (later expanded to over 75 acres between Kirby Drive and Fannin Avenue, directly south of Loop 610 in Houston, Texas. The park opened on June 1, 1968, and was originally developed and constructed as part of the Astrodomain, the brainchild of local philanthropist and former Houston mayor Judge Roy Hofheinz, who intended it to complement The Astrodome.

Pearland, Texas City in Texas, United States

Pearland is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. Most of the city is in Brazoria County, with portions extending into Fort Bend and Harris counties. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 91,252, up from a population of 37,640 at the 2000 census. Pearland's population growth rate from 2000 to 2010 was 142 percent, which ranked Pearland as the 15th-fastest-growing city in the U.S. during that time period, compared to other cities with a population of 10,000 or greater in 2000. Pearland is the third-largest city in the Houston MSA, and from 2000 to 2010, ranked as the fastest-growing city in the Houston MSA and the second-fastest-growing city in Texas. As of 2015 the population had risen to an estimated 108,821.

Sugar Land, Texas City in Texas, United States

Sugar Land is a city in Fort Bend County, Texas, United States, located in the southwestern part of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. Located about 19 miles (31 km) southwest of downtown Houston, Sugar Land is a populous suburban municipality centered around the junction of Texas State Highway 6 and U.S. Route 59. Beginning in the 19th century, the present-day Sugar Land area was home to a large sugar plantation situated in the fertile floodplain of the Brazos River. Following the consolidation of local plantations into Imperial Sugar Company in 1908, Sugar Land grew steadily as a company town and incorporated as a city in 1959. Since then, Sugar Land has grown rapidly alongside other edge cities around Houston, with large-scale development of master-planned communities contributing to population swells since the 1980s.

On January 26, 2010, the Houston Dynamo franchise had expressed an interest in a proposed 30-acre (120,000 m2) parcel for the stadium location at South Rice Avenue and Westpark Drive—adjacent to Bellaire's city limits, and near the southwest corner of the Interstate 69/U.S. Highway 59 and the Interstate 610 interchanges. [10] Two days later, the Mayor of Bellaire, Cindy Seigel said that she would use whatever power she could to oppose the possible new location and is in communication with the developer to dissuade him. She acknowledges that considering that the land is in Houston's city limits and only abuts her city, the odds are slim and said in an open letter to Midway:

Bellaire, Texas City in Texas, United States

Bellaire is a city in southwest Harris County, Texas, United States, within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 16,855. It is surrounded by the cities of Houston and West University Place.

Interstate 610 (I-610) is a freeway that forms a 38-mile-long (61 km) loop around the inner city sector of city of Houston, Texas. Interstate 610, colloquially known as The Loop, Loop 610, The Inner Loop, or just 610, traditionally marks the border between the inner city of Houston and its surrounding areas. It is the inner of the three Houston beltways, the other two being Beltway 8 and State Highway 99, of which various segments are under construction or planning. It is one of four interstate loops not to share its route with another interstate freeway, the others being I-270 in Ohio, I-295 in Florida, and I-485 in North Carolina.

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

Fans on the north and east side of Houston will have difficulty in getting to this site. Additionally, this site does not have the infrastructure in place to serve it that already exists at other athletic facilities downtown or at Reliant Park. [11]

Downtown Houston Neighborhood of Houston in Harris County, Texas, United States

Downtown is the largest business district in Houston, Texas, located near the geographic center of the metropolitan area at the confluence of Interstate 10, Interstate 45, and Interstate 69. The 1.84-square-mile (4.8 km2) district, enclosed by the aforementioned highways, contains the original townsite of Houston at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou, a point known as Allen's Landing. Downtown has been the city's preeminent commercial district since its founding in 1836.

The highly populated and heavily Hispanic area of Gulfton is within proximity, although former Council member Pam Holm stated that ethnic considerations should not be key to choosing a stadium location: "To position this as a Hispanic sport and say the stadium has to be in proximity to Hispanic neighborhoods doesn’t do it justice, the Dynamo is something that all citizens of Houston have so embraced." [12]

Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America. The United States has the largest population of Hispanics and Latinos outside of the Hispanosphere and Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Cuban, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Dominican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Bolivian, Spanish American, Chilean, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans and other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups in the United States are soley defined as "Latino" by some U.S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably.

On April 7, 2010, The Houston City Council unanimously approved an agreement Wednesday that is expected to pave the way for a new stadium for the Houston Dynamo and the Texas Southern University football team, which is expected to be on a tract of land bordered by Texas, Walker, Dowling and Hutchins in East Downtown and east of Interstate 69/U.S. Route 59 and Downtown Houston. [7] [8] On April 13, 2010, Harris County commissioners voted unanimously to begin construction of the new Dynamo stadium east of downtown, [13] clearing the way for construction sometime in February 2011.

Oliver Luck, at the time President and General Manager of the Dynamo, announced the financing, architect, and project manager for the new stadium. He announced Populous had been chosen to design and build the stadium. Populous, one of the world's leading sports architecture firms, had previously built three other major venues in the city—Minute Maid Park, NRG Stadium, and the Toyota Center, [14] and internationally designed soccer stadia including Wembley Stadium (London), Emirates Stadium (London), Soccer City (Johannesburg), and Aviva Stadium (Dublin).

On February 5, 2011, the Houston Dynamo, led by Houston mayor Annise Parker and Harris County Judge Ed Emmett, broke ground on the Houston Dynamo Stadium site. Houston Dynamo President Chris Canetti strongly expressed that the stadium will be ready by April 2012. [15]


February 5, 2011 Groundbreaking
March 10, 2011The portion of Bastrop Street and Rusk Street that runs through the site is removed
May 6, 2011Construction crews begin drilling on site
May 12, 2011The first concrete is poured
August 15, 2011First steel beam is installed
November 14, 2011Last steel beam is installed
December 13, 2011 BBVA Compass acquires naming rights
May 10, 2012Houston Dynamo Academy 0 – 3 United States U-17 Men's
First event & first soccer match
May 12, 2012 Houston Dynamo 1 – 0 D.C. United
First Houston Dynamo match
May 23, 2012 New Zealand 2 – 2 El Salvador (Association football)
BBVA Compass Content Series
First international sporting event
June 23, 2012 USA 10 – 30 Italy (Rugby union)
2012 Italian Tour of the Americas
First rugby union match
August 31, 2012 Cinco Ranch (Katy) 34 – 6 Cypress Ranch (Cypress-Fairbanks) (American football)
BBVA Compass Kick Off Classic
First American football game
September 15, 2012 Texas Southern 35 – 45 Jackson State (American football)
First Texas Southern match
October 12, 2012 Mexico 5 – 0 Guyana
2014 FIFA World Cup qualification – CONCACAF Third Round
First FIFA World Cup qualification match
November 4, 2012 Houston Dynamo 2 – 0 Sporting Kansas City
First Houston Dynamo playoff match
December 12, 2012 United States 4 – 0 China PR
International friendly
First visit by the United States women's national soccer team [note 1]
January 29, 2013 United States 0 – 0 Canada
International friendly
First visit by the United States men's national soccer team [note 2]
February 1, 2013 Australia 31 – 12 Japan (Rugby sevens)
2012–13 IRB Women's Sevens World Series – Pool C
First rugby sevens match

United States 12 – 12 Canada (Rugby sevens)
2012–13 IRB Women's Sevens World Series – Pool B
First visit by the United States rugby sevens team

April 14, 2013Houston Dynamo 2 – 1 Chicago Fire
New record of longest unbeaten run at home in Major League Soccer (36 games)
October 12, 2013 Houston Cougars 25 – 15 Memphis Tigers (American football)
First Houston Cougars match
August 3, 2014Houston Gaels (White) 20 – 16 Houston Gaels (Blue) (Gaelic football)
First Gaelic Football match [16]
  1. The USWNT last played in Houston on October 24, 2004 at Reliant Stadium in a 5–0 win over Ireland.
  2. The USMNT last played in Houston during the Semifinals of the 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup on June 22, 2011 at Reliant Stadium in a 1–0 win over Panama.



Houston Dynamo fans at the BBVA Compass Stadium in 2015 Houston Dynamo fans (20072326336).jpg
Houston Dynamo fans at the BBVA Compass Stadium in 2015

Construction on BBVA Compass Stadium led to the Houston Dynamo's decision to play their first seven games of the 2012 Major League Soccer season on the road. Their first match at the stadium was played on May 12, 2012 when they defeated D.C. United 1–0. The lone goal came from Brad Davis from 35 yards out which beat D.C. goalkeeper Bill Hamid. The win happened in front of a capacity crowd of 22,039 and would mark the beginning of what would be an unbeaten year for the Dynamo at home, posting a year-end home record of 11–0–6.

BBVA Compass Stadium became home to several international. The first was between New Zealand and El Salvador for the BBVA Compass Content Series on May 23, 2012. The match ended in a 2–2 draw. The first FIFA Qualifier match was played between Mexico and Guyana on October 12, 2012. Mexico won the match, 5–0.

The United States women's national team made its debut at the stadium with a 4–0 win over China PR on December 12, 2012. The United States men's national team played to a scoreless draw with Canada on January 29, 2013, in its BBVA debut.

Rugby Union

BBVA Compass Stadium played host to the 2012 Italian Tour of the Americas which saw the USA Eagles play Italy to a 30–10 loss. The Eagles returned to BBVA Compass Stadium to play a mid-year rugby union test match against Ireland on June 8, 2013; the Eagles lost 15–12, but set a record for largest crowd for the Eagles on home soil when 20,181 fans packed the stadium.

BBVA Compass Stadium played host to the 2012–13 IRB Women's Sevens World Series in the USA leg of the series. However, the USA leg of the World Series was moved to the Atlanta suburb of Kennesaw, Georgia for the 2013–14 series, where it has remained ever since.

College Football

BBVA Compass Stadium is home to Texas Southern University Football. During the 2013 season, the stadium also hosted the Houston Cougars for two games while TDECU Stadium was being built.

Gaelic Football

BBVA Compass Stadium played host to the first ever Gaelic Football game on an MLS pitch August 3, 2014, when the Houston Gaels played the first of their now-annual demonstration match (divided squad) after the Houston Dynamo-D.C. United match. The Gaels were originally scheduled to play on March 15 after the Dynamo-Montreal Impact match as part of the Saint Patrick's Day weekend festivities, but the game was postponed due to concerns about the rain-soaked pitch. [17]

Features and design

The Stadium has a capacity of 22,039 seats, including 34 private suites, 1,100 club seats, Premium Club, dedicated supporters stand, and food court. [3] The stadium is designed to accommodate MLS and FIFA standard international soccer, football, lacrosse, rugby, and concerts.

Architecturally, the stadium features a faceted facade of expanded metal mesh with orange polycarbonate enclosed entrances and spectator facilities that reflects the industrial heritage of the East Downtown location. The stadium architect, Christopher Lee of Populous, stated that, “We set out to design the perfect urban soccer stadium: tight, atmospheric, and intimate.” [18] Christopher Lee was the designer of the famed Emirates Stadium in London, England, and his design brings European stadium traditions of intimate and atmospheric soccer specific stadia to MLS. [19] The $95 million stadium construction cost makes the BBVA Compass Stadium the most cost-effective of modern soccer-specific stadiums, with recent venues like the Red Bull Arena costing $200 million, [20] Rio Tinto Stadium costing $110 million, [21] and PPL Park costing $115 million. [22]

East Facade along Emancipation BBVA Compass Stadium East Facade.jpg
East Facade along Emancipation
North Facade along Texas Avenue BBVA Compass Stadium, North Facade.JPG
North Facade along Texas Avenue
Stadium Geometric Entrance BBVA Compass Stadium, Northwest Entrance.JPG
Stadium Geometric Entrance
Stadium Illuminated at Night BBVA Compass Stadium at Night.JPG
Stadium Illuminated at Night
BBVA Compass Stadium Midfield Panoramic.JPG


On December 13, 2011, BBVA Compass, an international bank with dozens of branches in Houston, signed a 10-year, $20 million naming rights deal. BBVA is also a title sponsor of Spain's First Division soccer league La Liga, and also México Primera División (Mexico First Division) in Liga MX


On December 10, 2012, BBVA Compass Stadium received the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver certification from the U.S. Green Building Council.

The stadium received the award for its innovative construction and sustainable design. Notable achievements during the stadium's construction process included diverting 86.85% of on-site generated construction waste to landfills, reducing water use by 41% from the installation of high-energy toilets, reducing energy use by 20.41%, using 98.42% of the wood-based building materials from certified forests and providing preferred parking spaces for fuel-efficient low-emissions vehicles.


On March 22, 2012, AEG Facilities-managed BBVA Compass and the Houston Dynamo announced that Levy Restaurants will be the official restaurant partner.

Stadium partners

The following are its current official stadium partners: [23]

  1. Budweiser
  2. Audi
  3. Papa Johns
  4. Life Storage
  5. AT&T
  6. TriEagle Energy

Accessibility and transportation

The stadium is adjacent to METRORail light rail at EaDo/Stadium station, served by the Green and Purple lines. Taxi, Buses, street, and garage parking nearby. The stadium is located southeast of Minute Maid Park—within the East Downtown district (which is undergoing revitalization efforts) and east of Downtown Houston.

International matches

BBVA Compass Stadium hosted its first international match on May 23, 2012, when New Zealand and El Salvador played to a 2–2 draw. The stadium hosted its first women's international match when it hosted a 4–0 win by the United States over China in December 2012.

Men's matches

DateTeam #1ResultTeam #2CompetitionAttendance
May 23, 2012Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1–1Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador friendly15,500
October 12, 2012Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 0–5Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification 12,115
January 13, 2013Flag of the United States.svg  United States 0–0Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada friendly11,737
July 15, 2013Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 1–0Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 2013 CONCACAF Gold Cup 21,783
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 0–2Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago
June 1, 2014Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 4–2Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras friendly19,235
September 10, 2014Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 2–0Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 2014 Copa Centroamericana 19,287
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 2–0Flag of Belize.svg  Belize
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 0–2Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
July 11, 2015Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 1–0Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 2015 CONCACAF Gold Cup 22,017
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 1–1Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador
September 4, 2015Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 7–0Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia friendly22,000
October 9, 2015Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 1–3Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti

Women's matches

DateTeam #1ResultTeam #2CompetitionAttendance
December 12, 2012Flag of the United States.svg  United States 4–0Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China PR friendly15,643
February 11, 2016Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 1–2Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago CONCACAF Women's Olympic Qualifying 836
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 5–0Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana
February 14, 2016Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 2–1Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 1,453
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 0–6Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
February 16, 2016Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 5–1Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 859
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10–0Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
February 19, 2016Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 3–1Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 5,516
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 5–0Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 5,561
February 21, 2016Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 0–2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10,119

Rugby union

DateTeam #1ResultTeam #2CompetitionAttendance
June 23, 2012Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10–30Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Italy tour of the Americas 17,214
June 8, 2013Flag of the United States.svg  United States 12–15IRFU flag.svg  Ireland Ireland tour of the Americas 20,181
June 7, 2014Flag of the United States.svg  United States 6–24Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland Scotland tour of the Americas 20,001
February 6, 2016Flag of the United States.svg  United States 35–35 Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina XV 2016 Americas Rugby Championship 10,241

See also

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  8. 1 2 "Welcome to EaDo". East Downtown Management District. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  9. 1 2 Barr, Greg (June 19, 2009). "Dynamo Stadium Deal Gets Closer to Goal". Houston Business Journal . Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  10. Shay, Miya (January 26, 2010). "Dynamo looking at stadium site near Galleria" . Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  11. Auilar, Charlotte (January 28, 2010). "Bellaire mayor challenges Dynamo stadium plan". Memorial Examiner. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
  12. Aguilar, Charlotte (January 28, 2010). "Who knew? Dynamo private stadium deal was privileged info". West University Examiner. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  13. "County approves Dynamo stadium deal".
  14. "Dynamo Choose Stadium Architect, Project Manager".
  15. De Jesus Ortiz, Jose (February 5, 2011). "Dynamo Break Ground on New East End Stadium". Houston Chronicle . Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  16. Simon, Jason (August 6, 2014). "Soccer, a win, and Gaelic Football…". What's the Score. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  17. Simon, Jason (August 6, 2014). "Soccer, a win, and Gaelic Football…". What's the Score. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  18. Populous selected to design Dynamo stadium
  19. Populous Designs Stadium for Houston Dynamo Archived 2014-02-01 at the Wayback Machine
  20. Giase, Frank (February 26, 2007). "Red Bulls: MacDonald Strives to Fulfill a Town's Tradition". The Star-Ledger . Newark, New Jersey. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
  21. "Stadium Facts". Rio Tinto Stadium. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  22. PPL Park
  23. Stadium Partners BBVA Compass Stadium official website. Retrieved 27 July 2016
Preceded by
Sporting Park
Host of the College Cup
Succeeded by
PPL Park