|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||USSR|
|Used by|| USSR |
|Mass||18,145 kg (40,003 lb)|
|Length||9.8 m (32 ft 2 in)|
|Width||2.7 m (8 ft 10 in)|
|Height||3.5 m (11 ft 6 in)|
|Shell||Length: 5.8 m (19 ft 0 in)|
Weight: 455 kg (1,003 lb)
|Caliber||250 mm (9.8 in)|
|Elevation||0° - 55°|
|Effective firing range||30 km (19 mi)|
|Maximum firing range||55 km (34 mi)|
|Engine|| YaMZ-206B 6-cylinder|
205 HP diesel
|Suspension||KrAZ-214 6x6 truck chassis|
|530 km (330 mi)|
|Maximum speed||55 km/h (34 mph)|
The BM-25 Korshun (Kite) as its Russian (GRAU designation 2k5) name was a multiple rocket launcher designed in the Soviet Union. It was capable of launching ZR7 250 mm rockets from six launch tubes. The support vehicle is a YAZ-214.
The system was developed in scientific research institute NII-88 in 1953. Its rockets were propelled by a mix of kerosene and nitric acid. It has a range of 55km but was inaccurate.
Due to severe inaccuracy of the rocket, only a small quantity had been produced in USSR from 1957 to 1960. It was exported to South Yemen, which used them against North Yemen.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BM-25 .|
The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive, easy to produce, and usable on any chassis. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union, were usually mounted on ordinary trucks. This mobility gave the Katyusha, and other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire.
A rocket launcher is a device that launches an unguided, rocket-propelled projectile, although the term is often used in reference to mechanisms that are portable and capable of firing actual rockets.
A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system that contains multiple launchers which assembled onto a same platform, and shoots its rocket ordnance in a fashion similar to a volley gun. Rockets are self-propelled in flight and have different capabilities than conventional artillery shells, such as longer effective range, lower recoil, typically considerably higher payload than a similarly sized gun artillery platform, or even carrying multiple warheads.
"Katyusha", also transliterated as "Katûša", "Katusha", "Katjuscha", "Katiusha" or "Katjusha", is a Soviet folk-based song and military march. It was composed by Matvey Blanter in 1938, and gained fame during World War II as a patriotic song, inspiring the population to serve and defend their land in the war effort. In Russia, the song was still popular as of 1995. The song is the source of the nickname of the BM-8, BM-13, and BM-31 "Katyusha" rocket launchers that were used by the Red Army in World War II.
The BM-27 Uragan is a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union. It began its service with the Soviet Army in the late 1970s, and was its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher.
The BM-21 "Grad" is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher. The weapons system and the M-21OF rocket were first developed in the early 1960s, and saw their first combat use in March 1969 during the Sino-Soviet border conflict. BM stands for boyevaya mashina, and the nickname grad means "hail". The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle and the M-21OF rocket is designated as the M-21 field-rocket system. The complete system is more commonly known as a Grad multiple rocket launcher system. In NATO countries the system was initially known as M1964. Several other countries have copied the Grad or have developed similar systems.
RS-82 and RS-132 were unguided rockets used by Soviet military aircraft in World War II.
Rocket artillery is artillery that uses rockets as the projectile. The use of rocket artillery dates back to medieval China where devices such as fire arrows were used. Fire arrows were also used in multiple launch systems and transported via carts. By the late nineteenth century, due to improvements in the power and range of conventional artillery, the use of early military rockets declined; they were finally used on a small scale by both sides during the American Civil War. Modern rocket artillery was first employed during World War II, in the form of the German Nebelwerfer family of rocket ordnance designs, Soviet Katyusha-series and numerous other systems employed on a smaller scale by the Western allies and Japan. In modern use, the rockets are often guided by an internal guiding system or GPS in order to maintain accuracy.
The BM-14, is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), normally mounted on a truck.
The BM-30 Smerch, 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL 280mm M1983. It continued in use by Russia; a program to replace it by the 9A52-4 Tornado was launched in 2018.
The Quds-3 is a rocket based on the Russian Grad and BM21 Katyusha. The new rocket, test-fired against Ashkelon on March 28, 2006, weighs 66 kilograms and carries 17 kilograms of explosives. It was developed in the Gaza Strip, allegedly with the aid of the Palestinian Authority funding and Iranian operatives. In April 2006, DebkaFile reported Palestinian militants were manufacturing the Quds-3 along with a multiple-rocket launcher system.
The Rocket Launcher T34 (Calliope) was a tank-mounted multiple rocket launcher used by the United States Army during World War II. The launcher was placed atop the M4 Sherman, with its prominent vertical side frames anchored to the turret's sides, and fired a barrage of 4.5 in (114 mm) M8 rockets from 60 launch tubes. It was developed in 1943; small numbers were produced and were used by various US armor units in 1944–45. It adopts its name from the musical instrument "Calliope", also known as the steam organ, which had similar parallel or clustered pipes.
The BM-24 is a multiple rocket launcher designed in the Soviet Union. It is capable of launching 240mm rockets from 12 launch tubes. Versions of the BM-24 have been mounted on the ZIL-151 6×6 Truck chassis and the AT-S tracked artillery tractor, forming the BM-24T from the latter. Production began out of Automotive Factory no. 2 in 1947 Moscow. Israel operated one battalion, consisting of vehicles captured from Egypt in the Six-Day War. The battalion took part in the Yom Kippur War and the 1982 Lebanon War.
Katusha or Katyusha is a diminutive of the Russian name Ekaterina or Yekaterina, the Russian form of Katherine or Catherine.
The 9A52-4 Tornado is Russia's newest universal multiple rocket launcher. It was designed as a lightweight and universal version of the BM-30 Smerch, dubbed 9A52-2. It was first unveiled in 2007 as a more strategically and tactically mobile launcher, albeit at the expense of a slight reduction in firepower. This model is aimed at replacing the previous generation of Russian multiple rocket launchers, including BM-21 Grad, BM-27 Uragan and BM-30 Smerch. Currently the sole operator is Russian Ground Forces. A version will be approved for export.
In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles, essentially a form of rocket artillery. Such a vehicle may transport one or multiple missiles. The missile vehicle may be a self-propelled unit or the missile holder/launcher may be on a trailer towed by a prime mover. They are used in the military forces of a number of countries in the world. Long missiles are commonly transported parallel to the ground on these vehicles, but elevated into an inclined or vertical position for launching. Missile vehicles include transporter erector launchers (TEL) and multiple rocket launchers (MRL) such as the Patriot missile system. Single or dual missile vehicles often transport their missiles uncovered. The missile batteries of multiple rocket launchers often hold their missiles inside tubular or rectangular canisters for each missile, from which the missiles or rockets can be launched. Many missile trucks use pneumatic (air-filled) tires, although they may be large and specialized for offroad travel. However, some missile vehicles use tractor crawler drive similar to that of a tank.
The Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher, also called Jahanam Launcher, is an Emirati made multiple rocket launcher unique to the United Arab Emirates Army. It has 240 tubes making it the world's largest rocket artillery by tube count. It is thought to function as a combined form of BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher. It is developed by a joint venture between Al Jaber Land System and ROKETSAN.
The 8 cm Raketen-Vielfachwerfer was a multiple rocket launcher produced in Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
The Polonez Multiple Launch Rocket System is a Belarusian 300 mm rocket artillery system of a launcher unit comprising 8 rockets packaged in two four-rocket pods mounted on a MZKT-7930 vehicle. In 2018, it was exported to Azerbaijan. MLRS was designed by the Belarusian Plant of Precision Electromechanics in cooperation with a foreign country, probably China. The first combat missile launches were carried out in China. The Belarussian army is equipped with it. The upgraded Polonez-M has passed all trials and has been accepted into service by the Belarusian army as of May 2019. Its supplies have already begun. Upgraded Polonez has an increased range of 300 km and a higher share of domestic Belarusian components. It can fire a 480 kg warhead tactical missile.