|BM-27 Uragan (9P140)|
|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1975 – present|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars|| Soviet–Afghan War |
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
War in Donbass
Iran-Israel proxy conflict
Syrian Civil War
|Designer||Splav State Research and Production Enterprise|
|Manufacturer||Splav State Research and Production Enterprise|
|Produced||1975 – present|
|Mass||20 tonnes (44,092 lbs)|
|Calibre||220 mm (8.66 in)|
|Effective firing range||35 km (22 mi)|
|Sights||PG-1 panoramic telescope|
|Engine||Two engines, with separate gearboxes and propeller shafts, that are longitudinally mounted, one on each side of vehicle immediately behind cab|
|500 km (311 mi)|
The BM-27 Uragan (Russian : Ураган, lit. 'Hurricane'; GRAU index 9P140) is a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union. It began its service with the Soviet Army in the late 1970s, and was its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher.
The BM-27 Uragan is capable of launching 220 mm rockets from 16 launch tubes mounted on the rear of a ZIL-135 8x8 chassis. This vehicle is extremely similar to that used in the FROG-7 free flight rocket system. It has two gasoline engines that power its 20 tonnes to a maximum speed of 65 kilometers per hour. One engine drives the four wheels on the left of the truck, while the other engine drives the four wheels on the right. The ZIL-135 has eight wheel drive, but only the front and rear axles are used for steering. It has a maximum cruising range of 500 kilometers.
The cab of the ZIL-135 is NBC protected, allowing the rockets to be fired without exposing the crew to possible contaminants.The six-man crew can emplace or displace the system in three minutes.
Before firing, stabilizing jacks must be lowered and the blast shield raised to protect the cab and its occupants. Indirect fire aiming is achieved with the use of a PG-1 panoramic telescope. Although there are no night vision sights, the driver of the launch vehicle is equipped with a night vision device.
The BM-27 can use HE-FRAG, chemical, explosive or scatterable mine (PTM-3 or PFM-1) submunition equipped rockets, all of which are detonated by electric timing fuses. Each rocket weighs 280.4 kilograms. The warheads weigh between 90 and 100 kilograms, depending on type. A full salvo of 16 rockets can be fired in 20 seconds and can engage targets within a range of 35 kilometers.
Because of the size of the warhead, the range of the rocket and the speed that a salvo can be delivered, the BM-27 is very effective at mine laying. Each 220 mm rocket can scatter 312 anti-personnel PFM-1 mines. Minefields can be laid behind a retreating enemy or even be used to trap an enemy by encircling them with mines. Tactics such as this were often used by the Soviets in Afghanistan.
Once the rockets have been fired, 9T452 (another ZIL-135 based vehicle) is used to assist in reloading. It carries additional rockets and a crane to transfer the rockets from the reload vehicle to the launcher.The entire reloading procedure takes around 20 minutes.
|Length||4.832 m (15.85 ft)||5.2 m (17 ft)||5.178 m (16.99 ft)|
|Weight||280 kg (620 lb)|
|Warhead||100 kg (220 lb) unitary HE-Frag (51.7 kg (114 lb) of HE)||90 kg (200 lb) container for 30 N9N210 anti-material bomblets||89.5 kg (197 lb) container for 24 PGMDM/PTM-1 anti-tank mines||90 kg container for 312 PFM-1 anti-personnel mines||89.5 kg container for 9 PTM-3 directional charge bottom attack anti-tank mines|
|Range||8–34 km (5.0–21.1 mi)||10-35 km|
The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are cheap, easy to produce, and usable on any chassis. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union, were usually mounted on ordinary trucks. This mobility gave the Katyusha, and other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire.
A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system that contains multiple launchers which assembled onto a same platform, and shoots its rocket ordnance in a fashion similar to a volley gun. Rockets are self-propelled in flight and have different capabilities than conventional artillery shells, such as longer effective range, lower recoil, typically considerably higher payload than a similarly sized gun artillery platform, or even carrying multiple warheads.
The M-87 Orkan is a Yugoslavia fully automated self-propelled multiple rocket launcher. The generic M-87 project was configured with 12 launch tubes mounted on a FAP 2832 truck. It has a range of about 50 to 120 km, with the ability to deliver warheads, anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. The production of Orkan M-87 ceased in the early 1990s due to break-up of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Buk missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
The BM-21 "Grad" is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher. The weapons system and the M-21OF rocket were first developed in the early 1960s, and saw their first combat use in March 1969 during the Sino-Soviet border conflict. BM stands for boyevaya mashina, and the nickname grad means "hail". The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle and the M-21OF rocket is designated as the M-21 field-rocket system. The complete system is more commonly known as a Grad multiple rocket launcher system. In NATO countries the system was initially known as M1964. Several other countries have copied the Grad or have developed similar systems.
The RM-70 multiple rocket launcher is a Czechoslovak army version and heavier variant of the BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher, providing enhanced performance over its parent area-saturation rocket artillery system that was introduced in 1971.
The BM-14, is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), normally mounted on a truck.
The BM-30 Smerch, 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL 280mm M1983. It continued in use by Russia; a program to replace it by the 9A52-4 Tornado was launched in 2018.
The ZIL-135 is a large, eight-wheeled military transport and self-propelled artillery truck produced in the Cold War by the Soviet Union starting in 1959. Its purpose was to carry and launch an artillery missile, specifically a FROG-7, from surface-to-surface. The ZIL-135 was widely exported to other communist countries, most notably North Korea, where it is a common sight in films and military marches. It also served as the TEL for the BM-27 Uragan artillery rocket system.
The MAZ-543/MAZ-7310 "Uragan" is a Soviet/Belarusian 8×8 artillery truck designed and developed by MAZ, in what is now Belarus.
The A-100 is a 300 mm, 10-tube multiple rocket launcher developed by Beijing-based China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology for the Chinese PLA ground forces. It is a derivative of Weishi Rockets WS-1 with simple cascade terminal inertial guidance.
The BM-24 is a multiple rocket launcher designed in the Soviet Union. It is capable of launching 240mm rockets from 12 launch tubes. Versions of the BM-24 have been mounted on the ZIL-151 6×6 Truck chassis and the AT-S tracked artillery tractor, forming the BM-24T from the latter. Production began out of Automotive Factory no. 2 in 1947 Moscow. Israel operated one battalion, consisting of vehicles captured from Egypt in the Six-Day War. The battalion took part in the Yom Kippur War and the 1982 Lebanon War.
The Type 63 multiple rocket launcher is a towed, 12-tube, 107mm rocket launcher produced by the People's Republic of China in the early 1960s and later exported and manufactured globally. Although no longer serving with active infantry units, the Type 63 is still in People's Liberation Army service with specialized formations such as mountain infantry units and special forces detachments. The Type 63 was widely used in the PLA until the late 1980s. It was adopted as the successor of the Type 50-5 of 102mm.
The 9A52-4 Tornado is Russia's newest universal multiple rocket launcher. It was designed as a lightweight and universal version of the BM-30 Smerch, dubbed 9A52-2. It was first unveiled in 2007 as a more strategically and tactically mobile launcher, albeit at the expense of a slight reduction in firepower. This model is aimed at replacing the previous generation of Russian multiple rocket launchers, including BM-21 Grad, BM-27 Uragan and BM-30 Smerch. Currently the sole operator is Russian Ground Forces. A version will be approved for export.
In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles, essentially a form of rocket artillery. Such a vehicle may transport one or multiple missiles. The missile vehicle may be a self-propelled unit or the missile holder/launcher may be on a trailer towed by a prime mover. They are used in the military forces of a number of countries in the world. Long missiles are commonly transported parallel to the ground on these vehicles, but elevated into an inclined or vertical position for launching. Missile vehicles include transporter erector launchers (TEL) and multiple rocket launchers (MRL) such as the Patriot missile system. Single or dual missile vehicles often transport their missiles uncovered. The missile batteries of multiple rocket launchers often hold their missiles inside tubular or rectangular canisters for each missile, from which the missiles or rockets can be launched. Many missile trucks use pneumatic (air-filled) tires, although they may be large and specialized for offroad travel. However, some missile vehicles use tractor crawler drive similar to that of a tank.
The Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher, also called Jahanam Launcher, is an Emirati made multiple rocket launcher unique to the United Arab Emirates Army. It has 240 tubes making it the world's largest rocket artillery by tube count. It is thought to function as a combined form of BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher. It is developed by a joint venture Al Jaber Land Systems.
The KN-09 (K-SS-X-9) is a North Korean 300 mm rocket artillery system of a launcher unit comprising 8 rockets packaged in two four-rocket pods.
The Polonez is a Belarusian 300 mm rocket artillery system of a launcher unit comprising 8 rockets packaged in two four-rocket pods mounted on a MZKT-7930 vehicle. In 2018, it was exported to Azerbaijan. The system was designed by the Belarusian Plant of Precision Electromechanics in cooperation with a foreign country, probably China. The first combat missile launches were carried out in China. The 77th Separate Rocket Artillery Battalion of the 336th Rocket Artillery Brigade of the Belarusian Ground Forces is equipped with it. An upgraded version called Polonez-M passed all trials and has been accepted into service by the Belarusian Ground Forces as of May 2019. Polonez-M has an increased range of 290 km, a higher share of domestic components and can fire the improved A-300 missile.
The BMD-20 was a 200 mm multiple rocket launcher (MRL) created by the Soviet Union.
The PHL-11 is a truck-mounted self-propelled 122 mm multiple rocket launcher (SPMRL) produced by Norinco for the People's Liberation Army Ground Force. It is a modernised replacement for the older PHL-81.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BM-27 Uragan .|