|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union, Russia|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars|| Second Chechen War |
War in Donbas
Syrian Civil War
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
|Designer||Splav State Research and Production Enterprise|
|Manufacturer||Splav State Research and Production Enterprise|
|Length||12 m (39 ft 4 in)|
|Width||3.05 m (10 ft)|
|Height||3.05 m (10 ft)|
|Caliber||300 mm (12 in)|
|Maximum firing range||90 km (56 mi)|
|9M55 or 9M528 rockets|
|Engine||D12A-525A V12 diesel engine |
525 hp (391 kW)
|850 km (530 mi)|
|Maximum speed||60 km/h (37 mph)|
The BM-30 Smerch (Russian:Смерч, "tornado", "whirlwind"), 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL 280mm M1983. It continued in use by Russia; a program to replace it by the 9A52-4 Tornado was launched in 2018.
The first confirmed combat uses of the Smerch were in two war zones in 2014. Syrian military forces used the system against rebel forces during the Syrian civil war, including in fighting in Jobar.It was also used by Russia-backed militants to deliver explosive and cluster munitions to Ukrainian military positions and by the Ukrainian Army against populated areas of Donetsk and Luhansk regions in the War in Donbas. Several have been seen in use by pro-Russian rebels. The Russian Ground Forces used the BM-30 in Syria in October 2015 during the Russian intervention in Syria.
During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Armenia and Azerbaijan both targeted the other country's territory with Smerch rockets.A number of Armenian Smerch rocket launchers were destroyed by Azerbaijani Harop loitering munitions and Bayraktar TB2 armed drones.
The main components of the RSZO 9K58 "Smerch" system are the following:
The 300mm rockets with a firing range of 70 and 90 km and various warheads have been developed for the Smerch MLRS.
The 9A52-2 vehicle with the automated system ensures:
|9M55K||Cluster munition, anti-personnel||800 kg||7.6 m||243 kg||72 × 1.75 kg, each with 96 fragments (4.5 g each)||110 sec||20 km||70 km|
|9M55K1||Cluster munition, self-guided anti-tank||243 kg||5 × 15 kg|
|9M55K4||Cluster munition, AT minelets.||243 kg||25 × 5 kg mines||24 hour|
|9M55K5||HEAT/HE-Fragmentation.||243 kg||646 × 0.25 kg (up to 120 mm RHA armor-piercing)||260 sec|
|9M55F||separable HE-Fragmentation||258 kg|
|9M528||HE-Fragmentation||815 kg||243 kg||25 km||90 km|
The M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) is a light multiple rocket launcher developed in the late 1990s for the United States Army, mounted on a standard Army M1140 truck frame.
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In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles, essentially a form of rocket artillery. Such a vehicle may transport one or multiple missiles. The missile vehicle may be a self-propelled unit or the missile holder/launcher may be on a trailer towed by a prime mover. They are used in the military forces of a number of countries in the world. Long missiles are commonly transported parallel to the ground on these vehicles, but elevated into an inclined or vertical position for launching. Missile vehicles include transporter erector launchers (TEL) and multiple rocket launchers (MRL) such as the Patriot missile system. Single or dual missile vehicles often transport their missiles uncovered. The missile batteries of multiple rocket launchers often hold their missiles inside tubular or rectangular canisters for each missile, from which the missiles or rockets can be launched. Many missile trucks use pneumatic (air-filled) tires, although they may be large and specialized for offroad travel. However, some missile vehicles use tractor crawler drive similar to that of a tank.
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| 300mm Smerch Multiple Rocket Launcher:|
0:48 - Cluster - fragmentation
1:30 - Separable HE-Frag warhead
2:00 - Cluster - self-guided EFP (AT) elements
3:00 - Cluster - anti-tank mines
3:30 - Cluster - shaped charge/frag elements
3:50 - Unmanned aerial vehicle
5:20 - Thermobaric warhead
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