BMP-3

Last updated
BMP-3
Army2016demo-011.jpg
BMP-3
Type Infantry fighting vehicle
Place of origin Soviet Union
Russia
Service history
In service1987–present
Used bySee Operators
Wars First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Production history
Designed1975–1987
Manufacturer Kurganmashzavod
No. built2,000+
Specifications
Mass18.7 tonnes (18.4 long tons; 20.6 short tons)
Length7.14 m (23 ft 5 in)
Width3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)
Height2.4 m (7 ft 10 in)
Crew3 (commander, gunner, driver)
7 troopers (+ 2 additional seats)

Armor Aluminium alloy and steel, 35mm frontally
Main
armament
  • 2K23/Bakhcha-U/Berezhok turret with 100 mm 2A70 cannon
  • 30 mm 2A72 autocannon
  • AGS-30 grenade launcher and Kornet-EM (Berezhok turret only) [1]
  • AU-220M Baikal remote weapon station turret with 57 mm BM-57 autocannon [2]
Secondary
armament
3 × 7.62 mm PKT machine guns
EngineUTD-29M diesel
500 hp (375 kW)
Power/weight27 hp/tonne
Suspensiontorsion bar
Operational
range
600 km (370 mi)
Maximum speed 72 km/h (45 mph) (road)
45 km/h (28 mph) (off-road)
10 km/h (6.2 mph) (water)

The BMP-3 is a Soviet and Russian infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2. The abbreviation BMP stands for Boevaya Mashina Pekhoty (Боевая Машина Пехоты, literally "infantry combat vehicle"). [3] [4] [5]

Contents

Production history

The design of the BMP-3 ( Obyekt 688M) can be traced back to the Obyekt 685 light tank prototype with an 2A48-1 100 mm gun from 1975. [6] The prototype did not enter series production, but the chassis, with a new engine, was used for the next-generation infantry combat vehicle Obyekt 688 [7] from A. Blagonravov's design bureau. The Ob. 688's original weapon configuration consisting of an externally mounted Shipunov 2A42 30 mm autocannon, a 7.62mm PKT machine gun and twin 9M113 Konkurs ATGM launcher was rejected; instead, the new 2K23 armament system was selected. The resulting BMP-3 was developed in the early 1980s and entered service with the Soviet Army officially in 1987. It was shown for the first time in public during the 1990 Victory Day parade and was given the NATO code IFV M1990/1.[ citation needed ]

The BMP-3 is designed and produced by the Kurganmashzavod ("Kurgan Machine Building Plant") some variants however are built by the Rubtsovsk Machine Building Plant (RMZ), for example the BRM-3K. [8]

In May 2015, the Russian Defense Ministry signed a three-year contract to receive "hundreds" of BMP-3 vehicles to maintain its armored vehicle force until its replacement, the Kurganets-25, completes research and development. In the process of the BMP's serial production, the vehicle's design underwent 1,500 amendments. [9] The contract was fully executed in 2017. [10] [11] 200 more received in 2018-2019 and 168 more in production to be delivered in 2020–2021 with additional protection. [12] [13]

In the Army-2017 show, the Russian Defence Ministry signed a contract covering the first deliveries of an unspecified number of BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) fitted with the Bumerang-BM turret, also known as the B-19 variant. [14] The BMP-3 B-19 took part in the large-scale Russian-Belarusian exercise Zapad in September 2021. [15]

In 2022, Russia started to promote to the international market a BMP-3 with a remotely controlled combat module. [16] The batches of vehicles delivered to the Russian troops since 2023 are equipped with the Sodema main sight and extra protection as well as the ability to install ERA. [17] [18] [19]

Kurganmashzavod reported in May 2023 that during the first quarter of the year it supplied the same amount of vehicles it did in the whole of 2019. [20] In July 2023, Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu stated that the supplies and repair of BMP-3 by Kurganmashzavod had surged 2.1 times since early 2022. [21] Kurganmashzavod reported in early September 2023 that the supply of BMP-3 increased by 3 times at comparison with peacetime. [22]

Design

Weaponry and optics

The BMP-3 is one of the most heavily armed infantry combat vehicles in service. The original version has a turret fitted with a low-velocity 2A70 100 mm rifled gun which can fire conventional shells or 9M117 Bastion Anti Tank Guided Missiles (AT-10 Stabber). It carries 40 100 mm rounds and 8 ATGMs. A 2A72 30 mm dual feed autocannon with 500 (300 HEI and 200 AP-T) rounds and a rate of fire of 350 to 400 rounds per minute and a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun with 2,000 rounds are mounted coaxially in the turret. The main gun elevates from −5° to +60°. [23] There are also two 7.62 mm PKT bow machine guns, again with 2,000 rounds each. The BMP-3 is capable of engaging targets out to 5,000–6,000 metres with its ATGM weapon system 9K116-3 "Basnya". With conventional ammunition, such as the HE-Frag shell 3OF32, the 2A70 gun has a range of 4,000 metres.

A BMP-3 of the UAE with a "Namut" thermal sight US Navy 030223-N-1050K-001 UAE offloads a BMP3 Tank at a Kuwaiti port facility from its Elbahia L62 landing craft.jpg
A BMP-3 of the UAE with a "Namut" thermal sight

According to the manufacturer's website, all weapons can be fired while still, on the move, and afloat with the same effectiveness. The ability to hit targets on the move with missiles was successfully demonstrated during competitive evaluations in the UAE in 1991. [24]

External videos
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Autoloader animation on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg ATGM loading on YouTube

The turret is fitted with the 2K23 system, which consists of an autoloader with 22 rounds (the remaining 18 rounds are stored in the hull), a 1V539 ballistic computer, a crosswind sensor, a 2E52-2 stabilising system, a 1D16-3 laser rangefinder, a 1K13-2 gunner's sight/guidance device, a PPB-1 gunner's sight and an OU-5-1 IR searchlight. Optional autoloader for ATGM missiles is also available. The commander has a combined optical sight 1PZ-10, a day/night vision device TKN-3MB and an IR searchlight OU-3GA2. [6]

Rear view of a BMP-3, showing how troops are expected to exit the vehicle BMP-3 (6).jpg
Rear view of a BMP-3, showing how troops are expected to exit the vehicle

Since 2005, the BMP-3 can be fitted with a new fire control system from the "Peleng" Joint Stock Company from Belarus. This consists of a SOZH-M gunner's main sight with an integrated laser rangefinder and missile guidance channel, a Vesna-K targeting system with thermal imaging camera and automatic target tracker AST-B, an armament stabilisation system, a ballistic computer with data input sensors and a PL-1 IR laser projector. [25] [26] [27] Since 2017, the BMP-3 is fitted with a new fire control system from the "Vologda Optical-Mechanical Plant" from Russia. This consists of a Sodema two-plane stabilized gunner's main sight with an integrated laser rangefinder and missile guidance channel plus a SOZH-M thermal imaging camera. [28]

Standard equipment includes five firing ports with associated vision blocks, an R-173 transceiver, an R-173P receiver, a GO-27 radiation and chemical agent detector, an FVU filtration system, an automatic fire extinguisher and six 902V "Tucha-2" 81 mm smoke grenade launchers.

BMP-3M is equipped with Bakhcha-U turret, which has similar weapons to the original BMP-3 turret but with a new dual-channel FLIR gunner's sight, commander's panoramic thermal imaging device, vertical-storage conveyor, new autoloader, and a new sighting system. It also has a stronger armor on the turret, and two-axis stabilisation. [4]

The turret of the BMP-3 has been fitted to the Patria Armoured Modular Vehicle and on the Turkish-UAE RABDAN 8x8 IFV. [29] [30] [31]

In August 2017, a BMP-3M was presented with a new ATGM remote weapon station fitted on the standard turret carrying two 9M120 Ataka (AT-9 Spiral-2) missiles. [32]

In June 2018, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that BMP-3s would be fitted with the AU-220M combat module equipped with a 57 mm cannon. The module can carry 80 rounds and fire 80 rounds per minute including air burst, high-explosive, fragmentation, armor-piercing and guided munitions with a maximum range of 14.5 km (9.0 mi), and can even punch through side armor of main battle tanks. [33] [34] [35]

Mobility

The vehicle has an unconventional layout. The engine is in the back of the vehicle to the right (unlike most other IFVs, which have the engine located forward in the hull). As a result, the driver is seated forward in the hull (in the center) together with two infantrymen (one on each side of the driver). The vehicle has a double bottom, and the engine is located under the floor of the vehicle (troops enter/leave the vehicle over the engine). [36] The remaining five infantrymen are seated aft of the two-man turret. [6]

Early models were powered by a 450 hp engine UTD-29, but most BMP-3s are now equipped with the 500 hp UTD-29M version. The engine was developed at the Transmash Diesel Engine Plant in Barnaul. [6] The BMP-3 has a range of 600 km, an altitude of operation of up to 3,000 m and it is transportable by train, truck, sea, and air. The BMP-3 engine is a diesel four-stroke, liquid-cooled design. The transmission is a four-speed hydromechanical power unit, with power takeoff to its water jets. The suspension is independent, with a torsion bar and six hydraulic shock absorbers. Steering is by gear differential with hydrostatic drive. The track adjusting mechanism is remotely controlled from the driver's station, with tension force indication. The water-jet propulsion unit is single-stage, axial, auger-type. [37]

Countermeasures

The hull and turret are made of a high-strength aluminum alloy, with the front of the hull being provided with an extra steel plate welded over it plus spaced armor from the trim vane. The turret is also provided with a thick steel spaced armour shield over its frontal arc. Over the frontal arc, the vehicle is protected against 30 mm gun rounds at a range of 200 m. [38] In addition to "hard" protection, the BMP-3's self-sealing fuel tank is located in front of the driver, directly behind the front armour plating. It is specially constructed to act as armour, effective against shaped charge warheads as well as any autocannon shells that managed to go through the front armour.

The BMP-3 can create a smoke screen by injecting fuel into the exhaust manifolds. [39] [40] A chemical agent detector, an FVU filtration system, an automatic fire extinguisher and six 902V "Tucha-2" 81 mm smoke grenade launchers are standard.

At least two distinct sets of explosive reactive armour kit are currently available, giving the BMP-3 protection from less advanced rocket propelled grenades. One of them is the Kaktus ERA kit, which has a unique design that creates minimal acoustic and kinetic backlash to the armour behind it upon detonation, thus ensuring that the occupants will not be harmed by shockwaves from the ERA block. The ERA blocks will completely disintegrate after detonation. According to Kurganmashzavod, the BMP-3 may also be fitted with additional side armor tiles, which can resist .50 caliber armour-piercing ammunition perpendicularly at close ranges. They give the BMP-3 added side protection from autocannon fire as well. BMP-3s serial production with ERA started as of November 2022. [41]

The BMP-3 also has the ability to carry a Shtora-1 electro-optical jammer that disrupts semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora is a soft-kill, or passive-countermeasure system.

The standard weight of the vehicle is 18.7 tonnes. If additional armour overlay (metal sheet of armour and Kaktus ERA) is installed, the weight will reach to 22.2 tonnes. The body covered from the sides and the top. In such kit, it is protected against 12.7 mm machine gun rounds in the range of 100–200 m. [38] Rostec reported in September 2023 that the production of additional protection kits for the BMP-3 increased 30 times at comparison with 2022. [42]

Operational history

First Chechen War

The BMP-3 saw action with the Russian forces during the First Chechen War. [43]

Kosovo

In 2000, the United Arab Emirates deployed some BMP-3s in peacekeeping operations during the Kosovo War. [44]

Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen

The BMP-3 also saw military use with Emirati forces during the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, where it is currently deployed. [45]

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

An abandoned Russian BMP-3 during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine Destruction of Russian tanks by Ukrainian troops in Mariupol (4).jpg
An abandoned Russian BMP-3 during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

The BMP-3 has been used during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine by Russian forces. An unknown number have been put into service by the Armed Forces of Ukraine after being captured. [46] Ukrainian anti-tank missiles and attack drones have been able to overcome protection systems on the BMP-3 such as reactive and slat armor, so by 2024 they were increasingly being used for indirect fire support. [47]

Variants

Russian Federation

A BMP-3 fitted with the BMP-2 Berezhok turret BMP-3 with B05Ya01 Berezhok 05.jpg
A BMP-3 fitted with the BMP-2 Berezhok turret
BMP-3 fitted with the Bumerang-BM turret Army-2020-178.JPG
BMP-3 fitted with the Bumerang-BM turret
BREM-L "Beglianka" of the Russian army BREM-L - TankBiathlon14part2-15.jpg
BREM-L "Beglianka" of the Russian army
9P157-2 "Khrizantema-S Khrizantema 1.jpg
9P157-2 "Khrizantema-S
2S38 BMP-3 Derivatsiya-PVO 2S38 BMP-3 PVO.jpg
2S38 BMP-3 Derivatsiya-PVO

Operators

Map with BMP-3 operators in blue BMP-3 Users.png
Map with BMP-3 operators in blue

Current operators

Failed bids

See also

Related Research Articles

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