Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction)

Last updated
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party

حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي
General Secretary Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri
FoundedFebruary 1968 (1968-02)
DissolvedMay 1, 2003 (2003-05-01)
(national leadership stopped functioning[ citation needed ], but regional chapters still active)
Split from Ba'ath Party (unitary)
Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq (until 2003)
Ideology Arab nationalism
ColorsBlack, red, white and green (Pan-Arab colors)
House of Representatives (Jordan)
1 / 130
Party flag
Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (spelled "Ba'th" or "Baath", "resurrection" or "renaissance"; Arabic : حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكيḤizb Al-Ba'aṯ Al-'Arabī Al-Ištirākī), also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, is a Ba'athist political party which was headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq until 2003. It is one of two parties (with identical names) which emerged from the 1966 split of the original Ba'ath Party.

Baathism Political panarabist and nationalist ideology.

Ba'athism is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government. The ideology is officially based on the theories of the Syrian intellectuals Michel Aflaq, Zaki al-Arsuzi and Salah al-Din al-Bitar.

A political party is an organized group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.

Baghdad Capital of Iraq

Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia.


In 1966, the original Ba'ath Party was split in half; one half was led by the Damascus leadership of the Ba'ath Party which established a party in Syria and the other half with its leadership in Baghdad. Both Ba'ath parties retained the same name and maintained parallel structures in the Arab world, but became so antagonistic that Syria—led by its Ba'ath Party—became the only Arab state to support Iran against Iraq during the bloody Iran–Iraq War. The Ba'athists seized power in Iraq for the first time in 1963, but were deposed several months later. The party's regional organisation governed Iraq between 1968 and 2003, for many years under the leadership of Saddam Hussein. The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region was banned in 2003 by the Coalition Provisional Authority following the invasion of Iraq.

Damascus City in Syria

Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city. It is colloquially known in Syria as ash-Sham and titled the City of Jasmine. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural center of the Levant and the Arab world. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009.

Baath Party (Syrian-dominated faction) Syrian-dominated faction of the Baath party.

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world. The party emerged from a split in the Ba'ath Party in February 1966 and leads the government in Syria. From 1970 until 2000, the party was led by the Syrian president Hafez al-Assad. As of 2000, leadership has been shared between his son Bashar al-Assad and Abdullah al-Ahmar. The Syrian branch of the party is the largest organisation within the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party.

Arab world geographic and cultural region

The Arab world, also known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League. These Arab states occupy North Africa and West Asia; an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age.



Michel Aflaq Syrian philosopher, sociologist and Arab nationalist

Michel Aflaq was a Syrian philosopher, sociologist and Arab nationalist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of Ba'athism and its political movement; he is considered by several Ba'athists to be the principal founder of Ba'athist thought. He published various books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Battle for One Destiny (1958) and The Struggle Against Distorting the Movement of Arab Revolution (1975).

Saddam Hussein Iraqi politician and President

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to power in Iraq.

Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri Iraqi politician

Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri is a former Iraqi politician and military commander. He served as Vice Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council until the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and was regarded as the closest advisor and deputy under former President Saddam Hussein. He leads the Iraqi insurgent Naqshbandi Army.

National Congress

Note: for the 1st–8th National Congresses, see the national congresses held by the unified, pre-February 1966 Ba'ath Party.


Following the 1966 Syrian coup d'état, which overthrew the Aflaqite faction led by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Munif al-Razzaz and others, the original Ba'ath Party split into Iraqi-dominated and a Syrian-dominated ba'ath movements. The two movements established separate National Commands; the National Command was in theory the highest party body in both movements and controlled their respective ba'athist movements. However, in both countries the National Command was under the control of its respective Regional Command. In the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath movement, all National Command members came from their regional branch—for instance, there was always a member representing the Ba'ath Party branch in Jordan. [1] In theory, the National Command was the highest party organ between national congresses, [2] with the power to control the affairs of Regional Commands in other regions (countries). [3]

The 1966 Syrian coup d'état refers to events between 21 and 23 February in which the government of the Syrian Arab Republic was overthrown and replaced. The ruling National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party were removed from power by a union of the party's Military Committee and the Regional Command, under the leadership of Salah Jadid.

Salah al-Din al-Bitar Syrian politician

Salah al-Din al-Bitar was a Syrian politician who co-founded the Arab Ba'ath Party with Michel Aflaq in the early 1940s. As students in Paris in the early 1930s, the two formulated a doctrine that combined aspects of nationalism and socialism. Bitar later served as prime minister in several early Ba'athist governments in Syria but became alienated from the party as it grew more radical. In 1966 he fled the country, lived mostly in Europe and remained politically active until he was assassinated in 1980.

Delegates to a National Congress elected the members of the National Command, who were eligible for reelection. While the National Command had few de facto powers, many of its leading members also held seats in the Iraqi Regional Command and the Revolutionary Command Council. [4] Aflaq was elected Secretary-General of the National Command at the Ninth National Congress, held in February 1968 in Beirut, Lebanon, by the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath Party. [5] He retained his post until his death in 1989, when he was succeeded by Saddam Hussein. [6] After Saddam was executed on 30 December 2006, Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri became de facto leader of the Ba'ath Party on 3 January 2007. As Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, he is the highest-ranked surviving member of the former Ba'ath party.

In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.

Arab Socialist Baath Party – Iraq Region Baathist regional organisation

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is an Iraqi Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi. It was the Iraqi regional branch of the original Ba'ath Party before changing its allegiance to the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath movement following the 1966 split within the original party. The party was officially banned following the American invasion of Iraq, but despite this it still continues to function.

The Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council was established after the military coup in 1968, and was the ultimate decision making body in Iraq before the 2003 American-led invasion. It exercised both executive and legislative authority in the country, with the Chairman and Vice Chairman chosen by a two-thirds majority of the council. The Chairman was also then declared the President of Iraq and he was then allowed to select a Vice President. After Saddam Hussein became President of Iraq in 1979 the council was led by deputy chairman Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri, deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz, and Taha Yassin Ramadan, who had known Saddam since the 1960s. The legislature was composed of the RCC, the National Assembly and a 50-member Kurdish Legislative Council which governed the country. During his presidency, Saddam Hussein was Chairman of the RCC and President of the Republic. Other members of the RCC included Salah Omar Al-Ali who held the position between 1968 and 1970, one of Saddam's half-brothers, Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, Taha Yasin Ramadan, Adnan Khairallah, Sa'adoun Shaker Mahmoud, Tariq Aziz Isa, Hasan Ali Nassar al-Namiri, Naim Hamid Haddad and Taha Mohieddin Maruf. It was officially dissolved on 23 May 2003 by Paul Bremer per Order Number 2 of the Coalition Provisional Authority.

Branches by region


The party branch in Algeria, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party of Algeria (Arabic : حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في الجزائرHizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-Jaza'ir; French: Parti Baath arabe socialiste d'Algérie), is led by Ahmed Choutri (secretary of the Regional Command). [7] The party is banned and Choutri was forced to flee to Iraq during the 1990s because of governmental repression against the Algerian Ba'ath movement. [7] The party sympathises with the Iraqi ba'athist insurgency and supports Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri, leader of the Iraqi branch. [7] Following his return to Algeria in 2003, Choutri wrote The Baathist Faith of President Saddam. [7]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.


The Nationalist Democratic Assembly (Arabic : التجمع القومي الديمقراطي, Al-Tajamu'u Al-Qawmi Al-Dimuqratiyah) represents the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath Party in Bahrain. [8] The group is led by Hassan Ali as Secretary General and Mahmoud Kassab as Deputy Secretary General. [9] It was established by Bahrainis who had studied in Ba'athist Iraq during the 1960s and 1970s. The party boycotted the 2002 parliamentary election, but not the 2006 election. [10] The 2011 parliamentary by-election was boycotted by the party in solidarity with the Bahraini uprising. [11] It is headquartered in Zinj. [12]

The party opposes the government's naturalisation policies and contends that it is unfair for ethnic Bahrainis to compete equally with foreign workers for jobs. [8] The Nationalist Democratic Assembly remains pro-Saddam Hussein [12] and according to its webpage supports the Arab Spring. [13] It opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, considering it an act of brutality against the Iraqi people. [14] The party actively supports the overthrow of the existing monarchy, with a peaceful transition to democracy. [15]


The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Egypt Region (Arabic : حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي- مصرHizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Misr) is an active branch in Egypt.

The party supports the removing of Bashar al-Assad of Syria, although calls for no foreign intervention in the conflict, whether by Israel, Turkey or Iran, as the party believes all such countries have ulterior motives and seek to undermine Syria. [16]

The party was outlawed in the early 1990s and two Iraqi Intelligence Officials were detained on 14 April 1991 with $38,000 in their possession, money which the Egyptian authorities claimed was to be used to fund sabotage operations in Egypt. [17] Several other Egyptian Ba'athists, including the poet Muhammad Afifi Matar, were also detained in April 1991 on suspicion of involvement in an Iraqi terrorist plot. [18]


Ba'athist organizations emerged in the leadership of the Eritrean Liberation Front in the 1970s, with pro-Baghdad and pro-Damascus groups competing for political dominance over the front. This split contributed to the downfall of the ELF and the emergence of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front as the dominant liberation movement. [19] A key pro-Iraqi Ba'athist was Abdel Gadir Jeilani, who became the leader of the ELF-PLF-Revolutionary Council in the 1980s. [20]


In Iraq, the Ba'ath party remained a civilian group and lacked strong support from the military. The party had little impact and the movement split into several factions after 1958 and again in 1966. The movement was reported to have lacked strong popular support, [21] but through the construction of a strong party apparatus the party succeeded in gaining power. The Iraqi-based party was originally committed to pan-Arabism (like its Syrian counterpart). After taking power in 1968, the party adopted Iraqi nationalism and encouraging Iraqis to identify themselves as cultural heirs of Mesopotamia with a medieval-Islamic identity. [22] Saddam Hussein sought to be seen as leader of a great, neo-Mesopotamian Iraqi nation by having himself compared to Nebuchadnezzar II and Hammurabi. [22]

In June 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) banned the Ba'ath party. The additional step the CPA took—banning all members of the top four tiers of the Ba'ath Party from the new government, public schools and colleges—was criticized for blocking too many experienced people from participation in the new government. Thousands were removed from their positions, including doctors, professors, schoolteachers and bureaucrats. Many teachers lost their jobs, sparking protests at schools and universities. Under previous Ba'ath-party rule, one could not reach a high position in the government or a school without becoming a party member and party membership was a prerequisite for university admission. While many Ba'athists joined for ideological reasons, many more were members because it was a way to better their options. Following pressure by the United States, the policy of de-Ba'athification was addressed by the Iraqi government in January 2008 with its controversial Accountability and Justice Act. This purported to ease the policy, but many feared it would lead to further dismissals. [23] The Ba'ath Party is led by Saddam's former deputy Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri.


At the time of the 1966 split, the Jordanian branch had an estimated 1,000 members. [24] It was active in the Arab Liberation Front (ALF) and the ALF's first leader was the Jordanian, Zaid Haydar. [25] Munif al-Razzaz, who joined the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath resistance in 1966, eventually became an ALF leader. [26] From there, he climbed the party ladder and became a member of the National Command before he was placed under house arrest by Iraqi authorities. [26] Shahir Abu Shahut became the first leader of the party branch in Jordan after the 1966 split. [26]

Since the establishment of the authoritarian political systems in Iraq and Syria, the popularity of the Ba'ath Party has largely diminished, but Ba'athist ideology remains popular. [27] The reason being that both Ba'ath parties (the pro-Iraqi and the pro-Syrian) have replaced ideology with blind allegiance to Saddamist discourse or the al-Assad rule. [27] A Jordanese academic, talking to the American embassy in Amman, Jordan, said that "there are far more real Ba'athists outside the party than inside", noting that the present party is downplaying (and even replacing) ideological components to get more followers. [27]

The party was able to gain some support in the 1990s because of its status as a Ba'ath Party branch and it was able to help finance thousands of scholarships to Iraqi universities. [27] However, with the 2003 invasion of Iraq the party was nearly forced into bankruptcy and lost most of its followers when it failed to finance the return of students from Iraq. [27]

The Ba'ath branch was denied legal registration in 1992. [28] The party was legally registered in 1993, but forced to change its name from the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party to the Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Arabic : حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي الاردنيHizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki Al-Urduniy). [29] Khalil Haddadeen, Jordan's former minister of information, was elected to Parliament during the 1993 and 1997 elections on a pro-Iraqi, Saddamist platform. [30] Currently, the Ba'ath branch has no members of parliament. [27]

In its first regional congress since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Regional Command alleged it would publicize an alleged letter from Saddam Hussien. [27] However, the Jordanian press largely ignored the event. [27] Today, in contrast to Ba'athist ideology both the pro-Iraq and pro-Syrian Ba'ath branches are considered largely irrelevant in the Jordanian political scene. [27] It is suffering from financial problems and it is criticized by religious Jordanians for its secularism, while others are weary of its Arab nationalist ideology. [27]

In a 1995 poll, 16.8 percent of Jordanians said they were aware that the Iraqi Ba'ath branch existed, making the Ba'ath branch the third-best-known political party in Jordan (surpassing the Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party, the Syrian Ba'athist branch, by over 10 percent in the poll). [31] In 2003 it was estimated that the party had less than 200 members. [32] According to a Cablegate document dating back to 2007, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party figure Ahmed Al Dmour was considered one of the biggest threats to Islamic Action Front dominance on the political scene. [33]


As of 1983 the branch was led by Faisal al-Sani. [34] The Kuwaiti Ba'ath Party branch collapsed during Gulf War because of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. [35] Saleh al-Mutlaq, the leader of the Iraqi National Dialogue Front, has been accused of trying to rebuild the party. [35]


It is presently known as the Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party (Arabic : حزب طليعة لبنان العربي الاشتراكي, Hizb Al-Taliyeh Lubnan Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki). It is the party branch in Lebanon. The branch held its second congress in October 2011. [36]

However, the existence of the pro-Iraqi Lebanese branch of the Ba'ath party has much longer roots. Following the 1966 split in the Ba'ath movement with party members split between Syrian and Iraqi allegiances, the Iraqi wing was led by Abd al-Majid Rafei. [37] [38] Other prominent members at the time of the split were Jihad George Karam, Rafiq Nasib Alfaqiya, Karam Mohamed Assahli, Hani Mohamed Shoiab, Ammar Mohamed Shabli, Hassan Khalil Gharib and Asaf Habin Alharakat. [39]

At first, the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath branch and the pro-Syrian Ba'ath branch worked side-by-side in the National Front, but with tension increasing between the Syrian and Iraqi Ba'athist factions the two parties were on a war footing. [40] The party was active in 1960s demonstrations [41] and al-Rafei was detained by Lebanese authorities for his political activities, [42] but he was a candidate from Tripoli in the 1968 general election. [43] The party expanded during the first half of the 1970s [44] and in the 1972 general election al-Rafi was elected to parliament from Tripoli. [45] Ali al-Khalil, a former member, was elected from Tyre. The party was active in Southern Lebanon and was built with generous aid from Iraq. [46] During the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese parliament formed the National Dialogue Committee in 1975. Assem Qanso of the pro-Syrian Ba'ath Party became a member, but no figures from the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath Party were given a seat on the committee. [47] Tahsein al-Atrash, leader of the Ba'ath branch at the time, was shot dead in November 1981. [48] The party was a member of the Lebanese National Movement, a political organisation led by Walid Jumblatt of the Progressive Socialist Party. [49] Throughout its existence, it has controlled the Palestinian Arab Liberation Front. [50]


Following the coup d'état of 1969 against King Idris, a new revolutionary government was established led by Muammar Gaddafi. The government was recognised as Nasserist because the new administration proclaimed its goal as "liberty, socialism and unity", rather than "unity, liberty, socialism" (the Ba'ath Party's slogan). This change in order was important because of the ideological split between the ba'athists and the Nasserists. [51] Following Gaddafi's revolution, several People's Committees were established. These committees (which at the beginning were led by the people) arrested several ba'athists. [52]

Amr Taher Deghayes, founder of the Libyan Ba'ath branch, was later arrested by Gaddafi's security forces and died after three days in jail. [53] Deghayes' death allegedly sparked a large anti-government demonstration (which was crushed), followed by the imprisonment of several leading Ba'athists. [54] In 1982, a trial began in which 25 Libyan Ba'athists were charged with membership in an illegal organisation and they were freed after torture. The following year, they were re-tried on the same charge: three were sentenced to death and others to life in prison. [55] The arrests and trials of the 1980s led to the dissolution of the Libyan regional Ba'athist organisation. [56]

The Libyan National Movement (LNM), an Arab-nationalist organisation, was founded by Ba'athist lawyer 'Umran Burweiss. [57] The LNM (still in existence) was originally financed by Iraqi Ba'athists [58] and produced relatively high-quality propaganda materials. For example, it issued audio cassettes which were smuggled into Libya with Sawt at-Talia during the 1980s. The organisation also produced broadcasts for Radio Baghdad. [59]


The first pro-Iraqi activities was in 1968, but it was organizationally established in 1972. [60] The Mauritanian Ba'athist divide their history into two phases: founding (1976–1982) and deployment (1982–1990). [60] There is little available information on the 1968–1970 period and Ba'athist activity started in earnest in the early 1970s. [60] The party's first clandestine congress was held in 1976. [60] They opposed the rule of Moktar Ould Daddah and used most of their early years in trying to infiltrate the ruling Mauritanian People's Party and state institutions. [60] In the aftermath of the 1978 coup, the Ba'ath branch took the conscious decision of trying to recruit Haratin people. [60] They started publishing The Baʿth and the Haratine in Mauritania to help them in their quest. [60] In the period 1978–1984, the party intensified its effort of recruiting members within the military establishment. [60] The Ba'ath party was one of the most fervent supporters of the Arabization policies in Mauritania. Because of their efforts, Mohammed Yehdih Ould Breideleil, the Ba'ath leader, was appointed Minister of Information for a short period in 1984. [60] Under the rule of Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla, the Ba'ath were harassed and in between 1982 and 1983 55 Ba'athists were arrested by the government. [60] However, by 1986–1987 the Ba'ath had managed to infiltrate the officer corps and the enlisted ranks, making them a threat to Ould Haidalla and his rule. [60] Ould Haidalla, with Saddam Hussein's approval, expelled and banned Ba'athist personnel in the military in 1988. [60] With Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the Ba'ath party lost its popular appeal and the financial aid from the Iraqi embassy dried up. [60] By 1990, there was not much left of the original Ba'ath movement. [60]

Another party, the National Vanguard Party (Arabic : حزب الطليعة الوطني, translit.  Hizb Al-Taliyeh Al-Watani, French : Parti Avant-Garde nationale or PAGN), was founded in 1991 and it replaced the old Ba'ath movement which had disintegrated in 1990. [61] The Mauritanian Ba'ath Party remains the largest Arab nationalist political force in the country. The branch has maintained good relations with the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party, even after Saddam Hussein's downfall following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. [62] The party was able to field candidates for parliamentary seats during the 1992 parliamentary elections and was the only party (with the exception of the Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal) to field candidates for senate elections. However, the party secured only one percent of the vote nationwide and did not secure a seat in either Parliament or the senate. Kabry Ould Taleb Jiddou, the party's leader, was awarded the office of Secretary of State by the newly elected government because of his electoral campaign. [63]

The branch supports full Arabisation of the country, a view considered racist by critics. Ould Haidalla introduced an anti-ba'athist policy which continued under his successor, Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya. However, the Mauritanian government supported Iraq during the Gulf War and Iraq–Mauritania relations became so close that (inaccurate) rumours circulated internationally that Saddam's family had taken refuge in the country following the American invasion. Repression against the ba'athists has not been reduced. In 2003, several ba'athists were jailed on suspicion of trying to overthrow the government. [62] A reason for the close relationship between Iraq and Mauritania was the strength of the Mauritanian ba'athist party. [64] The party was banned in 1999 following the restoration of bilateral relations with Israel. [65] The National Vanguard Party was accused of developing plans in collaboration with the Iraqi government to foment unrest in the country. [66]

Mohamed Ould Abdellahi Ould Eyye, the party's leader, was arrested in 2003 after a large anti-government protest demanding that the government break off relations with Israel and the United States and aid Saddam Hussein. He and 13 other ba'athists were arrested by government forces and the party's headquarters were raided in May. [67] Another pro-Iraqi Ba'ath party did take its place, the Party for Work and National Unity (French : Parti pour le Travail et l'Uniti Nationale, abbreviated PTUN). However, while PTUN is close to the Iraqi Ba'ath branch, the group is small and largely inactive. [68]


Palestinian branch
Secretary-GeneralRakad Salem
Newspaper Sawt al-Jamahir

A disorganised pro-Iraqi Ba'ath guerilla movement existed before the establishment of the Arab Liberation Front (ALF). [26] The ALF was established in 1969 at a National Congress of the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath Party to weaken the hold al-Sa'iqa, the pro-Syrian Ba'ath organisation in Palestine had over the ba'athist movement. In contrast to al-Sa'iqa, the ALF never had access to a large recruitment pool. There were few Palestinians in Iraq, and the Palestinians living in Iraq were generally well-educated. Because of this, ALF could not and would never have the same degree of influence over the Palestinian movement as al-Sa'iqa did. This caused the ALF to be controlled by the pro-Iraq Ba'ath movement, thus weakening its effectiveness and influence, but saving it from infighting between Palestinianists and Ba'athists (a problem in al-Sa'iqa). However, the ALF's influence weakened periodically during its history due to infighting in the pro-Iraq Ba'ath movement. Because of the control the pro-Iraq Ba'ath movement had over the ALF, the ALF always held a pro-Iraqi position in the Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO). The ALF was a founding member of the Rejectionist Front in 1974, rejecting the PLO's Ten Point Program. Abdel-Wahhab Kayyali (a member of the PLO Executive Committee) froze his seat on the committee in protest, instead of following the example (resignation) of the Rejectionist Front. [69]

While Palestinians generally believe in pan-Arabism, Arab nationalism and socialism (principles of the ALF), they have generally opted for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. [70] The invasion of Iraq toppled the Iraqi-dominated Ba'ath Party, headquartered in Baghdad. This weakened the movement and since the Iraqi military coordinated much of the ALF's activities the ALF has also been considerably weakened. [71]

The ALF's first leader was Zaid Haydar from the Jordanian Ba'ath branch. Other leaders include Munif al-Razzaz, Abd al-Rahim Ahmad and Mahmud Isma'il. Most recently, it was led by Rakad Salem and headquartered in Ramallah, West Bank. Israeli Defence Forces arrested Salem in October 2002. [25] Shahir Abu Shahut, former leader of the Jordanian Ba'ath branch, led the Ba'ath branch in Palestine from 1970 to 1975 from Baghdad. [26]


The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Country of Sudan is the regional branch of the Ba'ath Party in Sudan. Kamal Bolad was the Regional Secretary in 1989 [72] and Taiseer Mutassir was the Regional Secretary in 1990. [73] While the branch has always been small, accounting for an estimated 1,000 members in 2003, it has been able to have a bigger impact than what its meager membership numbers would suggest, mostly due to Iraqi financing of the branch. [74]

After collaborating with the Arab nationalist Sudanese government for years, the Ba'ath Party broke off relations and became an opposition party in 1990—this would have disturbed Iraq if Sudan had not supported it during the 1991 Gulf crisis. [75] In 1990, the party was composed largely of students who had studied in Ba'athist Iraq. [73] The party, which was small in 1990, was influential in certain sectors, was opposed to the National Islamic Front and was staunchly secularist. [73] Members have historically been torn between the Ba'ath and other secular party movements, such as the Sudanese communists. [73] Because of Saddam Hussein's amicable relationship with the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation, the body ruling Sudan, the Ba'ath branched was oppressed by the authorities. [73] Later in 1990, 26 Ba'athi military officers were executed in Khartoum after a failed military coup. [74] In 2002, a group led by Mohamad Ali Jadein broke away from the branch and established the independent Sudanese Ba'ath Party, which has no affiliation with neither the pro-Iraq Ba'ath movement nor the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement. [76] The following year, after the invasion of Iraq 80 Sudanese Ba'athists return to Sudan under the condition that they would stay out of politics. [74]


The Syrian branch of the party supported the Muslim Brotherhood during the Islamist uprising against the Syrian Ba'ath government. [77]


The first Ba'athist branch in Tunisia, then under the unified Ba'ath Party, was established in 1955, but the Ba'ath Party was outlawed under Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Following the Tunisian Revolution, [78] the Tunisian Ba'ath Movement (Arabic : حركة البعث التونسيHaraket Al-Ba'ath Al-Tounisi; French: Mouvement Baath tunisien) was established at its First Congress on 3–5 June 2011 and legally registered on 22 January 2011. However, ba'athists have been active in underground politics since the 1950s. [79] The Ba'ath Movement celebrated the fifth anniversary of the death of Saddam Hussein. Omar Othman Belhadj, Secretary-General of the Executive Committee of the Ba'ath Movement, said that "Hussein’s execution was symbolic, they did not kill a person but rather the ideas he represented and fought for. Hussein was killed for being against colonization and for being a defender of Arab unity and independence of Arab countries". He further noted that he did not support killing Muammar Gaddafi, saying that Gaddafi had a right to a fair trial like anyone else. [79]

Omar once told a journalist, "the Syrian regime has turned against the Ba'ath and is no longer Ba'athist one". [78] The party does not support Syria's expulsion from the Arab League and asserts that foreign nations should play a neutral role in the Syrian Civil War. [80] On 4 February 2012, the Executive Committee of the Ba'ath Movement released a communiqué condemning the provisional Tunisian government's expulsion of the Syrian ambassador. The Ba'ath Movement expressed solidarity with the Syrian protesters and condemned the shooting of unarmed demonstrators. The committee predicted that the Syrian ambassador's expulsion would militarise the conflict, mobilising Arab opinion against the government and leading to military intervention. [81] After the revolution, the Arab Democratic Vanguard Party emerged as second "Iraqi" Baathist Party in Tunisia. Its membership is younger and its political position more at the left of the historically Baath Movement and is headed by Kheireddine Souabni and Ahmed Seddik. The Ba'ath Movement is a member of the Popular Front, [82] a communist-dominated front with strong popular backing. [83]


The National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region (Arabic : حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي القومي - قطر اليمنHizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki Al-Qawmi – Qutr Al-Yaman) [84] is led by Qassem Salam Said as Secretary of the Regional Command [85] while Abdulwahid Hawash serves as Deputy Secretary. [86] It publishes the newspaper Al-Ehyaa Al-'Arabi (Arabic : لإحياء العربي, English: Arabic Renaissance). [87]

The party carried out clandestine political activity until 1990 and was registered as the National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party on 10 February 1997. It had initially sought to register as the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in 1995, but that name was given by the authorities to the pro-Syria Ba'athist party. [85] Politically, the party is allied with the ruling General People's Congress and during the 2011 Arab Spring this position caused an internal split. [88] In March 2011, it was reported that the Hodeidah branch of the party had sided with the uprising after violent attacks on protesters in the city. [89]

The party contested the 1993 parliamentary election in alliance with the pro-Syrian Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, winning seven seats. After the election, relations between the two Ba'athist groups soured and they contested further elections separately. The party contested the 1997 parliamentary election (failing to win any seats) and called for a boycott of the 1999 presidential election. Said, the branch leader, was sued by the Ministry of Information in February 2000 over an article criticising Saudi Arabia. [90] In the 2003 parliamentary elections, the party obtained 23,745 votes (0.4 percent of the national vote) and again failed to re-enter parliament. [85] However, it won two district-council seats in the 2006 local council elections. [91]

Related Research Articles

The Arab Socialist Union Party of Syria (ASU) is a Nasserist political party in Syria. ASU is led by Safwan al-Qudsi. The party was formed in 1973, following a split from the original ASU.

Arab Socialist Baath Party – Yemen Region

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region is the Yemeni regional branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

National Arab Socialist Baath Party – Yemen Region

The National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region is a political party in Yemen. The party is the Yemeni regional organisation of the Iraq-led Ba'ath Party. The secretary of the party in Yemen is Dr. Qassem Salam Said. Abdulwahid Hawash serves as the deputy secretary. The party publishes the newspaper Al-Ehyaa Al-'Arabi.

Arab Socialist Baath Party – Lebanon Region

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region, officially the Lebanon Regional Branch, is a political party in Lebanon. It is the regional branch of the Damascus-based Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. Fayez Shukr has been party leader since 2005 when he succeeded Sayf al-Din Ghazi who in turn succeeded Assem Qanso.

Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party

The Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party is a political party in Lebanon. The party was led by Abd al-Majid al-Rafei until his death in July 2017. It is the Lebanese regional branch of the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party. The party held its second congress in October 2011. Founders of the party included Dr. Abd al-Majid al-Rafei, Jihad George Karam, Rafiq Nasib Alfaqiya, Karam Mohamed Assahli, Hani Mohamed Shoiab, Ammar Mohamed Shabli, Hassan Khalil Gharib and Asaf Habin Alharakat.

Jordanian Arab Socialist Baath Party

The Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (JASBP), previously known as the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Jordan Region ' is a political party in Jordan. It is the Jordanian regional branch of the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party.

Arab Socialist Baath Party of Algeria

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party of Algeria, is a political party in Algeria. It is the Algerian regional branch of the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party. It is led by Ahmed Choutri.

Libyan Arab Socialist Baath Party

The Libyan Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was a political party in Libya founded in the 1950s by Amr Taher Deghayes. It was the Libyan regional branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. Following the 1966 split it was affiliated with Iraq-led Ba’ath Party.

National Vanguard Party

The National Vanguard Party, is a political party in Mauritania. It is the Mauritanian regional branch of the Iraqi-led Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

Arab Socialist Baath Party – Region of Sudan

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Region of Sudan, previously known as the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Country of Sudan, is a political party in Sudan. The party is the Sudanese regional branch of the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party in Sudan. While the branch has always been small, accounting for an estimated 1,000 members in 2003, it has been able to have a bigger impact than what its meager membership numbers would suggest, mostly due to Iraqi financing of the branch.

Tunisian Baath Movement Tunisian political party

The Tunisian Ba'ath Movement is a political party in Tunisia. It is the Tunisian regional branch of the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party.

Democratic Socialist Arab Baath Party

The Arab Democratic Socialist Ba'ath Party is a neo-Ba'athist political party founded in 1970 and led by Brahim Makhous, a former Syrian foreign minister. It is a remnant of Salah Jadid's left-wing faction of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region. The party is based in Paris, France and joined the National Democratic Rally coalition in 1981.

Arab Baath Progressive Party

The Arab Ba'ath Progressive Party is a political party in Jordan. It is the Jordanian regional branch of the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party. It was legally registered for the first time in 1993. The party is small, and has, according to a WikiLeaks document, "minuscule number of adherents". Despite it small size, the branch is able to get a decent footprint in Jordanian media through its leader, Fuad Dabbour. Dabbour's fiery statements on foreign policy are frequently quoted by the press. The party is less known than its pro-Iraqi counterpart, the Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. It is the party branch of the Syrian-dominated Ba'ath Party in Jordan. Fuad Dabbour is the branch's Regional Secretary. It is believed that the party has fewer than 200 members.

Arab Socialist Baath Party – Egypt Region

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Egypt Region is an Egyptian Neo-Ba'athist political party. It is the Egyptian regional branch of the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party.

Abd al-Majid al-Rafei, born in Tripoli, Lebanon, was a Lebanese politician and member of the Lebanese Parliament. He was at one time the head of the Iraqi faction of the historical Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party and its Iraqi wing. Later, until his death in July 2017, he was the head of the Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party.


  1. Metz, Helen Chapin (2004). Iraq: A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. pp.  191–192. ISBN   1-4191-2671-7.
  2. Ali, Tariq (2004). Bush in Babylon: The Recolonisation of Iraq. Verso. p.  106. ISBN   1-84467-512-2.
  3. Ghareeb, Edmund A.; Dougherty, Beth K. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. The Scarecrow Press, Ltd. p.  192. ISBN   978-0-8108-4330-1.
  4. Ghareeb, Edmund A.; Dougherty, Beth K. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. The Scarecrow Press, Ltd. p.  169. ISBN   978-0-8108-4330-1.
  5. Kostiner, Joseph (1998). Conflict and Cooperation in the Gulf Region. VS Verlag. p.  36. ISBN   3-531-16205-5.
  6. Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel & Silk: Men and Women who shaped Syria 1900–2000. Cune Press. p.  347. ISBN   978-1-885942-40-1.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Belamry, Algiers-Ramada (8 September 2008). "Baath Party resumes underground activities". Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  8. 1 2 Mahdi, Mazdi (2 May 2010). "Bahrainis take to the streets over job security". The National . Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  9. Staff writer (15 November 2007). التجمع القومي الديمقراطي [Nationalist Democratic Assembly] (in Arabic). Nationalist Democratic Assembly. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  10. Staff writer (15 November 2007). جمعية التجمع القومي الديمقراطي [Nationalist Democratic Assembly]. Al-Wasat (in Arabic). Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  11. Staff writer (16 August 2011). "التجمع القومي" خامس جمعية تعلن مقاطعتها للانتخابات التكميلية [National Rally fifth Association announces boycott of the elections complementary]. Al-Wasat (in Arabic). Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  12. 1 2 "Attorney Calls for further investigation into the incident" ["النيابة" تطلب مواصلة التحري في حادث "الزنج"]. Al-Wasat (in Arabic). Retrieved 10 April 2013.
  13. Staff writer (15 November 2007). أخبار [News] (in Arabic). Nationalist Democratic Assembly. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  14. Staff writer (28 March 2003). بيان صادر عن التجمع القومي الديمقراطي في العراق [Statement issued by the Nationalist Democratic Assembly] (in Arabic). Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  15. Staff writer. التجمع الديمقراطي: عدم رفع شعار إسقاط النظام سببه ظروف معينة [Democratic Rally: Do not drop the slogan of the system due to certain circumstances] (in Arabic). Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  16. "The statement of the Arab Baath Socialist Party of Egyptian on the aggression against Syria". Aladhwaa. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  17. "Two Iraqi Plotters Detained". New Strait Times. 15 April 1991. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  18. Mickolus, Edward F. (2009). Edward Mickolus, 2009 The Terrorist List: The Middle East, Volume 1 A-K Check |url= value (help). ABC-CLIO. p. 405.
  19. Awet Tewelde Weldemichael (2013). Third World Colonialism and Strategies of Liberation: Eritrea and East Timor Compared. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN   978-1-107-03123-4.
  20. Alexander De Waal (1991). Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. Human Rights Watch. p. 252. ISBN   978-1-56432-038-4.
  21. The Economist, London, 24–30 June 1978, p. 78.
  22. 1 2 Alexander J. Motyl. Encyclopedia of Nationalism: Leaders, Movements, and Concepts, Volume II. Academic Press, 2001. Pp. 240.
  23. Paley, Amit R.; Joshua Partlow (23 January 2008). "Iraq's New Law on Ex-Baathists Could Bring Another Purge". The Washington Post . Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  24. Goldman, Ralph Morris (2002). The Future Catches Up: Transnational Parties and Democracy. iUniverse. p.  60. ISBN   978-0-595-22888-1.
  25. 1 2 Matter, Philip; Fischbach, Michael (2005). Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. Infobase Publishing. pp.  51–52. ISBN   978-0-8160-5764-1.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 Anderson, Bette Signe (2005). Nationalist Voices in Jordan: The Street and the State. University of Texas Press. p.  203. ISBN   978-0-292-70625-5.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "The Baath Party In Jordan: Short On Funds And Members Madaba". Cablegate. 22 September 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  28. Staff writer (2002). Jordan in Transition. Palgrave Macmillan. p.  79. ISBN   978-0-312-29538-7.
  29. Day, Alan John (2002). Political parties in the World. University of Michigan. p.  280. ISBN   0-9536278-7-X.
  30. Schenker, David Kenneth (2003). Dancing with Saddam: The Strategic Tango of Jordanian–Iraqi Relations. Lexington Books. p.  19. ISBN   0-7391-0649-X.
  31. Staff writer (2002). Jordan in Transition. Palgrave Macmillan. p.  120. ISBN   978-0-312-29538-7.
  32. "Jordan's Political Parties: Islamists, Leftists, Nationalists And Centrists". Cablegate. 20 May 2003. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  33. "Jordanian Municipal Elections: The Islamist - Government Showdowns In Irbid, Karak, And Madaba". Cablegate. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  34. al-Mdaires, Falah Abdullah (2010). Islamic Extremism in Kuwait: From the Muslim Brotherhood to Al-Qaeda and other Islamic Political Groups. Routledge. p. 217.
  35. 1 2 "Kuwait Receives Iraqi Political Figures In Run-up To Parliamentary Elections". Cablegate. 20 January 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  36. Socialist Lebanon Vanguard Party (29 December 2010). التقرير السياسي الصادر عن المؤتمر الثاني لحزب طليعة لبنان العربي الاشتراكي ( السابع عشر ) [Political Report of the Second Congress of the Party, the Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard (XVII)] (in Arabic). Second Congress of the Socialist Lebanon Vanguard Party. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  37. Solh, Raghid El-. Lebanon and Arabism . London: I. B. Tauris in association with the Centre for Lebanese Studies, 2004. p. 331
  38. Rabinovich, Itamar, and Itamar Rabinovich. The War for Lebanon, 1970-1985 . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985. p. 79
  39. Staff writer. جمعية سياسية باسم "حزب طليعة لبنان العربي الاشتراكي" [Political society as the "vanguard party, Arab Socialist Party of Lebanon] (in Arabic). Lebanon Knowledge Development Gateway. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  40. Rabinovich, Itamar (1985). The war for Lebanon, 1970–1985. Cornell University Press. p.  79. ISBN   978-0-8014-9313-3.
  41. El-Khazen, Farid (2000). The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967–1976. Harvard University Press. p.  143. ISBN   978-0-674-08105-5.
  42. El-Khazen, Farid (2000). The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967–1976. Harvard University Press. p.  144. ISBN   978-0-674-08105-5.
  43. Zumiyya, Jamal (1972). The parliamentary election of Lebanon 1968. 2. BRILL Archive. p.  106.
  44. El-Khazen, Farid (2000). The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967–1976. Harvard University Press. p.  74. ISBN   978-0-674-08105-5.
  45. Tachau, Frank (1994). Political parties of the Middle East and North Africa. Greenwood Press. p.  307. ISBN   978-0-313-26649-2.
  46. El-Khazen, Farid (2000). The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967–1976. Harvard University Press. p.  198. ISBN   978-0-674-08105-5.
  47. El-Khazen, Farid (2000). The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967–1976. Harvard University Press. p.  316. ISBN   978-0-674-08105-5.
  48. O'Ballance, Edgar (1998). Civil war in Lebanon, 1975–92. Palgrave Macmillan. p.  111. ISBN   978-0-312-21593-4.
  49. Cassese, Antonio (1986). The Current Legal Regulation of the Use of Force. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p.  205. ISBN   978-90-247-3247-0.
  50. Guerrillas for Palestine. Taylor & Francis. 1976. p.  58.
  51. Wright, John (1981). Libya: a Modern History. Taylor & Francis. p.  123. ISBN   0-7099-2727-4.
  52. Wright, John (1981). Libya: a Modern History. Taylor & Francis. p.  180. ISBN   0-7099-2727-4.
  53. Wright, John (1981). Libya: a Modern History. Taylor & Francis. p.  277. ISBN   0-7099-2727-4.
  54. Wright, John (1981). Libya: a Modern History. Taylor & Francis. p.  281. ISBN   0-7099-2727-4.
  55. Metz, Helen Chapin (2004). Libya: a Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. p.  296. ISBN   1-4191-3012-9.
  56. Leslie Simmons, Geoffrey (1993). Libya: The Struggle for Survival. Palgrave Macmillan. p.  166. ISBN   0-312-08997-X.
  57. Tachau, Frank (1994). Political Parties of the Middle East and North Africa. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  58. The Middle East. 111–12. London: IC Magazines. 1984. p.  20.
  59. Shaked, Haim; Daniel Dishon (1983–84). Middle East Contemporary Survey. 8. Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies. p.  583.
  60. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "An Overview of Ba'athist tendencies in Mauritania" (PDF). The Moor Next Door. November 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  61. Lane, Jan-Erik; Redissi, Hamadi; Ṣaydāwī, Riyāḍ (2009). Religion and Politics: Islam and Muslim Civilization. Ashgate Publishing. p.  217. ISBN   0-7546-7418-5.
  62. 1 2 Seddon, David (2004). A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East. Taylor & Francis. p.  87. ISBN   1-85743-212-6.
  63. Banks, Arhur S.; Muller, Thomas; Overstreet, William (2008). Political Handbook of the World 2008. CQ Press. p.  848. ISBN   0-87289-528-9.
  64. Thomas, Caroline; Wilkin, Peter (1999). Globalization, Human Security, and the African Experience. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p.  114. ISBN   1-55587-699-4.
  65. East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (1999). Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders. Routledge. p.  345. ISBN   1-85743-126-X.
  66. Banks, Arhur S.; Muller, Thomas; Overstreet, William (2008). Political Handbook of the World 2008. CQ Press. p.  848. ISBN   0-87289-528-9.
  67. Europa Publications (2003). Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Routledge. p.  702. ISBN   1-85743-183-9.
  68. "Summary Of Political Parties And Coalitions In Mauritania, May 2006". Cablegate. 15 May 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  69. Cobban, Helena (1984). The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: People, Power, and Politics. Cambridge University Press. p.  163. ISBN   978-0-521-27216-2.
  70. Cobban, Helena (1984). The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: People, Power, and Politics. Cambridge University Press. p.  164. ISBN   978-0-521-27216-2.
  71. Baracskay, Daniel (2011). The Palestine Liberation Organization: Terrorism and Prospects for Peace in the Holy Land. ABC-CLIO. p.  58. ISBN   978-0-313-38151-5.
  72. Lain, Donald Ray (1989). Dictionary of the African Left: Parties, Movements and Groups. Dartmouth. pp. 58–60. ISBN   1-85521-014-2.
  73. 1 2 3 4 5 "Sudan And The Arabs: Possibly Step-sisters; Certainly Not Brothers". Cablegate. 1 April 1990. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  74. 1 2 3 "Return Of Sudanese Ba'athists". Cablegate. 30 April 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  75. Barltrop, Richard (2010). Darfur and the International Community: The Challenges of Conflict Resolution in Sudan. I.B.Tauris. p.  210. ISBN   978-1-84511-977-5.
  76. "Wide Reactions to Jadein Group Statement by Baathists". Sudan Vision Daily. April 10, 2003. Archived from the original on 18 November 2006. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  77. "The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood". Cablegate. 26 February 1985. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  78. 1 2 "Tunisian Baathists have strong standing: party leader". Al Arabiya. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  79. 1 2 Ajmi, Sana (4 January 2012). "Tunisian Baath Party Celebrates 5th Anniversary of Saddam Hussein's Death". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  80. Ajmi, Sana (13 November 2011). "Tunisian Political Parties respond to the suspension of Syria from the Arab League". Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  81. Ajmi, Sana (5 February 2012). "Tunisia: Baath Party Condemns President's Decision to Expel Syrian Ambassador". Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  82. "Tunisia: Splintered history of the Tunisian Left". 10 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.[ permanent dead link ]
  83. Staff writer (February 2013). "Tunisie, Sondage : Ennahdha et Nidaa Tounes en tête des intentions de vote" (in French). Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  84. Staff writer (29 December 2010). قيم البعث وعبقرية القائد الشهيد صدام حسين تجسدا يوم استشهاده [Values of the Baath and the genius of the martyred leader Saddam Hussein's martyrdom day incarnation] (in Arabic). National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  85. 1 2 3 Staff writer. الأحزاب السياسية في الجمهورية اليمنية [Political parties in the Republic of Yemen] (in Arabic). National Information Center. Government of Yemen . Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  86. al-Qiri, Mohammad (7 February 2009). "Third Yemeni Ba'ath party planned". Yemen Observer . Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  87. Staff writer (23 October 2009). "Archived copy" الأحزاب السياسية العربية: اليمن: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي القومي [Arab political parties: Yemen: the Arab Socialist Baath Party, the National] (in Arabic). United Nations Development Programme. Arab parliament. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 18 February 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  88. Staff writer (9 May 2011). قيادة مؤقتة لحزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي القومي تجمد سلام وتتهمه بتفتيت الحزب [Temporary leadership of the Baath Arab Socialist National freeze peace and fragmentation of the party accused] (in Arabic). Assafir Press. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  89. Staff writer (30 March 2011). حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي القومي بالحديدة يفك الارتباط بالحزب الحاكم بعد مجزرة صنعاء بحق المعتصمين سلمياً [National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Hodeidah breaks its relationship with the ruling party after the massacre of peaceful protesters in Sanaa] (in Arabic). Felix News. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  90. United States Government (23 February 2001). "Yemen: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". Department of State . Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  91. Staff writer (18 October 2006). "President Saleh calls on local councils to hold a meeting on 1 November". Retrieved 18 February 2012.