Baarle-Hertog

Last updated
Baarle-Hertog
Gemeentehuis Baarle-Hertog.jpg
Former town hall
Baarle-Hertog vlag.svg
Baarle-Hertog wapen.svg
Location of Baarle-Hertog
Baarle-Hertog
Belgium location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Baarle-Hertog
Location in Belgium
Location of Baarle-Hertog in the province of Antwerp
Baarle-Hertog Antwerp Belgium Map.svg
Coordinates: 51°27′N04°56′E / 51.450°N 4.933°E / 51.450; 4.933 Coordinates: 51°27′N04°56′E / 51.450°N 4.933°E / 51.450; 4.933
CountryFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Community Flemish Community
Region Flemish Region
Province Antwerp
Arrondissement Turnhout
Government
  MayorFrans de Bont (Forum+)
  Governing party/ies N-VA, Forum+
Area
  Total7.41 km2 (2.86 sq mi)
Population
 (2020-01-01) [1]
  Total2,865
  Density390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Postal codes
2387
Area codes 014
Website Official website

Baarle-Hertog (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌbaːrlə ˈɦɛrtɔx] ; French : Baerle-Duc, pronounced  [baʁl(ə)dyk] ) is a Flemish municipality of Belgium, much of which consists of a number of small Belgian enclaves fully surrounded by the Netherlands.

Contents

Parts of Baarle-Hertog are surrounded by the Dutch province of North Brabant, but it is part of the Belgian province of Antwerp. As of 2021, it has a population of 2,935. The total area is 7.48 square kilometres (2.89 square miles). [2]

Geography

Border with Baarle-Nassau

Map showing the enclaves of Baarle-Hertog
code: nld promoted to code: nl Baarle-Nassau - Baarle-Hertog-en.svg
Map showing the enclaves of Baarle-Hertog

Baarle-Hertog is noted for its complicated borders with Baarle-Nassau , Netherlands. [3]

The border's complexity results from a number of medieval treaties, agreements, land-swaps and sales between the Lords of Breda and the Dukes of Brabant. Generally speaking, predominantly agricultural or built environments became constituents of Brabant and other parts devolved to Breda. These distributions were ratified and clarified as a part of the border settlements agreed under the Treaty of Maastricht in 1843. The tight integration of the European Union and in particular the Schengen Agreement have made many of the practicalities of the situation substantially simpler since the 1990s.

In total, it consists of 24 separate parcels of land. The largest single section of the municipality of Baarle-Hertog, namely Zondereigen (named after its main hamlet) is located within mainland Belgium right on the contiguous border (north of the town of Merksplas ). In addition to this, there are twenty Belgian exclaves fully within the Netherlands and three other sections straddling the contiguous Dutch-Belgian border. There are also seven Dutch enclaves within the Belgian exclaves (i.e., counter-exclaves) that are part of the territory of the Netherlands. Six of these Dutch enclaves are located within the largest Belgian exclave, and a seventh in the second-largest Belgian exclave. An eighth Dutch exclave is located near Ginhoven  [ nl ].

During the First World War, this situation meant that the Imperial German Army could not occupy these parts of Belgium without crossing the Netherlands, which the Dutch government did not allow. Thus, these pieces of Belgium became a place where refugees could safely stay. [4] A clandestine radio transmitter was smuggled in and from there worked with the Belgian resistance. The Dutch government fenced off these areas and controlled access in or out of them, building a church and school for the Belgian people who were effectively stranded within the enclaves. [5] [ circular reference ] This situation did not exist in the Second World War, as both countries were occupied by Nazi Germany.

Some houses in the town of Baarle-Hertog/Baarle-Nassau are divided between the two countries. At one time, according to Dutch laws, restaurants had to close earlier. For some restaurants on the border, this simply meant that the customers had to move to a table on the Belgian side. [6] In 2020, restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic differed between the two countries; for instance, preventing a Belgian citizen living metres away from an open Dutch bar from patronising it. [7]

Many fireworks shops are found in Baarle-Hertog, as Belgian laws controlling the sale of fireworks are more lenient than those of the Netherlands. Many Dutch tourists come to Baarle-Hertog to buy fireworks to celebrate the New Year.

Two villages in the municipality, Zondereigen and Ginhoven, are located in the main territory of Belgium.

List of enclaves

Netherlands enclaves

These are all part of Baarle-Nassau municipality.

Serial no. and local name [8] Area (ha) area

acre

Notes
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N1, De Loversche Akkers – De Tommelsche Akkers5.3667 13.2615Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary of N1 and H1 runs through one building.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N2, De Tommelsche Akkers1.3751 3.3981Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; contains 8 dwellings.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N3, De Tommelsche Akkers0.2863 0.7075Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; boundary of N3 and H1 bisects the loading dock of a liquor store.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N4, De Rethsche Akkers1.2324 3.0454Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; boundary of N4 and H1 runs through a warehouse, with vacant Dutch land to the rear of the warehouse.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N5, De Rethsche Akkers1.9212 4.7475Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; boundary of N5 and H1 runs through a furniture showroom, a shed and a barn.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N6, Gierle Straat1.4527 3.5898Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; consists of farmland with two buildings.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N7, De Kastelein0.5812 1.4363Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian Oordeel exclave H8, in Baarle-Hertog; occupies part of a field.
Flag of the Netherlands.svg N8, Vossenberg2.8528 7.0496Farmland enclave situated within Zondereigen, Belgium, less than 50 meters south of the Dutch border.

Belgian enclaves

These are all part of Baarle-Hertog municipality, and are surrounded by Baarle-Nassau municipality (Netherlands).

Serial no. and local name [8] Area (ha) area

acre

Notes
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H1, Aen het Klooster Straetje - Hoofdbraek - Loveren - De Boschcovensche Akkers - De Loversche Akkers - De Tommelsche Akkers - De Tommel - De Gierle Straat - De Reth - De Rethsche Akkers - Het Dorp - De Kapel Akkers - De Kastelein153.6448 379.6717Forms a quadripoint with enclave H2; largest Belgian exclave; encompasses six Dutch enclaves; consists of dwellings for the most part, with outlying farmland and an industrial area; boundary runs through numerous buildings; contains a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H2, De Rethsche Akkers2.4116 5.9594Consists of farmland with a single point of connection (quadripoint) between enclaves H1 and H2 in the middle of a corn field.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H3, De Rethsche Akkers0.3428 0.8471Occupies part of a field; boundary runs through a shed in one instance.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H4, De Rethsche Akkers1.476 3.6474Consists of farmland; boundary runs through a house and three sheds.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H5, De Kapel Akkers0.9245 2.2846Consists of farmland with a dwelling.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H6, Hoofdbraek1.7461 4.3148Mixed land usage; boundary runs through a warehouse/factory.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H7, De Loversche Akkers0.2469 0.6102Boundary runs through two dwellings, including the middle of one front door (giving it two house numbers: Loveren 2, Baarle-Hertog / Loveren 19, Baarle-Nassau).
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H8, Boschcoven - De Kastelein - De Oordelsche Straat41.8781 103.485Second-largest Belgian exclave, contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary runs through a barn, a dwelling and two businesses.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H9, De Kapel Akkers0.4005 0.9897Boundary runs through a printing factory/warehouse in an industrial area.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H10, De Oordelsche Straat0.65 1.6063Consists of farmland.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H11, De Oordelsche Straat0.93 2.2982Consists of farmland.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H12, Boschcoven0.2822 0.6974Consists of farmland.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H13, Boschcoven1.5346 3.7922Boundary runs through about 20 dwellings.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H14, Boschcoven0.7193 1.7774Boundary runs through about 13 dwellings.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H15, Boschcoven1.7211 4.2531Boundary runs through about 16 dwellings.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H16, Keizershoek - Oordelsche Straat4.4252 10.9352Boundary runs through a house and three sheds; inside one of the sheds, the linear boundary changes direction three times
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H17, Moleriet Heide14.9248 36.8807Rural area containing a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H18, De Manke Gooren2.9247 7.2273Consists of farmland.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H19, De Peruiters0.6851 1.693Consists of several ponds and a field.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H20, Wurstenbosch - Vossenberg1.1681 2.8865Consists of farmland.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H21, Baelbrugsche Beemden1.1845 2.9271Consists of farmland.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg H22, De Wit Hagen0.2632 0.6504South of the village of Ulicoten; occupies part of a field; nationality was contested from the 1830s until 1995 (remained unallocated to either country in boundary treaty of 26 April 1974)

Climate

Climate data for Baarle-Hertog (1991−2020 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)6.3
(43.3)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
15.4
(59.7)
18.9
(66.0)
21.6
(70.9)
23.6
(74.5)
23.4
(74.1)
19.8
(67.6)
15.1
(59.2)
10.1
(50.2)
6.7
(44.1)
14.9
(58.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
4.0
(39.2)
6.8
(44.2)
10.1
(50.2)
13.8
(56.8)
16.7
(62.1)
18.7
(65.7)
18.3
(64.9)
15.1
(59.2)
11.2
(52.2)
7.1
(44.8)
4.2
(39.6)
10.8
(51.4)
Average low °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
0.8
(33.4)
2.6
(36.7)
4.8
(40.6)
8.7
(47.7)
11.8
(53.2)
13.8
(56.8)
13.2
(55.8)
10.3
(50.5)
7.3
(45.1)
4.1
(39.4)
1.6
(34.9)
6.7
(44.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)75.8
(2.98)
69.9
(2.75)
59.3
(2.33)
45.3
(1.78)
62.3
(2.45)
76.1
(3.00)
84.5
(3.33)
83.2
(3.28)
71.7
(2.82)
73.9
(2.91)
83.6
(3.29)
96.6
(3.80)
882.2
(34.73)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)12.912.010.88.99.910.311.311.010.411.213.214.7136.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 638113619021721522020516211769531,726
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute [9]

Education

Baarle-Hertog has two elementary schools: De Vlinder and De Horizon. [10]

It has a joint library with Baarle-Nassau with Belgian and Dutch staff. [11]

Notable inhabitants

See also

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References

  1. "Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2020". Statbel.
  2. "Bevolking per statistische sector - Sector 13002". Statistics Belgium. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  3. González, Diego (January 17, 2010). "Una cervecería en dos países" [A bar in Two Countries]. Fronteras (in Spanish).
  4. Jacobs, Frank (14 November 2011). "An Apology of Enclaves". New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022.
  5. "Enclavegeschiedenis van Baarle", Wikipedia (in Dutch), 2022-11-15, retrieved 2022-11-26
  6. "The Curious Case of Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog". Amusingplanet.com. 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
  7. "Coronavirus: Dining for some, whining for others in border town Baarle". The Times. 2020-06-05. Retrieved 2020-06-05.
  8. 1 2 Whyte, Brendan (2004). "En Territoire Belge et à Quarante Centimètres de la Frontière" An historical and documentary study of the Belgian and Dutch enclaves of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau. The University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies. ISBN   0-7340-3032-0.
  9. "Luchttemperatuur en neerslag Referentieperiode: 1991-2020" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute . Retrieved July 7, 2022.
  10. "scholen." Baarle-Hertog. Retrieved on January 6, 2017.
  11. "bibliotheek." Baarle-Hertog. Retrieved on January 6, 2017.