|• Mayor||Frans de Bont (Forum+)|
|• Governing party/ies||N-VA, Forum+|
|• Total||7.41 km2 (2.86 sq mi)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌbaːrlə ˈɦɛrtɔx] ; French : Baerle-Duc, pronounced [baʁl(ə)dyk] ) is a Flemish municipality of Belgium, much of which consists of a number of small Belgian enclaves fully surrounded by the Netherlands.
Parts of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl are surrounded by the Dutch province of North Brabant, but it is part of the Belgian province of Antwerp. As of 2021 [update] , it has a population of 2,935. The total area is 7.48 square kilometres (2.89 square miles).
Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl is noted for its complicated borders with Baarle-Nassau code: nld promoted to code: nl , Netherlands.
The border's complexity results from a number of medieval treaties, agreements, land-swaps and sales between the Lords of Breda code: nld promoted to code: nl and the Dukes of Brabant. Generally speaking, predominantly agricultural or built environments became constituents of Brabant and other parts devolved to Bredacode: nld promoted to code: nl . These distributions were ratified and clarified as a part of the border settlements agreed under the Treaty of Maastricht in 1843. The tight integration of the European Union and in particular the Schengen Agreement have made many of the practicalities of the situation substantially simpler since the 1990s.
In total, it consists of 24 separate parcels of land. The largest single section of the municipality of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl , namely Zondereigen (named after its main hamlet) is located within mainland Belgium right on the contiguous border (north of the town of Merksplas code: nld promoted to code: nl ). In addition to this, there are twenty Belgian exclaves fully within the Netherlands and three other sections straddling the contiguous Dutch-Belgian border. There are also seven Dutch enclaves within the Belgian exclaves (i.e., counter-exclaves) that are part of the territory of the Netherlands. Six of these Dutch enclaves are located within the largest Belgian exclave, and a seventh in the second-largest Belgian exclave. An eighth Dutch exclave is located near Ginhoven .
During the First World War, this situation meant that the Imperial German Army could not occupy these parts of Belgium without crossing the Netherlands, which the Dutch government did not allow. Thus, these pieces of Belgium became a place where refugees could safely stay. [ circular reference ] This situation did not exist in the Second World War, as both countries were occupied by Nazi Germany.A clandestine radio transmitter was smuggled in and from there worked with the Belgian resistance. The Dutch government fenced off these areas and controlled access in or out of them, building a church and school for the Belgian people who were effectively stranded within the enclaves.
Some houses in the town of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl /Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl are divided between the two countries. At one time, according to Dutch laws, restaurants had to close earlier. For some restaurants on the border, this simply meant that the customers had to move to a table on the Belgian side. In 2020, restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic differed between the two countries; for instance, preventing a Belgian citizen living metres away from an open Dutch bar from patronising it.
Many fireworks shops are found in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl , as Belgian laws controlling the sale of fireworks are more lenient than those of the Netherlands. Many Dutch tourists come to Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl to buy fireworks to celebrate the New Year.
Two villages in the municipality, Zondereigen and Ginhoven, are located in the main territory of Belgium.
These are all part of Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl municipality.
|Serial no. and local name||Area (ha)||area |
|N1, De Loversche Akkers – De Tommelsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||5.3667||13.2615||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary of N1 and H1 runs through one building.|
|N2, De Tommelsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.3751||3.3981||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; contains 8 dwellings.|
|N3, De Tommelsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||0.2863||0.7075||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; boundary of N3 and H1 bisects the loading dock of a liquor store.|
|N4, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.2324||3.0454||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; boundary of N4 and H1 runs through a warehouse, with vacant Dutch land to the rear of the warehouse.|
|N5, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.9212||4.7475||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; boundary of N5 and H1 runs through a furniture showroom, a shed and a barn.|
|N6, Gierle Straatcode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.4527||3.5898||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; consists of farmland with two buildings.|
|N7, De Kasteleincode: nld promoted to code: nl||0.5812||1.4363||Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian Oordeel exclave H8, in Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl ; occupies part of a field.|
|N8, Vossenberg||2.8528||7.0496||Farmland enclave situated within Zondereigen, Belgium, less than 50 meters south of the Dutch border.|
These are all part of Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl municipality, and are surrounded by Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl municipality (Netherlands).
|Serial no. and local name||Area (ha)||area |
|H1, Aen het Klooster Straetje - Hoofdbraek - Loveren - De Boschcovensche Akkers - De Loversche Akkers - De Tommelsche Akkers - De Tommel - De Gierle Straat - De Reth - De Rethsche Akkers - Het Dorp - De Kapel Akkers - De Kastelein||153.6448||379.6717||Forms a quadripoint with enclave H2; largest Belgian exclave; encompasses six Dutch enclaves; consists of dwellings for the most part, with outlying farmland and an industrial area; boundary runs through numerous buildings; contains a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.|
|H2, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||2.4116||5.9594||Consists of farmland with a single point of connection (quadripoint) between enclaves H1 and H2 in the middle of a corn field.|
|H3, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||0.3428||0.8471||Occupies part of a field; boundary runs through a shed in one instance.|
|H4, De Rethsche Akkerscode: nld promoted to code: nl||1.476||3.6474||Consists of farmland; boundary runs through a house and three sheds.|
|H5, De Kapel Akkers||0.9245||2.2846||Consists of farmland with a dwelling.|
|H6, Hoofdbraek||1.7461||4.3148||Mixed land usage; boundary runs through a warehouse/factory.|
|H7, De Loversche Akkers||0.2469||0.6102||Boundary runs through two dwellings, including the middle of one front door (giving it two house numbers: Loveren 2, Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl / Loveren 19, Baarle-Nassaucode: nld promoted to code: nl ).|
|H8, Boschcoven - De Kastelein - De Oordelsche Straat||41.8781||103.485||Second-largest Belgian exclave, contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary runs through a barn, a dwelling and two businesses.|
|H9, De Kapel Akkers||0.4005||0.9897||Boundary runs through a printing factory/warehouse in an industrial area.|
|H10, De Oordelsche Straat||0.65||1.6063||Consists of farmland.|
|H11, De Oordelsche Straat||0.93||2.2982||Consists of farmland.|
|H12, Boschcoven||0.2822||0.6974||Consists of farmland.|
|H13, Boschcoven||1.5346||3.7922||Boundary runs through about 20 dwellings.|
|H14, Boschcoven||0.7193||1.7774||Boundary runs through about 13 dwellings.|
|H15, Boschcoven||1.7211||4.2531||Boundary runs through about 16 dwellings.|
|H16, Keizershoek - Oordelsche Straat||4.4252||10.9352||Boundary runs through a house and three sheds; inside one of the sheds, the linear boundary changes direction three times|
|H17, Moleriet Heide||14.9248||36.8807||Rural area containing a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.|
|H18, De Manke Gooren||2.9247||7.2273||Consists of farmland.|
|H19, De Peruiters||0.6851||1.693||Consists of several ponds and a field.|
|H20, Wurstenbosch - Vossenberg||1.1681||2.8865||Consists of farmland.|
|H21, Baelbrugsche Beemden||1.1845||2.9271||Consists of farmland.|
|H22, De Wit Hagen||0.2632||0.6504||South of the village of Ulicoten; occupies part of a field; nationality was contested from the 1830s until 1995 (remained unallocated to either country in boundary treaty of 26 April 1974)|
|Climate data for Baarle-Hertog (1991−2020 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||0.9|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||75.8|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||12.9||12.0||10.8||8.9||9.9||10.3||11.3||11.0||10.4||11.2||13.2||14.7||136.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||63||81||136||190||217||215||220||205||162||117||69||53||1,726|
|Source: Royal Meteorological Institute|
Baarle-Hertogcode: nld promoted to code: nl has two elementary schools: De Vlinder and De Horizon.
It has a joint library with Baarle-Nassau code: nld promoted to code: nl with Belgian and Dutch staff.
Flanders is the Flemish-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics, and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is the City of Brussels, although the Brussels-Capital Region that includes it has an independent regional government. The powers of the government of Flanders consist, among others, of economic affairs in the Flemish Region and the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels, such as Flemish culture and education.
North Brabant, also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands. It borders the provinces of South Holland and Gelderland to the north, Limburg to the east, Zeeland to the west, and the Flemish provinces of Antwerp and Limburg to the south. The northern border follows the Meuse westward to its mouth in the Hollands Diep strait, part of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. North Brabant has a population of 2,562,566 as of November 2019. Major cities in North Brabant are Eindhoven, Tilburg, Breda and its provincial capital 's-Hertogenbosch.
Baarle-Nassau is a municipality and town in the southern Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant. It had a population of 6,847 in 2019. The town is the site of a complicated borderline between Belgium and the Netherlands, with 22 small exclaves of the Belgian town Baarle-Hertog, some of which contain counter-exclaves of Nassau.
Boechout is a municipality of Belgium located in the Flemish province of Antwerp.
Hoogstraten is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp. The municipality comprises Hoogstraten, Meer, Meerle, Meersel-Dreef, Minderhout and Wortel.
Voeren is a Flemish Dutch-speaking municipality with facilities for the French-speaking minority, located in the Belgian province of Limburg. Bordering the Netherlands to the north and the Wallonia region's Liège Province to the south, it is geographically detached from the rest of Flanders, making Voeren an exclave of Flanders. Voeren's name is derived from that of a small right-bank tributary of the Meuse, the Voer, which flows through the municipality.
Visé is a city and municipality of Wallonia, located on the river Meuse in the province of Liège, Belgium.
Nahwa is a territory that forms part of the Emirate of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates. It is a counter-enclave within the Omani territory of Madha, which is itself an exclave of Oman and an enclave within the United Arab Emirates.
The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire. Much of the area of the duchy is today located within Liège Province of Belgium, with a small portion in the municipality of Voeren, an exclave of the neighbouring Limburg Province. Its chief town was Limbourg-sur-Vesdre, in today's Liège Province.
Baarle is a village whose territory is divided into a patchwork of Belgian and Dutch territories. The Belgian parts of the village are called Baarle-Hertog and the Dutch elements are called Baarle-Nassau. The Belgian part includes 16 exclaves within Dutch territory. The exclaves, in turn, surround seven Dutch areas. Belgian territory also surrounds an eighth Dutch area near Ginhoven. In 1995, the border was finalized to include a formerly neutral grassland. Baarle also includes a quadripoint shared by two of the exclaves.
Castelré is a village in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It is a part of the municipality of Baarle-Nassau, and lies some 20 km south of Breda.
Heikant or Oordeel Heikant is a hamlet in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It is a part of the municipality of Baarle-Nassau, and lies about 15 km south of Tilburg.
An enclave is a territory that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state. The Vatican City and San Marino, both enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are completely enclaved sovereign states.
The Vennbahn is a former railway line that was built partly across what was then German territory by the Prussian state railways. It is now entirely in Belgium, because the trackbed of the line, as well as the stations and other installations, were made provisional Belgian territory in 1919 under an article of the Treaty of Versailles.
The Treaty of Maastricht, signed in 1843 by Belgium and the Netherlands four years after the Treaty of London established Belgian independence, finally settled the border between the two countries.
The Wire of Death was a lethal electric fence created by the German military to control the Dutch–Belgian frontier after the occupation of Belgium during the First World War.
Zondereigen is a village in the municipality of Baarle-Hertog, in the province of Antwerp, Belgium. In 2021, it was home to 478 inhabitants. Zondereigen borders the Dutch province of North Brabant, and contains a Dutch enclave.
The Belgium–Netherlands border separates Belgium and the Netherlands and is 450 km (280 mi) long.