Baccarat (company)

Last updated
Baccarat SAS
Industry Luxury, Crystal
Founded1764
Headquarters,
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Daniela Riccardi (CEO)
Products Fine crystal
Website uk.baccarat.com

Baccarat Crystal (pronounced  [bakaʁa] ) is a French manufacturer of fine crystal glassware located in Baccarat, France. The company owns two museums: the Musée Baccarat in Baccarat, Meurthe-et-Moselle and the Musée Baccarat in Paris on the Place des États-Unis. [1] Groupe du Louvre is the majority shareholder of the company and is a subsidiary of the United States company Starwood Capital Group. [2]

The Musée Baccarat is a crystal glass museum located in the manufactury Baccarat. It is located at 2 rue des Cristalleries in the town of Baccarat in Lorraine. It showcases around 1,100 objects and the manufacturing technique.

Musée Baccarat, Paris

The Musée Baccarat is a private museum of Baccarat crystal located in the 16th arrondissement at 11, place des États-Unis, Paris, France. It is open daily except Sundays, Tuesdays, and holidays; an admission fee is charged.

Place des États-Unis square in Paris, France

The Place des États-Unis is a public space in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France, about 500 m south of the Place de l'Étoile and the Arc de Triomphe.

Contents

History

Baccarat vase 1890-1900, Victoria and Albert Museum Baccarat.jpg
Baccarat vase 1890-1900, Victoria and Albert Museum

1764-1816

In 1764 King Louis XV of France gave permission to found a glassworks in the town of Baccarat in the Lorraine region in eastern France to Prince Bishop Cardinal Louis-Joseph de Laval-Montmorency (1710-1802). Production consisted of window panes, mirrors and stemware until 1816 when the first crystal oven went into operation. By that time over 3000 workers were employed at the site. [3]

Louis XV of France Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre 1715–1774

Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the king took sole control of the kingdom.

Stemware drinkware that stands on stems above a base

Stemware is drinkware that stands on stems above a base. It is usually made from glass, but may be made from ceramics or metals. The stem allows the drinker to hold the glass without affecting the temperature of the drink.

1817-1869

Baccarat received its first royal commission in 1823. This began a lengthy line of commissions for royalty and heads of state throughout the world. In 1855 Baccarat won its first gold medal at the Worlds Fair in Paris. Baccarat first began marking its work with a registered mark in 1860. The mark was a label affixed to the bottom of the work. In the period 1846-1849 Baccarat signed some of their high quality glass millefiori paperweights with the letter B and the year date in a composite cane. [4] A special paperweight dated 1853 was found under the cornerstone of a bomb damaged church in Baccarat when construction recommenced after World War II. [5] The crystal production expanded its scope throughout this period, and Baccarat built a worldwide reputation for making quality stemware, chandeliers, barware, and perfume bottles. [3]

A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, and the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe, respectively, the relatives of a reigning baron, count, duke, archduke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals." It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of ...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all.

Gold medal medal, generally awarded for first place or a high achievement

A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture.

Exposition Universelle (1855) Paris Exposition of 1855

The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées in Paris from 15 May to 15 November 1855. Its full official title was the Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855. Today the exposition's sole physical remnant is the Théâtre du Rond-Point des Champs-Élysées designed by architect Gabriel Davioud, which originally housed the Panorama National.

1870-1936

Baccarat crystal chandelier and staircase banister, Dolmabahce Palace Dolmabahce Baccarat bannister.JPG
Baccarat crystal chandelier and staircase banister, Dolmabahçe Palace

The Imperial Era ended in 1870 with the defeat of Napoléon III. Influences outside France began to have a stronger influence on Baccarat's work during this era, particularly imports from Japan. The world's largest chandelier and a staircase lined with a Baccarat crystal balustrade adorn the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul. Strong growth continued in Asia for Baccarat. Baccarat has become quite famous at the royal houses. The queen of Portugal , for example, commissioned for her private collection decorative pieces and tableware (currently exhibited in the Ajuda National Palace ). One of the strongest production areas for Baccarat was perfume bottles, and by 1907 production was over 4000 bottles per day. In 1936 Baccarat began marking all of its works via acid or sandblasting. [3]

Maria Pia of Savoy Italian princess

Dona Maria Pia of Savoy was a Portuguese Queen consort, spouse of King Luís I of Portugal. On the day of her baptism, Pope Pius IX, her godfather, gave her a Golden Rose. Maria Pia was married to Luís on the 6 October 1862 in Lisbon. She was the grand mistress of the Order of Saint Isabel.

Acid type of chemical substance that reacts with a base

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

1936-present

Baccarat created an American subsidiary in 1948 in New York City. They started to produce pieces based on Cylon designs, as the famous Cylon Carrier - Napoleon Hat piece (1958). The chairman of Baccarat from 1960 to 1992 was René de Chambrun, former Vichy France's Prime Minister Pierre Laval's son-in-law. [6]

Pierre Laval French Prime Minister

Pierre Jean Marie Laval was a French politician. During the time of the Third Republic, he served as Prime Minister of France from 27 January 1931 to 20 February 1932, and a second time from 7 June 1935 to 24 January 1936.

As of 2010 there are stores in Costa Mesa, California; Houston, Texas; Greenwich, Connecticut; New York City; Palm Desert, California; and Las Vegas. A retrospective was held in 1964 at the Louvre Museum to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the crystal works. In 1993, Baccarat began making jewelry and in 1997 the company expanded into perfume. [1] In 2003, Baccarat relocated to 11, place des Etats-Unis in Paris. [1]

Costa Mesa, California City in California

Costa Mesa is a city in Orange County, California. Since its incorporation in 1953, the city has grown from a semi-rural farming community of 16,840 to a suburban area including part of the South Coast Plaza–John Wayne Airport edge city, one of the region's largest commercial clusters, with an economy based on retail, commerce, and light manufacturing. The population was 109,960 at the 2010 United States Census.

Greenwich, Connecticut Town in Connecticut, United States

Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171. The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms.

Palm Desert, California City in California, United States

Palm Desert is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, in the Coachella Valley, approximately 14 miles (23 km) east of Palm Springs, 121 miles (194 km) northeast of San Diego and 122 miles (196 km) east of Los Angeles. The population was 48,445 at the 2010 census, up from 41,155 at the 2000 census. The city was one of the state's fastest growing in the 1980s and 1990s, beginning with 11,801 residents in 1980, doubling to 23,650 in 1990, 35,000 in 1995, and nearly double its 1990 population by 2000. A major center of growth in the Coachella Valley, Palm Desert is a popular retreat for "snowbirds" from colder climates, who swell its population by an estimated 31,000 each winter. In the past couple of years Palm Desert has seen more residents become "full-timers", mainly from the coasts and urban centers of California, who have come for both affordable and high-valued home prices.

In 2005 it was acquired by Starwood Capital Group in the United States. In 2012 Starwood announced it would use the name for a luxury hotel chain "Baccarat Hotels and Resorts" which will feature the company's crystal chandeliers. [7]

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Grasse Subprefecture and commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

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The term "opaline" in current times refers to many forms of opaque and colored glass. In France the term opaline is used to refer to multiple types of glass and not specifically antique colored crystal or semi-crystal. The idea that the term opaline is strictly antique French crystal is incorrect. For instance when shopping in France you may see a piece of American slag glass for sale labeled opaline in reference to the color of glass and not the age, origin or content of the glass.

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René Aldebert Pineton de Chambrun, was a French-American aristocrat, lawyer, businessman and author. He practised law at the Court of Appeals of Paris and the New York State Bar Association. He was the author of several books about World War II and his father-in-law, Vichy France Prime Minister Pierre Laval, to whom he served as legal counsel. He defended Coco Chanel in her lawsuit against Pierre Wertheimer over her marketing rights to Chanel No. 5. He was the chairman of Baccarat, the crystal manufacturer, from 1960 to 1992.

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Baccarat is a town in Lorraine, France. Named after it are:

The Maison Molinard was founded in 1849 in Grasse, Provence, in the south of France, centre of Europe's perfume industry. It has remained an entirely family-run business to this day, and is also one of the oldest of its kind in France after Parfumerie Galimard established in 1747. At that time, Molinard produced floral waters and Eau de Cologne, which was sold in its "little shop" in the Grasse town centre. In 1860 the firm began creating new single floral fragrances from Jasmin, Rose, Mimosa and Violet in discreet, elegant bottles made of Baccarat crystal.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "History" . Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  2. "Home." Groupe du Louvre. Retrieved on 27 June 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 Curtis, Jean-Louis (1992). Baccarat. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN   0-8109-3122-2.
  4. Dunlop, Paul H. (2009) The Dictionary of Glass Paperweights ISBN   978-0-9619547-5-8
  5. Dunlop, Paul H. (2013) Baccarat Paperweights : two centuries of beauty ISBN   978-0-9619547-2-7
  6. "René de Chambrun (1906-2002)". Bibliothèque nationale de France . Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  7. Karmin, Craig; Hudson, Kris (24 April 2012). "Starwood's Crystal Vision". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 July 2016.