Different districts of Badakhshan Province
Map of Afghanistan with Badakhshan highlighted
|• Governor||Mohammad Zakaria Sawda|
|• Total||44,059 km2 (17,011 sq mi)|
|• Density||24/km2 (63/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||AF-BDS|
|Main languages||Dari, Khowar, Kyrgyz, Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi, Wakhi, Persian|
Badakhshan Province (Dari/Pashto: بدخشان), Badaxšān) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the farthest north-eastern part of the country between Tajikistan and Pakistan's Gilgit-Baltistan region. It shares a 91-kilometer (57-mile) border with China.
It is part of a broader historical Badakhshan region. The province contains 22 to 28 districts, over 1,200 villages and approximately 1,054,087 people.Fayzabad serves as the provincial capital.
Badakhshan is primarily bordered by Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province and Khatlon Province in Tajikistan to the north and east. In the east of the province a long spur called the Wakhan Corridor extends above northern Pakistan's Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan to a border with China. The province has a total area of 44,059 square kilometres (17,011 sq mi), most of which is occupied by the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges.
Badakhshan was a stopover on the ancient Silk Road trading path and China has shown great interest in the province since the fall of the Taliban, helping to reconstruct roads and infrastructure.
According to the World Wildlife Fund,[ citation needed ] Badakhshan contains temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, as well as Gissaro-Alai open woodlands along the Pamir River. Common plants found in these areas include pistachio, almond, walnut, apple, juniper, and sagebrush.
Montane grasslands and shrublands are existent in the province, with the Hindu Kush alpine meadow in the high mountains in the northern and southwestern regions.
The Wakhan corridor contains two montane grassland and shrubland regions: the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe and in the Pamir Mountains and Kuh-e Safed Khers in Darwaz region.
South of Fayzabad the terrain becomes dominated by deserts and xeric shrublands. Common vegetation includes thorny bushes, zizyphus, acacia, and Amygdatus. Paropamisus xeric woodlands can be found in the province's northwestern and central areas. Common vegetation includes almond, pistachio, willows, and sea-buckthorn.
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|History of Afghanistan|
|Related historical names of the region|
The Achaemenid Empire conquered the area in the 1st millennium BC. Badakhshan etymologically derives from the Middle Persian word badaxš, an official title. The suffix of the name, -ān, means the region belonged to someone with the title badaxš.
The territory was ruled by the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century. It was given to Ahmad Shah Durrani by Murad Beg of Bukhara after a treaty of friendship was reached in or about 1750 and became part of the Durrani Empire. It was ruled by the Durranis followed by the Barakzai dynasty, and was untouched by the British during the three Anglo-Afghan Wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries. It remained peaceful for about 100 years until the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War at which point the Mujahideen began a rebellion against the central Afghan government.
During the 1990s, much of the area was controlled by forces loyal to Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Massoud,who were de facto the national government until 1996. Badakhshan was the only province that the Taliban did not conquer during their rule from 1996 to 2001. However, during the course of the wars a non-Taliban Islamic emirate was established in Badakhshan by Mawlawi Shariqi, paralleling the Islamic Revolutionary State of Afghanistan in neighboring Nuristan. Rabbani, a Badakhshan native, and Massoud were the last remnants of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance during the peak of Taliban control in 2001.
Badakhshan was thus one of the few provinces of the country that witnessed little insurgency in the Afghan wars – however, during the 2010s Taliban insurgents managed to attack and take control of several districts in the province.
On 26 October 2015, the 7.5 Mw Hindu Kush earthquake shook northern Afghanistan with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). This earthquake destroyed almost 30,000 homes, left several hundred dead, and more than 1,700 injured.
The current Governor of the province is Ahmad Bashir Samim.His predecessors were Mohammad Zekeria Soda. The borders with neighboring Tajikistan, China, and Pakistan are monitored by the Afghan Border Police (ABP). All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). A provincial Police Chief is assigned to lead both the ANP and the ABP. The Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by the military, including the NATO-led forces.
Fayzabad, the capital of Badakhshan province, sits on the Kokcha River and has an approximate population of 50,000. The chief commercial and administrative center of northeast Afghanistan and the Pamir region, Fayzabad also has rice and flour mills.
Fayzabad Airport serves the province with regular direct flights to Kabul.
The percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 13% in 2005 to 21% in 2011.The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 1.5% in 2003 to 2% in 2011.
Badakhshan University is located in Fayzabad, a city which also has a number of public schools including an all-girls school.
The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) fell from 31% in 2005 to 26% in 2011.The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 46% in 2005 to 68% in 2011.
Despite massive mineral reserves, Badakhshan is one of the most destitute areas in the world. Opium poppy growing is the only real source of income in the province and Badakhshan has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, due to the complete lack of health infrastructure, inaccessible locations, and bitter winters of the province.
Lapis lazuli has been mined in the Sar-e-Sang mines, located in the Kuran wa Munjan District of Badakhshan, for over 6,000 years. The mines were the largest and most well-known source in ancient times.Most recent mining activity has focused on lapis lazuli, with the proceeds from the lapis mines being used to fund Northern Alliance troops, and before that, anti-Soviet Mujahideen fighters. Recent geological surveys have indicated the location of other gemstone deposits, in particular rubies and emeralds. It is estimated that the mines at Kuran wa Munjan District hold up to 1,290 tonnes of azure (lapis lazuli). Exploitation of this mineral wealth could be key to the region's prosperity.
On 5 October 2018 in Washington, D.C., Afghan officials signed a 30-year contract involving a $22 million investment by investment group Centar and its operating company, Afghan Gold and Minerals Co., to explore and develop an area of Badakhshan for gold mining.
The province is represented in Afghan domestic cricket competitions by the Badakhshan Province cricket team BORNA Cricket Club which belongs to BORNA Institute of Higher Education is coming up with its own team and will be groomed by the experts in the field of cricket.
As of 2020, the population of the province is about 1,054,087, which is a multi-ethnic rural society.Dari-speaking Tajiks make up the majority followed by a few Uzbeks, Hazaras, Pashtuns, Kyrgyz, Qizilbash, and others. There are also speakers of the following Pamiri languages: Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi, and Wakhi.
The inhabitants of the province are mostly Sunni Muslims, although there are also some Ismaili Shias.
Historical population estimates for Badakhshan province are as follows:
|Argo||90,165||1,032 km2||145 villages.Tajik.|
|Baharak||Baharak||33,119||328 km2||51 villages. Tajik.|
|Darayim||70,834||570 km2||101 villages. Tajik.|
|Fayzabad||Fayzabad||78,757||514 km2||175 villages. Tajik.|
|Ishkashim||Ishkashim||15,951||1,123 km2||43 villages.|
|Jurm||43,445||1286 km2||75 villages. Tajik|
|Khash||43,798||264 km2||21 villages. Tajik|
|Khwahan||Khwahan||19,060||80 km2||46 villages. Tajik.|
|Kishim||Mashhad||93,004||264 km2||100 villages. Tajik|
|Kohistan||19,061||13 villages. Tajik|
|Kuf Ab||Qal`eh-ye Kuf||25,684||Tajik|
|Keran wa Menjan||Keran wa Menjan||10,949||1,588 km2||42 villages. 100% Tajik.|
|Nusay||Nusay||26,631||4,589 km2||16 villages. Tajik.|
|Raghistan||Ziraki||45,556||25 villages. Tajik.|
|Shahri Buzurg||Shahri Buzurg||60,155||956 km2||74 villages.|
|Sheghnan||Shughnan||27,750||3528 km2||28 villages. Khowar, Tajik and Qizilbash.|
|Shekay||Jarf||30,280||1,700 km2||38 villages. Tajik, etc.|
|Shuhada||39,742||1,521 km2||62 villages. 99% Tajik and 1% others.|
|Tishkan||34,336||812 km2||57 villages. Tajik.|
|Wakhan||Khandud||17,167||10,953 km2||110 villages. Tajik.|
|Warduj||25,144||929 km2||45 villages. Tajik.|
|Yaftali Sufla||60,695||605 km2||93 villages. Tajik.|
|Yamgan||29,604||1,779 km2||39 villages. 100% Tajik|
|Zebak||Zebak||9,057||1,521 km2||62 villages. 99% Tajik and 1% others.|
Burhānuddīn Rabbānī was an Afghan politician who served as President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992 to 2001, though after 1996 his government only controlled a small fraction of Afghanistan. After the Taliban government was toppled during Operation Enduring Freedom, Rabbani returned to Kabul and served as President from November to 20 December 2001, when Hamid Karzai was chosen at the Bonn International Conference on Afghanistan.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep-blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Badakhshan is a historic region comprising parts of what is now north-eastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan, and the Tashkurgan county in China. The name is retained in Badakhshan Province, which is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan and is located in Northeastern Afghanistan. Much of historic Badakhshan lies within Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, located in the southeastern part of the country. The music of Badakhshan is an important part of the region's cultural heritage.
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The Wakhan Corridor is a narrow strip of territory in Afghanistan, extending to China and separating Tajikistan from Pakistan and Kashmir. The corridor, wedged between the Pamir Mountains to the north and the Karakoram range to the south, is about 350 km (220 mi) long and 13–65 kilometres (8–40 mi) wide. From this high mountain valley the Panj and Pamir rivers emerge and form the Amu Darya. A trade route through the valley has been used by travellers going to and from East, South and Central Asia since antiquity.
Jowzjan, sometimes spelled as Jawzjan or Jozjan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan. The province is divided into 11 districts and contains hundreds of villages. It has a population of about 613,481, which is multi-ethnic and mostly agriculturalists. Sheberghan is the capital of Jozjan province.
Uruzgan, also spelled as Urozgan or Oruzgan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. Uruzgan is located in the center of the country. The population is 436,079, and the province is mostly a tribal society. Tarinkot serves as the capital of the province.
Takhar is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeast of the country next to Tajikistan. It is surrounded by Badakhshan in the east, Panjshir in the south, and Baghlan and Kunduz in the west. The city of Taloqan serves as its capital.
Panjshir is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country. The province is divided into seven districts and contains 512 villages. As of 2020, the population of Panjshir province was about 169,926. Bazarak serves as the provincial capital. It is estimated that more than 700,000 people from Panjshir province, live in other provinces in Afghanistan, particularly in the city of Kabul.
The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region is an autonomous region in eastern Tajikistan. Located in the Pamir Mountains, it makes up 45% of the land area of the country but only 3% of its population.
Wakhan or "the Wakhan" is a rugged, mountainous part of the Pamir, Hindu Kush and Karakoram regions of Afghanistan. Wakhan District is a district in Badakshan Province.
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Mount Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast. The term was used by Hellenistic-era scholars as "Imaus Mount", even though non-Greek in etymology, and predating Alexander the Great.
Langar is a village in the Wakhan District, Badakhshan Province in north-eastern Afghanistan. It lies on the river Panj, opposite the larger village of Toqakhona in Tajikistan.
The Kokcha River is located in northeastern Afghanistan. A tributary of the Panj river, it flows through Badakhshan Province in the Hindu Kush. The city of Feyzabad lies along the Kokcha. Near the village of Artin Jelow there is a bridge over the river.
Fayzabad is a city in northeast Afghanistan, with a population of about 30,000 people. It serves as the provincial capital and largest city of Badakhshan Province. It is situated in Fayzabad District and is at an altitude of 1,200 m. (3,937 ft.).
Alhaj Zulmay Mujadidi is a member of the Afghan Lower House of Parliament from the Badakhshan Province and one of President Hamid Karzai's most loyal followers in the northeast of Afghanistan.
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