Baden-Baden

Last updated
Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden 10-2015 img05 View from Merkur.jpg
View of Baden-Baden from Mount Merkur.
Flag of Baden-Baden.svg
Stadtwappen der Stadt Baden-Baden.svg
Location of Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Baden-Baden
Baden-Wuerttemberg location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Baden-Baden
Coordinates: 48°45′46″N08°14′27″E / 48.76278°N 8.24083°E / 48.76278; 8.24083 Coordinates: 48°45′46″N08°14′27″E / 48.76278°N 8.24083°E / 48.76278; 8.24083
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
District Urban district
Government
   Lord mayor (201422) Margret Mergen [1] (CDU)
Area
  Total140.18 km2 (54.12 sq mi)
Elevation
181 m (594 ft)
Population
 (2020-12-31) [2]
  Total55,449
  Density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
76530–76534
Dialling codes 07221, 07223
Vehicle registration BAD
Website baden-baden.de
Part of The Great Spa Towns of Europe
Criteria Cultural: (ii)(iii)
Reference 1613
Inscription2021 (44th Session)

Baden-Baden (German pronunciation: [ˈbaːdn̩ ˈbaːdn̩] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a spa town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, ten kilometres (six miles) east of the Rhine, the border with France, and forty kilometres (twenty-five miles) north-east of Strasbourg, France.

Contents

In 2021, the town became part of the transnational UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name "Great Spa Towns of Europe", because of its famous spas and architecture that exemplifies the popularity of spa towns in Europe in the 18th through 20th centuries. [3]

Name

The springs at Baden-Baden were known to the Romans as Aquae ("The Waters") [4] and Aurelia Aquensis ("Aurelia-of-the-Waters") after M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus. [5]

In modern German, Baden is a noun meaning "bathing" [6] but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad ("bath"). [7] (Modern German uses the plural form Bäder .) [8] As with the English placename "Bath", other Badens are at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others, [7] particularly Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland. The original Margraviate of Baden (1112-1535) split into several territories, including Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach. The name "Baden-Baden" distinguished the Margraviate of Baden-Baden (1535–1771), from the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach. "Baden-Baden" thus means the town of Baden in the territory of Baden, whereas the name of the Margraviate of Baden-Baden meant "the Margraviate of Baden with its princely seat at Baden". Baden-Baden formally got its current name in 1931. [9]

Geography

Baden-Baden lies in a valley [10] of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany. [11] The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe (1,002.5 m above  sea level (NHN) [12] ), which is part of the Black Forest National Park. The old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. [10] Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. [10] There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from 46 to 67 °C (115 to 153 °F). [10] The water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m (5,900 ft) under Florentine Hill [13] at a rate of 341 litres (90 gallons) per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths. [10]

History

Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority. [5] The known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 [5] and date to the reign of Caracalla (AD 210s), [11] who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. [14] The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg. [11]

The town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. [11] By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden. [11] The Lichtenthal Convent (Kloster Lichtenthal) was founded in 1254. [11] The margraves initially used Hohenbaden Castle (the Old Castle, Altes Schloss), whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle (Neues Schloss) in 1479. [5] The Margraviate was divided in 1535, with Baden-Baden becoming the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Baden, while the other portion became the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach. The Baden-Baden witch trials, an investigating encompassing the entire territory and resulting in hundreds of verdicts, took place in 1627-1631. Baden suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, particularly at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643. [5] They returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. [11] The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706. [5] The Stiftskirche was rebuilt in 1753 [11] and houses the tombs of several of the margraves. [5]

The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution. [11] The town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99[ citation needed ] and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. [11] She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, rheumatism, paralysis, neuralgia, skin disorders, and stones. [15] The Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development. [5] The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, [16] horse races, and the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, and Berlioz. [14] The pumproom (Trinkhalle) was completed in 1842. [10] The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845.[ citation needed ] Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and '60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". [11] With a population of around 10000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British, Russians, and Americans all well represented. [10] (French tourism fell off following the Franco-Prussian War.) [15]

The theater was completed in 1861 [10] and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the prince of Moldavia Mihail Sturdza after he died during a family vacation. [17] A Russian Orthodox church was also subsequently erected. [15] The casino was closed for a time in the 1870s. [10]

Baden-Baden in 1910 Black Forest Autochrome 05 Baden-Baden.jpg
Baden-Baden in 1910

Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70000 visitors each year. [15]

During the Second World War, 3.1% of the houses in Baden-Baden were completely destroyed by bombs and 125 civilians were killed. [18] 5.8% of the houses were heavily damaged by bombs. [19] Lichtenthal, a residential area in the southwest of the town, was hit by bombs and Saint Bonifatius Church was severely damaged on 11 March 1943. [20] Balg, a residential area in the northeast of Baden-Baden, was hit by bombs on 17 December 1944. On 30 December 1944 one third of the buildings of Oos (i.e. about 300 houses), a residential area in the north of the town, was destroyed or heavily damaged by bombs and Saint Dionysius Church was severely damaged as well. On 2 January 1945 the railway station of Oos and various barracks on Schwarzwald Road were heavily damaged by bombs. [21] After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, which is now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's Kurhaus. The Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998.

CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km (6 mi) west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a civil airport in the 1990s. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport, or Baden Airpark is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg by number of passengers. [22]

In 1981 Baden-Baden hosted the Olympic Congress, which later has made the town awarded the designation Olympic town.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is precipitation year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). [23]

Climate data for Baden-Baden
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)4
(39)
6
(42)
11
(51)
14
(57)
19
(66)
22
(71)
24
(76)
24
(76)
21
(69)
14
(57)
8
(46)
5
(41)
14
(58)
Average low °C (°F)−1
(30)
−1
(30)
2
(36)
4
(39)
8
(47)
12
(54)
14
(57)
13
(56)
11
(51)
7
(44)
2
(36)
0
(32)
6
(43)
Average precipitation days221820192121171615181821226
Source: Weatherbase [24]

Lord Mayors

Tourism

Baden-Baden is a German spa town. [25] The city offers many options for sports enthusiasts; [14] golf and tennis are both popular in the area. [14] Horse races take place each May, August and October at nearby Iffezheim. [14] The countryside is ideal for hiking and mountain climbing. [14] In the winter Baden-Baden is a skiing destination. [14] There is an 18-hole golf course in Fremersberg. [26]

Sights include:

Transport

Road

The main road link is autobahn A5 between Freiburg and Frankfurt, which is 10 km away from the city.

There are two stations providing intercity bus services: one next to the main railway station and one at the airport. [29]

Railway

Baden-Baden has three stations, Baden-Baden station being the most important of them.

Air

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is an airport located in Baden-Baden that also serves the city of Karlsruhe. It is Baden-Württemberg's second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016 [30] and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.

Twin towns – sister cities

Baden-Baden is twinned with: [31]

Artistic depiction

Baden featured in Tolstoy's Anna Karenina (under an alias) [14] and Turgenev's Smoke . Dostoyevsky wrote The Gambler while compulsively gambling at the town's casino. [16] [32]

The novel Summer in Baden-Baden by Leonid Tsypkin is inspired in Dostoyevsky's visit to this resort.

The 1975 film The Romantic Englishwoman was filmed on location in Baden-Baden, featuring the Brenner's Park Hotel particularly prominently. The 1997 Bollywood movie Dil To Pagal Hai was also shot in the town.[ citation needed ]

Baden-Baden is the subject of a pop song by Finnish songwriter Chisu of how the economic woes of Finland could be solved by selling bottled tears to Europe (specifically Baden-Baden).

Notable people

Emil Kessler Emil Kessler.jpg
Emil Kessler
Francis Pigou Francispigou.jpg
Francis Pigou
Sir William Des Voeux Sir G. William Des Voeux.jpg
Sir William Des Vœux
Anna Zerr Anna Zerr Kriehuber.jpg
Anna Zerr
Antoinette Bower, 1961 Antoinette Bower.JPG
Antoinette Bower, 1961

Public service & commerce

The arts

Science

Sport

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport</span> Airport in Rheinmünster, Germany

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the international airport of Karlsruhe, the second-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, and also serves the spa town of Baden-Baden. It is the state's second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016 and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ettlingen</span> Town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Ettlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of the city of Karlsruhe and approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the border with Lauterbourg, in France's Bas-Rhin department. Ettlingen is the second largest town in the district of Karlsruhe, after Bruchsal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margraviate of Baden</span> Historical German border state

The Margraviate of Baden was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Germany, it was named a margraviate in 1112 and existed until 1535, when it was split into the two margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. The two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden. The rulers of Baden, known as the House of Baden, were a cadet line of the Swabian House of Zähringen.

Graben-Neudorf is a town in Northern Karlsruhe Country in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was created when the two communities of Graben and Neudorf were united on January 1, 1972. With this union Neudorf was transferred from the district of Bruchsal to the district of Karlsruhe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Backnang Abbey</span>

The Abbey of Saint Pancras of Backnang, better known as Backnang Abbey, was a German monastery of canons regular founded around AD 1100 in Backnang, in the Duchy of Swabia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach</span> Margrave of Baden-Durlach

Charles III William was Margrave of Baden-Durlach between 1709 and 1738. He was the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. In 1715, he established Karlsruhe, where he built his residence. Karlsruhe has since grown to a large city. With the consolidation of public finances and the creation of a reliable administration, he laid the foundations for the reform policies of his grandson, Charles Frederick.

Margraviate of Baden-Durlach German principality from 1535 to 1771

The Margraviate of Baden-Durlach was an early modern territory of the Holy Roman Empire, which existed from 1535 to 1771.

Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach

Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach was a German nobleman, who ruled as margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1622 to his death. He was succeeded by his son Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Magdalena Wilhelmine of Württemberg</span>

Magdalena Wilhelmine of Württemberg was a margravine of Baden. She had a place in the regency during the minority of her grandson in 1738-42.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margraviate of Baden-Baden</span>

The Margraviate of Baden-Baden was an early modern southwest German territory within the Holy Roman Empire. It was created in 1535 along with the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach as a result of the division of the Margraviate of Baden. Its territory consisted of a core area on the middle stretch of the Upper Rhine around the capital city of Baden, as well as lordships on the Moselle and Nahe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ernest, Margrave of Baden-Durlach</span>

Margrave Ernest I of Baden-Durlach was the founder of the so-called "Ernestine" line of the House of Baden, the line from which the later Grand Dukes descended. He was the ruling Margrave of Baden-Pforzheim from 1533 and resided in Pforzheim from 1537. In 1565, his son Charles II moved the capital to Durlach and thereby changed the name of his country to Baden-Durlach. He had to deal with the upcoming Reformation and the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe. In this turbulent time, he tried to maintain a neutral position between the Protestants and Catholics. He did not participate in the Schmalkaldic War.

Bad Rotenfels is a district in the city of Gaggenau, district of Rastatt, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located some 8 km northeast of Baden-Baden.

Oos has been a district of Baden-Baden (Germany) since 1928 and has a population of 7207. Its name is derived from the river Oos, which runs through Baden-Baden.

Countess Palatine Irmengard of the Rhine, also known as Irmengard of Baden was Margravine of Baden by her marriage to Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden. She brought the city of Pforzheim into the marriage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baden</span> Historical territory in South Germany and North Switzerland

Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, in earlier times on both sides of the Upper Rhine but since the Napoleonic Wars only East of the Rhine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yburg Castle</span> German castle

The Yburg is a ruined hilltop castle atop the Yberg, on the western edge of the Black Forest near Baden-Baden, in southwestern Germany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neureut (Karlsruhe)</span> Borough of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Neureut is the northernmost borough of the German city of Karlsruhe. It was the most populous rural community of Baden-Württemberg before being incorporated into Karlsruhe on 14 February 1975. Its population is about 18,900 people as of December 2020.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Friedrichsbad</span> Baden-Baden bath

The Friedrichsbad is a spa in the city of Baden-Baden in Germany. The Neo-renaissance spa building was completed in 1877.

The Baden Army was the military organisation of the German state Baden until 1871. The origins of the army were a combination of units that the Baden margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden had set up in the Baroque era, and the standing army of the Swabian Circle, to which both territories had to contribute troops. The reunification of the two small states to form the Margraviate of Baden in 1771 and its subsequent enlargement and elevation by Napoleon to become the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806 created both the opportunity and obligation to maintain a larger army, which Napoleon used in his campaigns against Austria, Prussia and Spain and, above all, Russia. After the end of Napoleon's rule, the Grand Duchy of Baden contributed a division to the German Federal Army. In 1848, Baden troops helped to suppress the Hecker uprising, but a year later a large number sided with the Baden revolutionaries. After the violent suppression of the revolution by Prussian and Württemberg troops, the army was re-established and fought in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 on the side of Austria and the southern German states, as well as in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 on the German side. When Baden joined the German Reich in 1870/71, the Grand Duchy gave up its military sovereignty and the Baden troops became part of the XIV Army Corps of the Imperial German Army.

References

  1. Aktuelle Wahlergebnisse, Staatsanzeiger, accessed 11 September 2021.
  2. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2020" [Population by nationality and sex as of December 31, 2020](CSV). Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). June 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2021.
  3. Landwehr, Andreas (24 July 2021). "'Great Spas of Europe' awarded UNESCO World Heritage status". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  4. Patricia Erfurt-Cooper; Malcolm Cooper (2009). Health and Wellness Tourism: Spas and Hot Springs. Channel View Publications. p. 67. ISBN   978-1-84541-111-4.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EB (1878), p. 227.
  6. Messinger, Heinz; Türck, Gisela; Willmann, Helmut, eds. (1993), "bath·ing", Langenscheidt's Compact Dictionary: German
  7. 1 2 Charnock (1859), "Baden", Local Etymology, p. 23
  8. Messinger, Heinz; Türck, Gisela; Willmann, Helmut, eds. (1993), "Bad", Langenscheidt's Compact Dictionary: German
  9. Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, ed. (1976). Das Land Baden-Württemberg. Amtliche Beschreibung nach Kreisen und Gemeinden. V. Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe[The State of Baden-Württemberg. Official description of administrative districts and municipalities. Volume 5 Karlsruhe administrative district] (in German). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. p. 12. ISBN   3-17-002542-2.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EB (1878), p. 226.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 EB (2015).
  12. Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation
  13. "Caracalla-Therme". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Introduction to Baden-Baden". Frommer's . Retrieved 15 May 2009..
  15. 1 2 3 4 EB (1911).
  16. 1 2 "Spielbank". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-26.
  17. Winch (1967), Introducing Germany, p. 75
  18. Heinz Bardua (1975), Kommission für geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg (ed.), "Kriegsschäden in Baden-Württemberg 1939–1945: Beiwort zur Karte 7,11" (PDF), Historischer Atlas von Baden-Württemberg (in German), Leonberg, p. 13, retrieved 2018-01-26, Format: PDF, KBytes: 2300
  19. Statistisches Jahrbuch deutscher Gemeinden, p. 378. Braunschweig 1952
  20. Catholic Parish of Saint Bonifatius: Wir über uns, p. 3. Baden-Baden 2002
  21. Dieter Baeuerle et al. Stadtführer Baden-Baden, p. 14. Baden-Baden 1994
  22. "ADV Monthly Traffic Report 12/2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
  23. Climate Summary for Baden Baden
  24. "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on July 6, 2013.
  25. Bogue, David. Belgium and the Rhine. Oxford University. p. 102.
  26. "Active pursuits". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  27. "Baden-Baden Summer Nights". Frommer's . Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2009-05-28.
  28. "Sammlung Frieder Burda". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  29. "Baden-Baden: Stations". Travelinho.com.
  30. Flughafenverband ADV. "Flughafenverband ADV – Unsere Flughäfen: Regionale Stärke, Globaler Anschluss". adv.aero.
  31. "Partnerstädte von Baden-Baden". baden-baden.de (in German). Baden-Baden. Retrieved 2019-11-27.
  32. "The Russians are Coming (Back)", CNN Traveller, Atlanta: CNN, archived from the original on 23 December 2007, retrieved 22 July 2009
  33. "Des Vœux, William"  . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). 1912.

Bibliography

Further reading