Baden-Baden

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Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden 10-2015 img05 View from Merkur.jpg
View of Baden-Baden from Mount Merkur.
Stadtwappen der Stadt Baden-Baden.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
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Baden-Baden
Baden-Wuerttemberg location map.svg
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Baden-Baden
Coordinates: 48°45′46″N08°14′27″E / 48.76278°N 8.24083°E / 48.76278; 8.24083 Coordinates: 48°45′46″N08°14′27″E / 48.76278°N 8.24083°E / 48.76278; 8.24083
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
District Urban district
Government
   Mayor Margret Mergen (CDU)
Area
  Total140.18 km2 (54.12 sq mi)
Elevation
181 m (594 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total55,123
  Density390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
76530–76534
Dialling codes 07221, 07223
Vehicle registration BAD
Website baden-baden.de

Baden-Baden (Low Alemannic: Bade-Bade) is a spa town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, ten kilometres (six miles) east of the Rhine, the border with France, and forty kilometres (twenty-five miles) north-east of Strasbourg, France.

Contents

Name

The springs at Baden-Baden were known to the Romans as Aquae ("The Waters") [2] and Aurelia Aquensis ("Aurelia-of-the-Waters") after M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus. [3]

In modern German, Baden is a noun meaning "bathing" [4] but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad ("bath"). [5] (The modern plural has become Bäder .) [6] As with the English placename "Bath", various other Badens are at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others, [5] particularly Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland. The name Baden-Baden is a reference to the Margraviate of Baden (1535–1771), a territory named after the town. Baden-Baden thus means the town of Baden in the territory of Baden. Baden-Baden got its formal name in 1931. [7]

Geography

Baden-Baden lies in a valley [8] of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany. [9] The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe (1,002.5 m above  sea level (NHN) [10] ), which is part of the Black Forest National Park. The old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. [8] Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. [8] There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from 46 to 67 °C (115 to 153 °F). [8] The water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m (5,900 ft) under Florentine Hill [11] at a rate of 341 litres (90 gallons) per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths. [8]

History

Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority. [3] The known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 [3] and date to the reign of Caracalla (AD 210s), [9] who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. [12] The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg. [9]

The town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. [9] By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden. [9] The Lichtenthal Convent (Kloster Lichtenthal) was founded in 1254. [9] The margraves initially used Hohenbaden Castle (the Old Castle, Altes Schloss), whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle (Neues Schloss) in 1479. [3] Baden suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, particularly at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643. [3] They returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. [9] The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706. [3] The Stiftskirche was rebuilt in 1753 [9] and houses the tombs of several of the margraves. [3]

The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution. [9] The town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99[ citation needed ] and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. [9] She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, rheumatism, paralysis, neuralgia, skin disorders, and stones. [13] The Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development. [3] The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, [14] horse races, and the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, and Berlioz. [12] The pumproom (Trinkhalle) was completed in 1842. [8] The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845.[ citation needed ] Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and '60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". [9] With a population of around 10000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British, Russians, and Americans all well represented. [8] (French tourism fell off following the Franco-Prussian War.) [13]

The theater was completed in 1861 [8] and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the prince of Moldavia Mihail Sturdza after he died during a family vacation. [15] A Russian Orthodox church was also subsequently erected. [13] The casino was closed for a time in the 1870s. [8]

Baden-Baden in 1910 Black Forest Autochrome 05 Baden-Baden.jpg
Baden-Baden in 1910

Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70000 visitors each year. [13]

During the Second World War, 3.1% of the houses in Baden-Baden were completely destroyed by bombs and 125 civilians were killed. [16] 5.77% of the houses were heavily damaged by bombs. [17] Lichtenthal, a residential area in the southwest of the town, was hit by bombs and Saint Bonifatius Church was severely damaged on 11 March 1943. [18] Balg, a residential area in the northeast of Baden-Baden, was hit by bombs on 17 December 1944. On 30 December 1944 one third of the buildings of Oos (i.e. about 300 houses), a residential area in the north of the town, was destroyed or heavily damaged by bombs and Saint Dionysius Church was severely damaged as well. On 2 January 1945 the railway station of Oos and various barracks on Schwarzwald Road were heavily damaged by bombs. [19] After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, which is now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's Kurhaus. The Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998.

CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km (6 mi) west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a civil airport in the 1990s. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport, or Baden Airpark is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg by number of passengers. [20]

In 1981 Baden-Baden hosted the Olympic Congress, which later has made the town awarded the designation Olympic town.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is precipitation year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). [21]

Climate data for Baden-Baden
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)4
(39)
6
(42)
11
(51)
14
(57)
19
(66)
22
(71)
24
(76)
24
(76)
21
(69)
14
(57)
8
(46)
5
(41)
14
(58)
Average low °C (°F)−1
(30)
−1
(30)
2
(36)
4
(39)
8
(47)
12
(54)
14
(57)
13
(56)
11
(51)
7
(44)
2
(36)
0
(32)
6
(43)
Average precipitation days221820192121171615181821226
Source: Weatherbase [22]

Lord Mayors

Tourism

Baden-Baden is a German spa town. [23] The city offers many options for sports enthusiasts; [12] golf and tennis are both popular in the area. [12] Horse races take place each May, August and October at nearby Iffezheim. [12] The countryside is ideal for hiking and mountain climbing. [12] In the winter Baden-Baden is a skiing destination. [12] There is an 18-hole golf course in Fremersberg. [24]

Sights include:

Transport

Road

The main road link is autobahn A5 between Freiburg and Frankfurt, which is 10 km away from the city.

There are two stations providing intercity bus services: one next to the main railway station and one at the airport. [27]

Railway

Baden-Baden has three stations, Baden-Baden station being the most important of them.

Air

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is an airport located in Baden-Baden that serves also the city of Karlsruhe. It is the Baden-Württemberg second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016 [28] and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.

Twin towns - sister cities

Baden-Baden is twinned with: [29]

Artistic depiction

Baden featured in Tolstoy's Anna Karenina (under an alias) [12] and Turgenev's Smoke . Dostoyevsky wrote The Gambler while compulsively gambling at the town's casino. [14] [30]

The 1975 film The Romantic Englishwoman was filmed on location in Baden-Baden, featuring the Brenner's Park Hotel particularly prominently. The 1997 Bollywood movie Dil To Pagal Hai was also shot in the town.[ citation needed ]

Sons and daughters

Emil Kessler Emil Kessler.jpg
Emil Kessler
Anna Zerr Anna Zerr Kriehuber.jpg
Anna Zerr
Francis Pigou Francispigou.jpg
Francis Pigou
Sir William Des Voeux Sir G. William Des Voeux.jpg
Sir William Des Vœux
Alfred Doblin Alfred Doeblin 1930a.jpg
Alfred Döblin
Tony Marshall in 2009 THKorr Tony Marshall.jpg
Tony Marshall in 2009

16th to 18th century

19th century

20th century

See also

Related Research Articles

Badenweiler Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Badenweiler is a health resort and spa in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, historically in the Markgräflerland. It is 28 kilometers by road and rail from Basel, 10 kilometers from the French border, and 20 kilometers from Mulhouse. The nearest big city on the German side of the border is Freiburg, about 30 kilometers away. Badenweiler lies at the western edge of the Black Forest. It is sheltered by the Blauen, 1,164 m (3,820 ft), and the climate is excellent. Its parish (Evangelical) church (1897) was built at the foot of an 11th-century castle which belonged to the margraves of Baden and was destroyed by the French during the wars of Louis XV.

Baden-Württemberg State in Germany

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen, Tübingen and Ulm.

Karlsruhe City in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Karlsruhe is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, and its 309,999 (2016) inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, and the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south. It is the largest city of Baden, a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is also the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area, the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn. The city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), as well as of the Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof) and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice.

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport airport in Germany

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the international airport of Karlsruhe, the second-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, and also serves the spa town of Baden-Baden. It is the state's second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016 and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.

Mühlburg, formerly a town on its own right, is a borough located in the west of Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The name Mühlburg could be translated as 'Mill Castle' and refers to a water mill and a water castle located at the site where a Roman road once crossed the small river Alb.

Emmendingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Emmendingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district Emmendingen of Germany. It is located at the Elz River, 14 km (8.7 mi) north of Freiburg im Breisgau. The town contains more than 26,000 residents, which is the most in the Emmendingen district.

Gengenbach Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Gengenbach is a town in the district of Ortenau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a popular tourist destination on the western edge of the Black Forest with about 11,000 inhabitants. Gengenbach is well known for its traditional Alemanic "fasnacht", ("Fasend"), a kind of historically influenced celebration of carnival, where tradition is followed, from wearing costumes with carved wooden masks to clapping with a "Ratsche". Gengenbach also boasts a picturesque, traditional, medieval town centre ("Altstadt"). The traditional town Gengenbach is the proud owner of the world's biggest advent calendar. The 24 windows of the 18th century town hall represent the 24 "windows" of an Advent calendar. The town also hosts a department of The Graduate School of Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, part of the University of Applied Sciences Offenburg. The nearest cities in the region are Offenburg, Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Baden-Baden and Strasbourg/France. Gengenbach is twinned with the town of Obernai, Alsace, France.

Bad Liebenzell Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Bad Liebenzell is a spa town in the Nagold River valley, the northern part of the Black Forest. It was first mentioned in 1090 and is the heart of the Liebenzeller Mission.

Residenz building or town where a sovereign ruler resided

Residenz is a German word for "place of living", now obsolete except in the formal sense of an official residence. A related term, Residenzstadt, denotes a city where a sovereign ruler resided, therefore carrying a similar meaning as the modern expressions seat of government or capital. As there were many sovereign rulers in the Holy Roman Empire, ranking from Lord (Herr) to prince elector and king, there are many cities, palaces, and castles in this territory which used to be a residenz and are partially still so referred to today. The former residenz status of a city is frequently reflected by the architecture of its center. During the baroque period especially, many prestigious buildings were erected, sometimes even new towns were founded. Today, former Residenzstädte mostly still serve as cultural and administrative centers.

Bad Wildbad Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Bad Wildbad is a town in Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located in the government district (Regierungsbezirk) of Karlsruhe and in the district (Landkreis) of Calw. Its coordinates are 48° 45' N, 8° 33' E. About 10,130 people live there. The current mayor is Klaus Mack.

Backnang Abbey human settlement in Germany

The Abbey of Saint Pancras of Backnang, better known as Backnang Abbey, was a German monastery of canons regular founded around AD 1100 in Backnang, in the Duchy of Swabia.

Gaggenau Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Gaggenau is a town in the district of Rastatt, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located some 8 km northeast of Baden-Baden.

Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach Margrave of Baden-Durlach

Charles III William was Margrave of Baden-Durlach between 1709 and 1738. He was the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. In 1715, he established Karlsruhe, where he built his residence. Karlsruhe has since grown to a large city. With the consolidation of public finances and the creation of a reliable administration, he laid the foundations for the reform policies of his grandson, Charles Frederick.

Lichtentaler Allee botanical garden

The Lichtentaler Allee is a historic park and arboretum set out as a 2.3 kilometer strolling avenue along the west bank of the river Oos in Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is open daily without charge.

Bühl (Baden) Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

The city of Bühl is part of the district of Rastatt in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It has a history reaching back to the twelfth century and was formerly an agricultural town, especially famous for its plums. Bühl has a population of about 29,000, and is in the region between the Rhine Valley and the Black Forest.

Oos, Baden-Württemberg District in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Oos has been a district of Baden-Baden (Germany) since 1928 and has a population of 7207. Its name is derived from the river Oos, which runs through Baden-Baden.

Countess Palatine Irmengard of the Rhine, also known as Irmengard of Baden was Margravine of Baden by her marriage to Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden. She brought the city of Pforzheim into the marriage.

Spa architecture

Spa architecture is the name given to buildings that provide facilities for relaxation, recuperation and health treatment in spas. The architecture of these buildings is called "spa architecture" even though it is not a uniform architectural style, but a collective term for a genre of buildings with a spa function.

Baden historical region in present Germany

Baden is a historical territory in South Germany & North Switzerland, on both sides of the Upper Rhine.

Bombing of Baden-Baden in World War II

The German town of Baden-Baden in the Black Forest was the target of various Allied air raids in 1944 and 1945 and suffered some bomb damage. The historic town centre, the casino and the spa area, however, remained undamaged. Baden-Baden which had 33,166 inhabitants in May 1939 was regarded as a minor target. There were a goods station and various barracks several kilometres away from the town centre.

References

  1. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2018". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). July 2019.
  2. Patricia Erfurt-Cooper; Malcolm Cooper (2009). Health and Wellness Tourism: Spas and Hot Springs. Channel View Publications. p. 67. ISBN   978-1-84541-111-4.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EB (1878), p. 227.
  4. Messinger, Heinz; Türck, Gisela; Willmann, Helmut, eds. (1993), "bath·ing", Langenscheidt's Compact Dictionary: German
  5. 1 2 Charnock, "Baden", Local Etymology, p. 23
  6. Messinger, Heinz; Türck, Gisela; Willmann, Helmut, eds. (1993), "Bad", Langenscheidt's Compact Dictionary: German
  7. Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg, ed. (1976). Das Land Baden-Württemberg. Amtliche Beschreibung nach Kreisen und Gemeinden. V. Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe[The State of Baden-Württemberg. Official description of administrative districts and municipalities. Volume 5 Karlsruhe administrative district] (in German). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. p. 12. ISBN   3-17-002542-2.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EB (1878), p. 226.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 EB (2015).
  10. Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation
  11. "Caracalla-Therme". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Introduction to Baden-Baden". Frommer's . Retrieved 15 May 2009..
  13. 1 2 3 4 EB (1911).
  14. 1 2 "Spielbank". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-26.
  15. Winch (1967), Introducing Germany, p. 75
  16. Heinz Bardua (1975), Kommission für geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg (ed.), "Kriegsschäden in Baden-Württemberg 1939–1945: Beiwort zur Karte 7,11" (PDF), Historischer Atlas von Baden-Württemberg (in German), Leonberg, p. 13, retrieved 2018-01-26, Format: PDF, KBytes: 2300
  17. Statistisches Jahrbuch deutscher Gemeinden, p. 378. Braunschweig 1952
  18. Catholic Parish of Saint Bonifatius: Wir über uns, p. 3. Baden-Baden 2002
  19. Dieter Baeuerle et al. Stadtführer Baden-Baden, p. 14. Baden-Baden 1994
  20. "ADV Monthly Traffic Report 12/2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
  21. Climate Summary for Baden Baden
  22. "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on July 6, 2013.
  23. Bogue, David. Belgium and the Rhine. Oxford University. p. 102.
  24. "Active pursuits". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  25. "Baden-Baden Summer Nights". Frommer's . Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2009-05-28.
  26. "Sammlung Frieder Burda". Frommer's . Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  27. "Baden-Baden: Stations". Travelinho.com.
  28. Flughafenverband ADV. "Flughafenverband ADV – Unsere Flughäfen: Regionale Stärke, Globaler Anschluss". adv.aero.
  29. "Partnerstädte von Baden-Baden". baden-baden.de (in German). Baden-Baden. Retrieved 2019-11-27.
  30. "The Russians are Coming (Back)", CNN Traveller, Atlanta: CNN, retrieved 22 July 2009

Bibliography

Further reading