|• Lord mayor (2014–22)||Margret Mergen (CDU)|
|• Total||140.18 km2 (54.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||181 m (594 ft)|
|• Density||400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Dialling codes||07221, 07223|
|Part of||The Great Spa Towns of Europe|
|Inscription||2021 (44th Session)|
Baden-Baden (German pronunciation: [ˈbaːdn̩ ˈbaːdn̩] ( listen )) is a spa town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, ten kilometres (six miles) east of the Rhine, the border with France, and forty kilometres (twenty-five miles) north-east of Strasbourg, France.
In 2021, the town became part of the transnational UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name "Great Spa Towns of Europe", because of its famous spas and architecture that exemplifies the popularity of spa towns in Europe in the 18th through 20th centuries.
The springs at Baden-Baden were known to the Romans as Aquae ("The Waters") and Aurelia Aquensis ("Aurelia-of-the-Waters") after M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus.
In modern German, Baden is a noun meaning "bathing" but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad ("bath"). (Modern German uses the plural form Bäder .) As with the English placename "Bath", other Badens are at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others, particularly Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland. The original Margraviate of Baden (1112-1535) split into several territories, including Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach. The name "Baden-Baden" distinguished the Margraviate of Baden-Baden (1535–1771), from the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach. "Baden-Baden" thus means the town of Baden in the territory of Baden, whereas the name of the Margraviate of Baden-Baden meant "the Margraviate of Baden with its princely seat at Baden". Baden-Baden formally got its current name in 1931.
Baden-Baden lies in a valley 46 to 67 °C (115 to 153 °F). The water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m (5,900 ft) under Florentine Hill at a rate of 341 litres (90 gallons) per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths.of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany. The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe ( ), which is part of the Black Forest National Park. The old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from
Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority. 210s), who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg.The known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 and date to the reign of Caracalla (AD
The town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. Kloster Lichtenthal) was founded in 1254. The margraves initially used Hohenbaden Castle (the Old Castle, Altes Schloss), whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle (Neues Schloss) in 1479. The Margraviate was divided in 1535, with Baden-Baden becoming the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Baden, while the other portion became the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach. The Baden-Baden witch trials, an investigating encompassing the entire territory and resulting in hundreds of verdicts, took place in 1627-1631. Baden suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, particularly at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643. They returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706. The Stiftskirche was rebuilt in 1753 and houses the tombs of several of the margraves.By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden. The Lichtenthal Convent (
The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution. [ citation needed ] and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, rheumatism, paralysis, neuralgia, skin disorders, and stones. The Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development. The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, horse races, and the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, and Berlioz. The pumproom (Trinkhalle) was completed in 1842. The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845.[ citation needed ] Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and '60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". With a population of around 10 000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British, Russians, and Americans all well represented. (French tourism fell off following the Franco-Prussian War.)The town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99
The theater was completed in 1861and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the prince of Moldavia Mihail Sturdza after he died during a family vacation. A Russian Orthodox church was also subsequently erected. The casino was closed for a time in the 1870s.
Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70 000 visitors each year.
During the Second World War, 3.1% of the houses in Baden-Baden were completely destroyed by bombs and 125 civilians were killed. Kurhaus. The Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998.5.8% of the houses were heavily damaged by bombs. Lichtenthal, a residential area in the southwest of the town, was hit by bombs and Saint Bonifatius Church was severely damaged on 11 March 1943. Balg, a residential area in the northeast of Baden-Baden, was hit by bombs on 17 December 1944. On 30 December 1944 one third of the buildings of Oos (i.e. about 300 houses), a residential area in the north of the town, was destroyed or heavily damaged by bombs and Saint Dionysius Church was severely damaged as well. On 2 January 1945 the railway station of Oos and various barracks on Schwarzwald Road were heavily damaged by bombs. After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, which is now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's
CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km (6 mi) west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a civil airport in the 1990s. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport, or Baden Airpark is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg by number of passengers.
In 1981 Baden-Baden hosted the Olympic Congress, which later has made the town awarded the designation Olympic town.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is precipitation year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
|Climate data for Baden-Baden|
|Average high °C (°F)||4|
|Average low °C (°F)||−1|
|Average precipitation days||22||18||20||19||21||21||17||16||15||18||18||21||226|
Baden-Baden is a German spa town.The city offers many options for sports enthusiasts; golf and tennis are both popular in the area. Horse races take place each May, August and October at nearby Iffezheim. The countryside is ideal for hiking and mountain climbing. In the winter Baden-Baden is a skiing destination. There is an 18-hole golf course in Fremersberg.
The main road link is autobahn A5 between Freiburg and Frankfurt, which is 10 km away from the city.
There are two stations providing intercity bus services: one next to the main railway station and one at the airport.
Baden-Baden has three stations, Baden-Baden station being the most important of them.
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is an airport located in Baden-Baden that also serves the city of Karlsruhe. It is Baden-Württemberg's second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.
Baden-Baden is twinned with:
Baden featured in Tolstoy's Anna Karenina (under an alias)and Turgenev's Smoke . Dostoyevsky wrote The Gambler while compulsively gambling at the town's casino.
The novel Summer in Baden-Baden by Leonid Tsypkin is inspired in Dostoyevsky's visit to this resort.
The 1975 film The Romantic Englishwoman was filmed on location in Baden-Baden, featuring the Brenner's Park Hotel particularly prominently. The 1997 Bollywood movie Dil To Pagal Hai was also shot in the town.[ citation needed ]
Baden-Baden is the subject of a pop song by Finnish songwriter Chisu of how the economic woes of Finland could be solved by selling bottled tears to Europe (specifically Baden-Baden).
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the international airport of Karlsruhe, the second-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, and also serves the spa town of Baden-Baden. It is the state's second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016 and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.
Ettlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of the city of Karlsruhe and approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the border with Lauterbourg, in France's Bas-Rhin department. Ettlingen is the second largest town in the district of Karlsruhe, after Bruchsal.
The Margraviate of Baden was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Germany, it was named a margraviate in 1112 and existed until 1535, when it was split into the two margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. The two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden. The rulers of Baden, known as the House of Baden, were a cadet line of the Swabian House of Zähringen.
Graben-Neudorf is a town in Northern Karlsruhe Country in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was created when the two communities of Graben and Neudorf were united on January 1, 1972. With this union Neudorf was transferred from the district of Bruchsal to the district of Karlsruhe.
The Abbey of Saint Pancras of Backnang, better known as Backnang Abbey, was a German monastery of canons regular founded around AD 1100 in Backnang, in the Duchy of Swabia.
Charles III William was Margrave of Baden-Durlach between 1709 and 1738. He was the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. In 1715, he established Karlsruhe, where he built his residence. Karlsruhe has since grown to a large city. With the consolidation of public finances and the creation of a reliable administration, he laid the foundations for the reform policies of his grandson, Charles Frederick.
The Margraviate of Baden-Durlach was an early modern territory of the Holy Roman Empire, which existed from 1535 to 1771.
Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach was a German nobleman, who ruled as margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1622 to his death. He was succeeded by his son Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach.
Magdalena Wilhelmine of Württemberg was a margravine of Baden. She had a place in the regency during the minority of her grandson in 1738-42.
The Margraviate of Baden-Baden was an early modern southwest German territory within the Holy Roman Empire. It was created in 1535 along with the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach as a result of the division of the Margraviate of Baden. Its territory consisted of a core area on the middle stretch of the Upper Rhine around the capital city of Baden, as well as lordships on the Moselle and Nahe.
Margrave Ernest I of Baden-Durlach was the founder of the so-called "Ernestine" line of the House of Baden, the line from which the later Grand Dukes descended. He was the ruling Margrave of Baden-Pforzheim from 1533 and resided in Pforzheim from 1537. In 1565, his son Charles II moved the capital to Durlach and thereby changed the name of his country to Baden-Durlach. He had to deal with the upcoming Reformation and the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe. In this turbulent time, he tried to maintain a neutral position between the Protestants and Catholics. He did not participate in the Schmalkaldic War.
Bad Rotenfels is a district in the city of Gaggenau, district of Rastatt, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located some 8 km northeast of Baden-Baden.
Oos has been a district of Baden-Baden (Germany) since 1928 and has a population of 7207. Its name is derived from the river Oos, which runs through Baden-Baden.
Countess Palatine Irmengard of the Rhine, also known as Irmengard of Baden was Margravine of Baden by her marriage to Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden. She brought the city of Pforzheim into the marriage.
Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, in earlier times on both sides of the Upper Rhine but since the Napoleonic Wars only East of the Rhine.
The Yburg is a ruined hilltop castle atop the Yberg, on the western edge of the Black Forest near Baden-Baden, in southwestern Germany.
Neureut is the northernmost borough of the German city of Karlsruhe. It was the most populous rural community of Baden-Württemberg before being incorporated into Karlsruhe on 14 February 1975. Its population is about 18,900 people as of December 2020.
The Friedrichsbad is a spa in the city of Baden-Baden in Germany. The Neo-renaissance spa building was completed in 1877.
The Baden Army was the military organisation of the German state Baden until 1871. The origins of the army were a combination of units that the Baden margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden had set up in the Baroque era, and the standing army of the Swabian Circle, to which both territories had to contribute troops. The reunification of the two small states to form the Margraviate of Baden in 1771 and its subsequent enlargement and elevation by Napoleon to become the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806 created both the opportunity and obligation to maintain a larger army, which Napoleon used in his campaigns against Austria, Prussia and Spain and, above all, Russia. After the end of Napoleon's rule, the Grand Duchy of Baden contributed a division to the German Federal Army. In 1848, Baden troops helped to suppress the Hecker uprising, but a year later a large number sided with the Baden revolutionaries. After the violent suppression of the revolution by Prussian and Württemberg troops, the army was re-established and fought in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 on the side of Austria and the southern German states, as well as in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 on the German side. When Baden joined the German Reich in 1870/71, the Grand Duchy gave up its military sovereignty and the Baden troops became part of the XIV Army Corps of the Imperial German Army.