Baden-Württemberg

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Baden-Württemberg
Coordinates: 48°32′16″N9°2′28″E / 48.53778°N 9.04111°E / 48.53778; 9.04111
Country Germany
Capital Stuttgart
Government
  Body Landtag of Baden-Württemberg
   Minister-President Winfried Kretschmann (Greens)
  Governing parties Greens / CDU
   Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)
Area
[1]
  Total35,751.46 km2 (13,803.72 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-12-31) "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.
  Total11,023,424
  Density310/km2 (800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code DE-BW
GDP (nominal) €477/ $561 billion (2016) [2]
GDP per capita €42,000/ $49,400 (2015)
NUTS Region DE1
HDI (2017)0.950 [3]
very high · 2nd of 16
Website www.baden-wuerttemberg.de
A campaign sticker, translated, "We can [do] anything. Except [speak] Standard German." This is an allusion to Baden-Wurttemberg being one of the principal centres for innovation in Germany and having its own distinctive dialects of Alemannic German. Wirkoennenalles.jpg
A campaign sticker, translated, "We can [do] anything. Except [speak] Standard German." This is an allusion to Baden-Württemberg being one of the principal centres for innovation in Germany and having its own distinctive dialects of Alemannic German.

Baden-Wurttemberg ( /ˌbɑːdənˈvɜːrtəmbɜːrɡ/ , [4] German: [ˌbaːdn̩ ˈvʏɐ̯təmbɛɐ̯k] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. [5] Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

States of Germany First-level administrative subdivisions of the Federal Republic of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Rhine river in Western Europe

The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

Contents

The sobriquet Ländle ("small land" in the local Swabian and Alemannic German dialects) is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. [6] [7]

A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another and being descriptive in nature. Distinct from a pseudonym, it typically is a familiar name used in place of a real name without the need of explanation, often becoming more familiar than the original name.

Swabian German language

Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum. It is mainly spoken in Swabia which is located in central and southeastern Baden-Württemberg and the southwest of Bavaria. Furthermore, Swabian German dialects are spoken by Caucasus Germans in Transcaucasia. The dialects of the Danube Swabian population of Hungary, the former Yugoslavia and Romania are only nominally Swabian and can be traced back not only to Swabian but also to Frankonian, Bavarian and Hessian German dialects, with locally varying degrees of influence of the initial dialects.

Alemannic German group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family

Alemannic, or rarely Alemmanish, is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. The name derives from the ancient Germanic alliance of tribes known as the Alemanni.

History

Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, and Württemberg , and also parts of Swabia. [8]

Baden historical region in present Germany

Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, on the right bank of the Upper Rhine.

Province of Hohenzollern Historical province in Prussia

The Province of Hohenzollern or the Hohenzollern Lands was a province of Prussia from 1850 to 1946.

Württemberg Describes Württemburg in different forms from 1092 until 1945 - not to be confused with articles on parts of this period.

Württemberg is a historical German territory roughly corresponding to the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia. Together with Baden and Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it now forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg. Württemberg was formerly also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg.

In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes (fortified boundary zone) along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–476 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from Italy, homeland of the Romans and metropole of the empire, with the city of Rome as capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Senate of Rome sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

<i>Limes</i> border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome

Limes is used here to here to mean frontier of the Roman Empire.

Danube River in Central Europe

The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.

The Holy Roman Empire was later established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics, even after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this mostly rural area to the United States for economic reasons.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

20th century to present

After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Baden, and Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. [5] Baden-Württemberg officially became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. [5]

Württemberg-Hohenzollern former state of the Federal Republic of Germany

Württemberg-Hohenzollern was a West German state created in 1945 as part of the French post-World War II occupation zone. Its capital was Tübingen. In 1952, it was merged into the newly founded state of Baden-Württemberg.

South Baden Part of Baden-Württemberg

South Baden, formed in December 1945 from the southern half of the former Republic of Baden, was a subdivision of the French occupation zone of post-World War II Germany. The state was later renamed to Baden and became a founding state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. In 1952, Baden became part of the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg.

Württemberg-Baden former state of the Federal Republic of Germany

Württemberg-Baden was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It was created in 1945 by the United States occupation forces, after the previous states of Baden and Württemberg had been split up between the US and French occupation zones. Its capital was Stuttgart. In 1952, Württemberg-Baden merged with Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden into the present state of Baden-Württemberg.

Geography

Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate, Hessen, and Bavaria, France (region of Grand Est), and Switzerland (cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Aargau, Zürich, Schaffhausen and Thurgau). [5]

Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream (from southwest to the center, then northwest) through the state past Tübingen, Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Heidelberg, and Mannheim.

The Rhine (German: Rhein) forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border. The Black Forest (Schwarzwald), the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, and the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance (Bodensee, also known regionally as the Swabian Sea) with Switzerland, Austria and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being clearly defined. It shares the foothills of the Alps (known as the Allgäu) with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land.

The Danube River (Donau) has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest.

Government

Administration

Stuttgart StuttgartSchlossPlatz.JPG
Stuttgart
Karlsruhe Karlsruhe Germany CastleByNight.jpg
Karlsruhe
Heidelberg Altstadt Heidelberg.jpg
Heidelberg
Freiburg Freiburg view.jpg
Freiburg
Mannheim Universitaet Mannheim Schloss Ehrenhof.jpg
Mannheim
Ulm Ulm - Stadtkulisse Ulm mit Donau.jpg
Ulm
Baden-Baden Baden-Baden 10-2015 img05 View from Merkur.jpg
Baden-Baden

Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts (Landkreise) and nine independent cities (Stadtkreise), both grouped into the four Administrative Districts ( Regierungsbezirke ) of Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, and Tübingen.

Cities and Districts in Baden-Wuerttemberg.svg
Map

  1. Alb-Donau
  2. Biberach
  3. Bodensee
  4. Böblingen
  5. Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
  6. Calw
  7. Konstanz (Constance)
  8. Emmendingen
  9. Enzkreis
  10. Esslingen
  11. Freudenstadt
  12. Göppingen
  13. Heidenheim
  14. Heilbronn
  15. Hohenlohe
  16. Karlsruhe
  17. Lörrach
  18. Ludwigsburg
  1. Main-Tauber
  2. Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis
  3. Ortenaukreis
  4. Ostalbkreis
  5. Rastatt
  6. Ravensburg
  7. Rems-Murr-Kreis
  8. Reutlingen
  9. Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
  10. Rottweil
  11. Schwäbisch Hall
  12. Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis
  13. Sigmaringen
  14. Tübingen
  15. Tuttlingen
  16. Waldshut
  17. Zollernalbkreis

Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district:

CodeCity
(stadtkreise)
Area (km2)Population
1997
Population
2007
Population
2017
Region
(regierungs-
bezirk
)
A Baden-Baden 140.1852,67254,85354,718Karlsruhe
B Freiburg im Breisgau 153.06200,519219,430229,636Freiburg
C Heidelberg 108.83139,941145,311160,601Karlsruhe
D Heilbronn 99.88120,987121,627125,113Stuttgart
E Karlsruhe 173.46276,571288,917311,919Karlsruhe
F Mannheim 144.96310,475309,795307,997Karlsruhe
G Pforzheim 98.02118,079119,423124,289Karlsruhe
H Stuttgart 207.35585,274597,176632,743Stuttgart
I Ulm 118.69115,628121,434125,596Tübingen

Politics

The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag (Eng. state assembly).

The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU), who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament.

From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag. [9]

2016 state election


< 2011    Flag of Baden-Wurttemberg.svg    Next >

e    d  Summary of the 13 March 2016 Landtag of Baden-Württemberg elections results
PartyPopular voteSeats
Votes%+/–Seats+/–
Alliance '90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
1,622,63130.3Increase2.svg6.147Increase2.svg11
Christian Democratic Union
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands – CDU
1,447,24927.0Decrease2.svg12.042Decrease2.svg18
Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland – AfD
809,31115.1Increase2.svg15.123Increase2.svg23
Social Democratic Party
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands – SPD
679,87212.7Decrease2.svg10.419Decrease2.svg16
Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei – FDP
445,4308.3Increase2.svg3.012Increase2.svg5
Left Party
Die Linke
156,2112.9Increase2.svg0.10
Alliance for Progress and Renewal
Allianz für Fortschritt und Aufbruch – ALFA
54,7641.0Increase2.svg1.00
Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei – ÖDP
38,5090.7Decrease2.svg0.20
National Democratic Party
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands – NPD
23,6050.4Decrease2.svg0.60
Pirate Party
Piratenpartei
21,7730.4Decrease2.svg0.60
Other parties
Valid votes5,360,35199.0Increase2.svg0.4
Invalid votes51,9501.0Decrease2.svg0.4
Totals and voter turnout5,412,30170.4Increase2.svg4.2143Increase2.svg5
Electorate7,685,778100.00
Source: Landeswahlleiter [10] [11]

Other state institutions

The Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. [12]

Economy

SAP headquarters in Walldorf SAP AG Headquarter 1200.jpg
SAP headquarters in Walldorf

Although Baden-Württemberg has relatively few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, [5] the state is among the most prosperous [8] and wealthiest regions in Europe with a generally low unemployment rate historically. A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Porsche, Robert Bosch GmbH (automobile industry), Carl Zeiss AG (optics), SAP SE (largest software enterprise in Europe) and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen (precision mechanical engineering). In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources (formerly lead, zinc, iron, silver, copper, and salts) and still rural in many areas, the region is heavily industrialised. In 2003, there were almost 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500. The latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. [13] Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 exceeded 240,000 million, 43% of which came from exports. The region depends to some extent on global economic developments, though the great adaptability of the region's economy has generally helped it through crises. Half of the employees in the manufacturing industry are in mechanical and electrical engineering and automobile construction. This is also where the largest enterprises are to be found. The importance of the precision mechanics industry also extends beyond the region's borders, as does that of the optical, clock making, toy, metallurgy and electronics industries. The textile industry, which formerly dominated much of the region, has now all but disappeared from Baden-Württemberg. Research and development (R&D) is funded jointly by the State and industry. In 2001, more than a fifth of the 100,000 or so persons working in R&D in Germany were located in Baden-Württemberg, most of them in the Stuttgart area. [14] Baden-Württemberg is also one of the Four Motors for Europe.

A study performed in 2007 by the PR campaign "Initiative for New Social Market Economy" (German: Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM)) and the trade newspaper "Wirtschaftswoche" awarded Baden-Württemberg for being the "economically most successful and most dynamic state" among the 16 states.

The unemployment rate stood at 3% in October 2018 and was the second lowest in Germany behind only Bavaria and one of the lowest in the European Union. [15]

Year [16] 200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017
Unemployment rate in %5.44.95.46.26.27.06.34.94.15.14.94.03.94.14.03.83.83.5

Tourism

The Black Forest seen from the Belchen Blick vom Belchen (15092104395) (cropped).jpg
The Black Forest seen from the Belchen

Baden-Württemberg is a popular holiday destination. Main sights include the capital and biggest city, Stuttgart, modern and historic at the same time, with its urban architecture and atmosphere (and famously, its inner city parks and historic Wilhelma zoo), its castles (such as Castle Solitude), its (car and art) museums as well as a rich cultural programme (theatre, opera) and mineral spring baths in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt (also the site of a Roman Castra); it is the only major city in Germany with vineyards in an urban territory.

The residential (court) towns of Ludwigsburg and Karlsruhe, the spas and casino of luxurious Baden-Baden, the medieval architecture of Ulm (Ulm Münster is the tallest church in the world), the vibrant, young, but traditional university towns of Heidelberg and Tübingen with their old castles looking out above the river Neckar, are popular smaller towns. Sites of former monasteries such as the ones on Reichenau Island and at Maulbronn (both World Heritage Sites) as well as Bebenhausen Abbey are to be found. Baden-Württemberg also boasts rich old Free Imperial Cities such as Biberach, Esslingen am Neckar, Heilbronn, Ravensburg, Reutlingen, and Schwäbisch Hall, as well as the southernmost and sunniest city of Germany, Freiburg, close to Alsace and Switzerland, being an ideal base for exploring the heights of the nearby Black Forest (e.g., for skiing in winter or for hiking in summer) with its traditional villages and the surrounding wine country of the Rhine Valley of South Baden. [8]

The countryside of the lush Upper Neckar valley (where Rottweil is famous for its carnival (Fastnacht)) and the pristine Danube valley Swabian Alb (with Hohenzollern Castle and Sigmaringen Castle), as well as the largely pristine Swabian Forest, the Upper Rhine Valley, and Lake Constance (German: Bodensee), where all kinds of water sports are popular, with the former Imperial, today border town of Konstanz (where the Council of Constance took place), the Neolithic and Bronze Age village at Unteruhldingen, the flower island of Mainau, and the hometown of the Zeppelin, Friedrichshafen a.o., are especially popular for outdoor activities in the summer months. [8]

In spring and autumn (April/May and September/October), beer festivals (fun fairs) take place at the Cannstatter Wasen in Stuttgart. The Cannstatter Volksfest, in the autumn, is the second largest such festival in the world after the Munich Oktoberfest. In late November and early December Christmas markets are a tourist magnet in all major towns, with the largest being in Stuttgart during the three weeks prior to Christmas.

The Bertha Benz Memorial Route is a 194 km signposted scenic route from Mannheim via Heidelberg and Wiesloch to Pforzheim and back, which follows the route of the world's first long-distance journey by automobile which Bertha Benz undertook in August 1888.

Companies owned by Baden-Württemberg

CompanyIndustryPercentage ownedSource
EnBW Energy industry 45% [17]
Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus Beverage industry 100%

Education

The University Library Freiburg was reopened in 2015. Uni Bibliothek (Freiburg) jm33894.jpg
The University Library Freiburg was reopened in 2015.
University of Karlsruhe, since 2009: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Uni KA Portal.jpg
University of Karlsruhe, since 2009: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Baden-Württemberg is home to some of the oldest, most renowned, and prestigious universities in Germany, such as the universities of Heidelberg (founded in 1386, the oldest university within the territory of modern Germany), Freiburg (founded in 1457), and Tübingen (founded in 1477). It also contains three of the eleven German 'excellence universities' (Heidelberg, Tübingen, and Konstanz and formerly, Freiburg and Karlsruhe).

Other university towns are Mannheim and Ulm. Furthermore, two universities are located in the state capital Stuttgart, the University of Hohenheim, and the University of Stuttgart. Ludwigsburg is home to the renowned national film school Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg (Film Academy Baden-Wuerttemberg). The private International University in Germany was situated in Bruchsal, but closed in 2009. There is still another private university, located in Friedrichshafen, Zeppelin University.

Furthermore, there are more than a dozen Fachhochschulen, i.e., universities of applied sciences, as well as Pädagogische Hochschulen, i.e., teacher training colleges, and other institutions of tertiary education in Baden-Württemberg. (a.o. in Aalen, Biberach an der Riss, Esslingen, Karlsruhe, Ludwigsburg, Nürtingen, Pforzheim, Ravensburg-Weingarten, Reutlingen, several in Stuttgart, Schwäbisch Hall). Pforzheim University is one of the oldest Fachhochschulen in Germany which is renowned and highly ranked for its Engineering and MBA programs.

The state has the highest density of academic institutions of any territorial state (i.e., excluding the city states of Berlin and Hamburg) in Germany.

Dialects

Two dialect groups of German are spoken in Baden-Württemberg in various variants: Alemannic and Franconian dialects. In central and southern Württemberg, the Alemannic dialect of Swabian is spoken (slightly differing even within the area, e.g., between Upper Swabia, the Swabian Alb, and the central Neckar Valley of the Stuttgart region). In South Baden, the local dialects are Low Alemannic and High Alemannic (i.e., variants of what is also Swiss German). In the northern part of Baden, i.e., the former Kurpfalz (Electorate of the Palatinate) with the former capitals of Heidelberg and Mannheim, the idiom is Rhine Franconian (i.e., Palatinate German), while in the Northeast East Franconian is spoken.

The same or similar Alemannic dialects are also spoken in the neighbouring regions, especially in Bavarian Swabia, Alsace (Alsatian), German-speaking Switzerland (Swiss German), and the Austrian Vorarlberg, while the other Franconian dialects range from the Netherlands over the Rhineland, Lorraine, and Hesse up to northern Bavaria Franconia.

A variant of the Alemannic German of Baden developed into the Colonia Tovar dialect, spoken by descendants of immigrants from Baden who went to Venezuela in 1843.

Demographics

The population of Baden-Württemberg is 10,486,660 (2014), of which 5,354,105 are female and 5,132,555 are male. In 2006, the birth rate of 8.61 per 1000 was almost equal to the death rate of 8.60 per 1000. 14.87 percent of the population was under the age of 15, whereas the proportion of people aged 65 and older was at 18.99 per cent (2008). The dependency ratio - the ratio of people aged under 15 and over 64 in comparison to the working age population (aged 15–64) - was 512 per 1000 (2008).

Baden-Württemberg has long been a preferred destination of immigrants. As of 2013, almost 28% of its population had a migration background as defined by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany; this number clearly surpassed the German average of 21% and was higher than in any other German state with the exception of the city states of Hamburg and Bremen. [18] As of 2014, 9,355,239 of the population held German citizenship, whereas 1,131,421 were foreign nationals. [19]

 
Largest cities or towns in Baden-Württemberg
Rank Regierungsbezirk Pop.
Stuttgart, Blickrichtung Nord von der Weinsteige aus, Innenstadt.jpg
Stuttgart
Mannheim Innenstadt.jpg
Mannheim
1 Stuttgart Stuttgart (region) 613,392 Karlsruhe town centre air.jpg
Karlsruhe
Aerial View - Freiburg im Breisgau-Munster1.jpg
Freiburg im Breisgau
2 Mannheim Karlsruhe (region) 314,931
3 Karlsruhe Karlsruhe (region) 297,488
4 Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg (region) 229,144
5 Heidelberg Karlsruhe (region) 149,633
6 Heilbronn Stuttgart (region) 124,257
7 Ulm Tübingen (region) 123,672
8 Pforzheim Karlsruhe (region) 120,709
9 Reutlingen Tübingen (region) 112,735
10 Esslingen am Neckar Stuttgart (region) 92,629

Vital statistics

[20]

Religion

Religion in Baden-Württemberg, 2011 [21]
religionpercent
Roman Catholics
37%
EKD Protestants
33%
Muslims
6%
Other religions or none
24%

Northern and most of central Württemberg has been traditionally Protestant (particularly Lutheran) since the Reformation in 1534 (with its centre at the famous Tübinger Stift). The former Electorate of the Palatinate (Northwestern Baden) with its capital Heidelberg was shaped by Calvinism before being integrated into Baden. Upper Swabia, and the Upper Neckar Valley up to the bishop seat of Rottenburg, and Southern Baden (the Catholic archbishop has its seat in Freiburg) have traditionally been bastions of Roman Catholicism.

Foreigners

Largest communities of foreigners are listed below : (by 31.12.2017)

Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 257,310
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 182,185
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 131,000
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 109,500
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 84,340
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 81,150
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 73,705
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 55,235
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 50,025
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 41,445
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 38,035
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia-Herzegovina 37,125
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 29,905
Flag of France.svg  France 29,880
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 29,860
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 29,515
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 27,045
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 25,195
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 23,215
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 21,465

See also

Footnotes

  1. "The State and its people". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  2. Baden-Württemberg, Statistisches Landesamt. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – in Deutschland 1991 bis 2016 nach Bundesländern (WZ 2008) – VGR dL". www.vgrdl.de.
  3. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN   3-12-539683-2
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 "Our State". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  6. "man-English Dictionary: ["little country"; local nickname for the state of Baden Wuerttemberg]". dict.cc. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  7. "Baden-Württemberg: Kein schöner Ländle". ZEIT MAGAZIN. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Andrea Schulte-Peevers; Anthony Haywood; Sarah Johnstone; Jeremy Gray; Daniel Robinson (2007). Germany. Lonely Planet. ISBN   978-1-74059-988-7 . Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  9. The Republikaner(REP): 15 from 146 MPs in 1992 and 14 from 155 MPs in 1996. "Baden-Württemberg. Results of the election from 1964–2011". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
  10. "Landtagswahl 2016 - Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg". statistik-bw.de.
  11. tagesschau.de. "tagesschau.de". wahl.tagesschau.de.
  12. "Government and organs of state". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  13. Cooke, p. 84
  14. "BADEN – WÜRTTEMBERG – Economy". Eurostat . June 2004. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
  15. "Arbeitslosenquote nach Bundesländern in Deutschland 2018 | Statista". Statista (in German). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  16. (Destatis),, © Statistisches Bundesamt (13 November 2018). "Federal Statistical Office Germany - GENESIS-Online". www-genesis.destatis.de. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  17. Haase, Nina (30 March 2011). "Business leaders wary of Greens' state election victory". Deutsche Welle . Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  18. "Bevölkerung 2013 nach Migrationshintergrund und Ländern". Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  19. "Government and organs of state". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  20. "Gebiet und Bevölkerung". Statistik Portal. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  21. "Religionszugehörigkeit nach Bundesländern in Deutschland - Statista". Statista.

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Neckar right tributary of Rhine river in Germany

The Neckar is a 362-kilometre-long (225 mi) river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Black Forest near Villingen-Schwenningen in the Schwenninger Moos conservation area at a height of 706 m (2,316 ft) above sea level, it passes through Rottweil, Rottenburg am Neckar, Kilchberg, Tübingen, Wernau, Nürtingen, Plochingen, Esslingen, Stuttgart, Ludwigsburg, Marbach, Heilbronn and Heidelberg, before discharging into the Rhine at Mannheim, at 95 m (312 ft) above sea level.

History of Baden-Württemberg

The history of Baden-Württemberg covers the area included in the historical state of Baden, the former Prussian Hohenzollern, and Württemberg, part of the region of Swabia since the 9th century.

South Franconian German dialect

South Franconian is a High Franconian dialect which is spoken in the northernmost part of Baden-Württemberg in Germany, around Karlsruhe, Mosbach and Heilbronn. Like closely related East Franconian it is a transitional dialect, which unites elements of Central German and Upper German.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Freiburg archdiocese

The Archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau is a Roman Catholic diocese in Baden-Württemberg comprising the former states of Baden and Hohenzollern. The Archdiocese of Freiburg is led by an archbishop, who also serves as the metropolitan bishop of the Upper-Rhine ecclesiastical province for the suffragan dioceses of Mainz and Rottenburg-Stuttgart. Its seat is Freiburg Minster in Freiburg im Breisgau.

Upper Swabia

Upper Swabia is a region in Germany in the federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. The name refers to the area between the Swabian Jura, Lake Constance and the Lech. Its counterpart is Lower Swabia (Niederschwaben), the region around Heilbronn.

Bösingen, Baden-Württemberg Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Bösingen is a municipality in the district of Rottweil, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway transport company

The Grand Duchy of Baden was an independent state in what is now southwestern Germany until the creation of the German Empire in 1871. It had its own state-owned railway company, the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways, which was founded in 1840. At the time when it was integrated into the Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1920, its network had an overall length of about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi).

Interregio-Express train service

The Interregio-Express (IRE) is a local public transport railway service operated by the Deutsche Bahn which is only available in the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Berlin as well as in Switzerland. The IRE service was first introduced in the 2001 summer timetable, due to the increasing abolition of Interregio routes by DB's long-distance division. As a result, several German states ordered InterRegioExpress trains on the routes affected. In addition IRE trains were also introduced on routes that had not previously had an Interregio service.

Baden main line railway line

The Baden main line is a German railway line that was built between 1840 and 1863. It runs through Baden, from Mannheim via Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Offenburg, Freiburg, Basle, Waldshut, Schaffhausen and Singen to Constance (Konstanz). The Baden Mainline is 412.7 kilometres long, making it the longest route in the Deutsche Bahn network and also the oldest in southwest Germany. The section between Mannheim and Basle is the most important northern approach to the Swiss Alpine passes, whilst the section between Basle and Constance is only of regional significance. The stretch from Karlsruhe to Basle is also known as the Rhine Valley Railway (Rheintalbahn) and the Basle–Constance section as the Upper Rhine Railway (Hochrheinstrecke).

Württemberg Western Railway railway line

The Western Railway (Westbahn) in Württemberg was opened in 1853 and ran from Bietigheim-Bissingen to Bruchsal. It was the first railway link between the states of Württemberg and Baden in Germany and one of the oldest lines in Germany.

Rhine Railway (Baden) railway line

The Rhine Railway is a railway line in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, running from Mannheim via Karlsruhe to Rastatt, partly built as a strategic railway and formerly continuing to Haguenau in Alsace, now in France.

History of railways in Württemberg aspect of history

The history of railways in Württemberg describes the beginnings and expansion of rail transport in Württemberg from the first studies in 1834 to today.

Gäu Plateaus

The Gäu Plateaus form the largest natural region in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Not surprisingly, the individual geographical units of this large region show considerable variations in climate and soil types. A common feature of the region, however, is its landscape of flat-topped hills of Muschelkalk, gently rolling tracts of loess and plateaus in which the layers of Muschelkalk have been covered by sediments of Gipskeuper and Lettenkeuper.

Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basel railway railway line

The Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basel railway is a double-track electrified mainline railway in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It runs from Mannheim via Heidelberg, Bruchsal, Karlsruhe, Rastatt, Baden-Baden, Offenburg and Freiburg to Basel, Switzerland. It is also known as the Rhine Valley Railway or the Upper Rhine Railway (Oberrheinbahn).

Alemannic separatism

Alemannic Separatism is a historical movement of separatism of the Alemannic-German-speaking areas of Germany, France and Austria, aiming at a unification with the Swiss Confederacy. The historic origins of the movement lay in the Napoleonic era and it was briefly revived both after the end of World War I (1919) and after the end of World War II (1946–1952).

Heilbronn-Franconia

Heilbronn-Franken is a region in northeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Stuttgart subdivision (Regierungsbezirk). It consists of the former Free imperial city of Heilbronn, Heilbronn district and the districts of Hohenlohe, Main-Tauber and Schwäbisch Hall.

Karlsruhe–Mühlacker railway

The Karlsruhe–Mühlacker railway is a railway line in the west of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It was built between 1859 and 1863 and is one of the oldest railways in Germany. It was built as the second connection between the networks of the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway and the Royal Württemberg State Railways and it still constitutes an important east-west route in southern Germany.

Wiesloch-Walldorf station Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn station

Wiesloch-Walldorf station is in the towns of Wiesloch and Walldorf in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station. Leimbach Park and the Wiesloch Feldbahn and Industrial Museum are located to the north of the station, with the headquarters of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen and SAP SE on the south-western side.

References