Baffin Island

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Baffin Island
Native name:
ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ (Qikiqtaaluk)
Baffin.png
Baffin Island, Canada.svg
Canada Nunavut location map-lambert proj3.svg
Red pog.svg
Baffin Island
Canada relief map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Baffin Island
Geography
Location Northern Canada
Coordinates 68°N70°W / 68°N 70°W / 68; -70 (Baffin Island) [1] Coordinates: 68°N70°W / 68°N 70°W / 68; -70 (Baffin Island) [1]
Archipelago Arctic Archipelago
Area507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi)
Area rank 5th
Highest elevation2,147 m (7044 ft)
Highest point Mount Odin
Administration
Canada
Territory Nunavut
Largest settlement Iqaluit (pop. 7,429 [2] )
Demographics
Population13,039 [2] [3] (2021)
Pop. density0.03/km2 (0.08/sq mi)
Ethnic groups Inuit (72.7%), non-Aboriginal (25.3%), First Nations (0.7%), Métis (0.5%) [4]

Baffin Island (formerly Baffin Land), [5] in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi)—slightly larger than Spain, its population was 13,039 as of the 2021 Canadian census, [2] and is located at 68°N70°W / 68°N 70°W / 68; -70 (Baffin Island) [1] . It also contains the city of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut.

Contents

Name

The Inuktitut name for the island is Qikiqtaaluk, [6] which means "very big island" (qikiqtaq "island" + -aluk "very big") and in Inuktitut syllabics is written as ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ. This name is used for the administrative region the island is part of (Qikiqtaaluk Region), as well as in multiple places in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, [7] such as some smaller islands: Qikiqtaaluk in Baffin Bay and Qikiqtaaluk in Foxe Basin. Norse explorers referred to it as Helluland ("stone land"). [8] In 1576, English seaman Martin Frobisher made landfall on the island, naming it "Queen Elizabeth's Foreland" and Frobisher Bay is named after him. [9] The island is named after English explorer William Baffin, who, in 1616, [10] came across the island while trying to discover the Northwest Passage. [11]

Geography

Topography of Baffin Island Baffin topo.png
Topography of Baffin Island
Coast of the Remote Peninsula in Sam Ford Fjord, northeast Baffin Island Baffin Island Northeast Coast 1997-08-07.jpg
Coast of the Remote Peninsula in Sam Ford Fjord, northeast Baffin Island
Southern tip of Baffin Island. Baffin Island.jpg
Southern tip of Baffin Island.
Mount Thor, a large cliff on Baffin Island Mount Thor Peak 1997-08-07.jpg
Mount Thor, a large cliff on Baffin Island
Map of Thule expansion in Canada and Greenland Dorset, Norse, and Thule cultures 900-1500.svg
Map of Thule expansion in Canada and Greenland
Pangnirtung Plane buzzes Pangnirtung.jpg
Pangnirtung

Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, is located on the southeastern coast. Until 1987, the town was called Frobisher Bay, after the English name for Frobisher Bay on which it is located, named for Martin Frobisher. That year the community voted to restore the Inuktitut name. [12]

To the south lies Hudson Strait, separating Baffin Island from mainland Quebec. [13] South of the western end of the island is the Fury and Hecla Strait, [14] which separates the island from the Melville Peninsula [15] on the mainland. To the east are Davis Strait [16] and Baffin Bay, [17] with Greenland beyond. [13] The Foxe Basin, [18] the Gulf of Boothia [19] and Lancaster Sound [20] separate Baffin Island from the rest of the Arctic Archipelago to the west and north.

The Baffin Mountains run along the northeastern coast of the island and are a part of the Arctic Cordillera. The highest peak is Mount Odin, with an elevation of at least 2,143 m (7,031 ft), although some sources say 2,147 m (7,044 ft). [21] [22] Another peak of note is Mount Asgard, located in Auyuittuq National Park, with an elevation of 2,011 m (6,598 ft). Mount Thor, with an elevation of 1,675 m (5,495 ft), is said to have the greatest purely vertical drop (a sheer cliff face) of any mountain on Earth, at 1,250 m (4,100 ft). [23] Mount Sharat, [24] with an elevation of 422 m (1,385 ft) and a prominence of 67 m (220 ft) is located on Baffin Island. The mountain is named after geologist Sharat Kumar Roy, the chief geology curator in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. Roy, a native of India, studied in India, London, and earned his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago. Shortly after he started at the Field Museum he joined the 1927-1928 Rawson-Macmillan Expedition to Baffin Island and Labrador. This 15-month expedition began in June 1927.

The two largest lakes on the island lie in the south-central part of the island: Nettilling Lake (5,542 km2 [2,140 sq mi]) and Amadjuak Lake (3,115 km2 [1,203 sq mi]) further south. [25] [26] [27]

History

Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, and then by the Thule people, ancestors of the Inuit, who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. [28] [29] In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, [30] formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. [31] In late 985 or 986, Bjarni Herjólfsson, sailing from Iceland to Greenland, was blown off course and sighted land southwest of Greenland. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Island, and the first European to see North America beyond Greenland. [30] It was about 15 years later that the Norse Greenlanders, led by Leif Erikson, a son of Erik the Red, started exploring new areas around the year 1000. [30] Baffin Island is thought to be Helluland, and the archaeological site at Tanfield Valley is thought to have been a trading post. [32] [33] The Saga of Erik the Red, 1880 translation into English by J. Sephton from the original Icelandic 'Eiríks saga rauða':

They sailed away from land; then to the Vestribygd and to Bjarneyjar (the Bear Islands). Thence they sailed away from Bjarneyjar with northerly winds. They were out at sea two half-days. Then they came to land, and rowed along it in boats, and explored it, and found there flat stones, many and so great that two men might well lie on them stretched on their backs with heel to heel. Polar-foxes were there in abundance. This land they gave name to, and called it Helluland (stone-land). [32]

In September 2008, the Nunatsiaq News , a weekly newspaper, reported that Patricia Sutherland, who worked at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, had found archaeological remains of yarn and cordage [string], rat droppings, tally sticks, a carved wooden Dorset culture face mask depicting Caucasian features, and possible architectural remains, which indicated that European traders and possibly settlers had been on Baffin Island not later than 1000 CE. [8] What the source of this Old World contact may have been is unclear and controversial; [29] [34] [35] [36] [37] the newspaper article states:

Dating of some yarn and other artifacts, presumed to be left by Vikings on Baffin Island, have produced an age that predates the Vikings by several hundred years. So, as Sutherland said, if you believe that spinning was not an indigenous technique that was used in Arctic North America, then you have to consider the possibility that as "remote as it may seem," these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland. [8]

Sutherland's research eventually led to a 2012 announcement that whetstones had been found with remnants of alloys indicative of Viking presence. [38] In 2018, Michele Hayeur Smith of Brown University, who specialises in the study of ancient textiles, wrote that she does not think the ancient Arctic people, the Dorset and Thule, needed to be taught how to spin yarn: "It's a pretty intuitive thing to do." [29]

...the date received on Sample 4440b from Nanook clearly indicates that sinew was being spun and plied at least as early, if not earlier, than yarn at this site. We feel that the most parsimonious explanation of this data is that the practice of spinning hair and wool into plied yarn most likely developed naturally within this context of complex, indigenous, Arctic fiber technologies, and not through contact with European textile producers. [...] Our investigations indicate that Paleoeskimo (Dorset) communities on Baffin Island spun threads from the hair and also from the sinews of native terrestrial grazing animals, most likely musk ox and arctic hare, throughout the Middle Dorset period and for at least a millennium before there is any reasonable evidence of European activity in the islands of the North Atlantic or in the North American Arctic.

A long-running debate disputes whether the Vikings taught indigenous peoples in the Canadian Arctic how to spin yarn when the invaders arrived in the region around 1,000 years ago. The team found that some of the spun yarn dates back at least 2,000 years, long before the Vikings arrived in the area. This shows that the indigenous peoples in the Canadian Arctic developed yarn-spinning technologies without any help from the Vikings, the scientists said.

Live Science, October 16, 2018 [37]

William W. Fitzhugh, Director of the Arctic Studies Center at the Smithsonian Institution, and a Senior Scientist at the National Museum of Natural History, wrote that there is insufficient published evidence to support Sutherland's claims, and that the Dorset were using spun cordage by the 6th century. [39] In 1992, Elizabeth Wayland Barber wrote that a piece of three-ply yarn that dates to the Paleolithic era, that ended about 10,000 BP, was found at the Lascaux caves in France. This yarn consisted of three s-twist strands that were z-plied, much like the way a three-ply yarn is made now, the Baffin Island yarn was a simple two-ply yarn. [35] The eight sod buildings and artifacts found in the 1960s at L'Anse aux Meadows, located on the northern tip of Newfoundland Island, remains the only confirmed Norse site in North America outside of those found in Greenland. [40]

Administration

Baffin Island is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region.

Demographics

The population of Baffin Island at the 2021 Canadian census was 13,039 [2] giving a population density of

As of the 2016 Canadian census the majority, 74.06 per cent, were Indigenous peoples and 25.83 per cent were non-Indigenous. This compares to 88.85 per cent and 14.12 per cent Indigenous and non-Indigenous people for Nunavut as a whole. This lower percentage of Indigenous peoples on Baffin Island results from Iqaluit being 59.29 per cent Indigenous and 40.65 per cent non-Indigenous. Of the total population 72.17 per cent are Inuit, 0.92 per cent are First Nations, and 0.73 per cent are Métis. Except for a few First Nations people in Arctic Bay all non-Inuit Indigenous peoples live in Iqaluit. [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]

Sea ice off Baffin Island Sea Ice off Baffin Island.jpg
Sea ice off Baffin Island
Population figures
City or hamlet2021 [2] 2016 [57] 2011 [57] 2006 [58] 2001 [58]
Arctic Bay 944868823690646
Clyde River 1,1811,053934820785
Iqaluit 7,4297,7406,6996,1845,236
Kimmirut 426389455411433
Nanisivik 000077
Pangnirtung 1,5041,4811,4251,3251,276
Pond Inlet 1,5551,6171,5491,3151,220

The hamlets of Kinngait (population: 1,396 [2] ) and Qikiqtarjuaq (population: 593 [2] ) do not lie on Baffin Island proper. Kinngait is situated on Dorset Island, which is located a few kilometres from the south eastern tip of the Foxe Peninsula. Similarly, Qikiqtarjuaq is situated on Broughton Island, which is located near the northern coast of the Cumberland Peninsula.

The Mary River Mine, an iron ore mine with an estimated 21-year life, at Mary River, may include building a railway and a port to transport the ore. [59] This may create a temporary mining community there.

Wildlife

A Baffin Island red fox Curious as a Fox.jpg
A Baffin Island red fox

Baffin Island is home to the Dewey Soper Migratory Bird Sanctuary and the Bowman Bay Wildlife Sanctuary.

The Dewey Soper Migratory Bird Sanctuary, named for J. Dewey Soper, is located on the western side of Baffin Island from Bowman Bay to the Koukdjuak River. It is an 8,159 km2 (3,150 sq mi) area that was classified a wetland of international importance via the Ramsar Convention on May 24, 1982. It is home of the worlds largest goose colony and supports a large number of barren-ground caribou. [60]

The Bowman Bay Wildlife Sanctuary is also located on the western side of Baffin Island near Bowman Bay in the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak. It is 1,079 km2 (417 sq mi) and is classified as Category IV (Habitat/Species Management Area) under the International Union for Conservation of Nature. [61] [62]

Baffin Island has both year-round and summer visitor wildlife. On land, examples of year-round wildlife are barren-ground caribou, [63] polar bear, [64] Arctic fox, Arctic hare, lemming, and Baffin Island wolf. [65]

Barren-ground caribou herds migrate in a limited range from northern Baffin Island down to the southern part in winter, even to the Frobisher Bay peninsula, next to Resolution Island, then migrating back north in the summer. [63] In 2012, a survey of caribou herds found that the local population was only about 5,000, a decrease of as much as 95% from the 1990s. [66]

Arctic hares are found throughout Baffin Island. Their fur is pure white in winter and moults to a scruffy dark grey in summer. Arctic hares and lemmings are an important food source for Arctic foxes and Arctic wolves. [67] [68] [69]

Lemmings are also found throughout the island and are a major food source for Arctic foxes, Arctic wolves and the snowy owl. In the winter, lemmings dig complicated tunnel systems through the snow drifts to get to their food supply of dry grasses and lichens. [70]

Predators

Polar bears can be found all along the coast of Baffin Island but are most prevalent where the sea ice takes the form of pack ice, where their major food sources—ringed seals (jar seal) and bearded seals—live. Polar bears mate approximately every year, bearing one to three cubs around March. Female polar bears may travel 10–20 km (6.2–12.4 mi) inland to find a large snow bank where they dig a den in which to spend the winter and later give birth. The polar bear population here is one of 19 genetically distinct demes of the circumpolar region. [71]

Arctic foxes can usually be found where polar bears venture on the fast ice close to land in their search for seals. Arctic foxes are scavengers and often follow polar bears to get their leavings. On Baffin Island, Arctic foxes are sometimes trapped by Inuit, but there is no longer a robust fur industry. [72]

The Arctic wolf and the Baffin Island wolf, a grey wolf subspecies, are also year-round residents of Baffin Island. Unlike the grey wolf in southern climes, Arctic wolves often do not hunt in packs, although a male-female pair may hunt together.[ citation needed ]

Satellite image of Baffin Island Wfm baffin island.jpg
Satellite image of Baffin Island
An ice-covered fjord on Baffin Island, with Davis Strait in the background Baffinisland pho 2013102 lrg.jpg
An ice-covered fjord on Baffin Island, with Davis Strait in the background

Birds

Nesting birds are summer land visitors to Baffin Island. Baffin Island is one of the major nesting destinations from the Eastern and Mid-West flyways for many species of migrating birds. Waterfowl include Canada goose, snow goose, cackling goose, and brant goose (brent goose). Shore birds include the phalarope, various waders (commonly called sandpipers), murres including Brünnich's guillemot, and plovers. Gull species also nest on Baffin Island and they include Sabine's gull, [73] glaucous gull, herring gull and ivory gull. [74] [75]

Long-range travellers include the Arctic tern, which migrates from Antarctica every spring. The varieties of water birds that nest here include coots, loons, mallards, and many other duck species. [75]

Marine mammals

In the water (and under the ice), the main year-round species is the ringed seal subspecies, the Arctic ringed seal. It lives offshore within 8 km (5.0 mi) of land. In winter, it makes a number of breathing holes in the ice, up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) thick. It visits each one often to keep the hole open and free from ice. In March, when a female is ready to whelp, she will enlarge one of the breathing holes that has snow over it, creating a small "igloo" where she whelps one or two pups. Within three weeks the pups are in the water and swimming. In summer, some ringed seals keep to a narrow territory about 3 km (1.9 mi) along the shoreline but may move out into the open water. In the spring they spend more time on the surface of the ice. [76]

Summer visitors

Water species that visit Baffin Island in the summer are:

Harp seals (or saddle-backed seals), which migrate from major breeding grounds off the coast of Labrador and the southeast coast of Greenland to Baffin Island for the summer. [77] Migrating at speeds of 15–20 km/h (9.3–12.4 mph), they all come up to breathe at the same time, then dive and swim up to 1–2 km (0.62–1.24 mi) before surfacing again. They migrate in large pods consisting of a hundred or more seals to within 1–8 km (0.62–4.97 mi) of the shoreline, which they then follow, feeding on crustaceans and fish. [78]

Walruses, which do not migrate far off land in the winter. They merely follow the fast ice, or ice that is solidly attached to land, and stay ahead of it as the ice hardens further and further out to sea. As winter progresses, they will always remain where there is open water free of ice. When the ice melts, they move in to land and can be found basking on rocks close to shore. One of the largest walrus herds can be found in the Foxe Basin on the western side of Baffin Island. [79]

Beluga or white whales migrate along the coast of Baffin Island; some head north to the feeding grounds in the Davis Strait between Greenland and Baffin Island, or into the Hudson Strait or any of the bays and estuaries in between. Usually travelling in pods of two or more, they can often be found very close to shore (100 m [330 ft] or less). They come up to breathe every 30 seconds or so as they make their way along the coastline eating crustaceans.

Narwhals, which are known for the males' long, spiralling single tusk, can also be found along the coast of Baffin Island in the summer. Much like their beluga cousins, they may be found in pairs or even in a large pod of ten or more males, females and newborns. They also can be often found close to the shoreline, gracefully pointing their tusks skyward as they come up for air.

The largest summer visitor to Baffin Island is the bowhead whale. Found throughout the Arctic range, one group of bowhead whales is known to migrate to the Foxe Basin, a bay on the western side of Baffin Island.

Climate

Air view - Kimmirut to Pangnirtung Air from Lake Harbour to Pangnirtung.jpg
Air view - Kimmirut to Pangnirtung

Baffin Island lies in the path of a generally northerly airflow all year round, so, like much of northeastern Canada, it has an extremely cold climate. This brings very long, cold winters and foggy, cloudy summers, which have helped to add to the remoteness of the island. Spring thaw arrives much later than normal for a position straddling the Arctic Circle: around early June at Iqaluit in the south-east but around early- to mid-July on the north coast where glaciers run right down to sea level. Snow, even heavy snow, can occur at any time of the year, although it is least likely in July and early August. Average annual temperatures at Iqaluit are around −9.5 °C (14.9 °F), compared with around 5 °C (41 °F) in Reykjavík, [maps 1] which is at a similar latitude. [80]

Sea ice surrounds the island for most of the year and only disappears completely from the north coast for short, unpredictable periods from mid- to late June until the end of September. [81]

Most of Baffin Island lies north of the Arctic Circle—all communities from Pangnirtung northwards have polar night in winter and midnight sun in summer. The eastern community of Clyde River has twilight instead of night from April 26 until May 13, continuous sunlight for 212 months from May 14 to July 28, then twilight instead of night from July 29 until August 16. This gives the community just over 312 months without true night. In the winter, the sun sets on November 22 and does not rise again until January 19 of the next year. Pond Inlet has civil twilight from December 16 to December 26. However, there is twilight for at least 4 hours per day, unlike places such as Eureka. [82]

Like most of Nunavut and the Canadian Arctic, Baffin Island has a tundra climate (Köppen climate classification ET), although the highest ice caps have an ice cap climate (EF). The sea is frozen for most of the year, and only a few months are above freezing. There can be seasonal lag in spring.

The Barnes Ice Cap, in the middle of the island, has been retreating since at least the early 1960s, when the Geographical Branch of the then Department of Mines and Technical Surveys sent a three-man survey team to the area to measure isostatic rebound and cross-valley features of the Isortoq River. [83] Although in the 1970s parts of Baffin Island failed to have the usual ice-free period in the summer. [84]

Climate tables from south to north

Climate data for Iqaluit (Iqaluit Airport)
WMO ID: 71909; coordinates 63°45′N68°33′W / 63.750°N 68.550°W / 63.750; -68.550 (Iqaluit Airport) ; elevation: 33.5 m (110 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1946–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex 3.35.24.35.113.321.727.827.618.88.64.83.427.8
Record high °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
5.7
(42.3)
4.2
(39.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.3
(55.9)
22.7
(72.9)
26.7
(80.1)
25.5
(77.9)
18.3
(64.9)
9.1
(48.4)
5.6
(42.1)
3.7
(38.7)
26.7
(80.1)
Mean maximum °C (°F)−8.1
(17.4)
−9.1
(15.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.8
(33.4)
5.9
(42.6)
14.4
(57.9)
21.3
(70.3)
18.2
(64.8)
11.6
(52.9)
4.9
(40.8)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
21.8
(71.2)
Average high °C (°F)−22.8
(−9.0)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.8
(44.2)
12.3
(54.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.2
(41.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
−8.3
(17.1)
−17.0
(1.4)
−5.6
(21.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−26.9
(−16.4)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−14.2
(6.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
3.6
(38.5)
8.2
(46.8)
7.1
(44.8)
2.6
(36.7)
−3.7
(25.3)
−12.0
(10.4)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−9.3
(15.3)
Average low °C (°F)−30.9
(−23.6)
−31.7
(−25.1)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.5
(32.9)
4.1
(39.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−15.8
(3.6)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−13.1
(8.4)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−38.8
(−37.8)
−40.5
(−40.9)
−37.9
(−36.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−17.0
(1.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
1.0
(33.8)
0.4
(32.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
−16.1
(3.0)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−41.6
(−42.9)
Record low °C (°F)−45.0
(−49.0)
−45.6
(−50.1)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−10.2
(13.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
−12.8
(9.0)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−36.2
(−33.2)
−43.4
(−46.1)
−45.6
(−50.1)
Record low wind chill −64−66−62−53−36−19−7−9−19−43−57−60−66
Average precipitation mm (inches)19.7
(0.78)
18.7
(0.74)
18.7
(0.74)
27.5
(1.08)
29.2
(1.15)
33.0
(1.30)
51.9
(2.04)
69.5
(2.74)
55.2
(2.17)
33.3
(1.31)
27.2
(1.07)
19.9
(0.78)
403.7
(15.89)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
3.1
(0.12)
23.8
(0.94)
51.9
(2.04)
68.6
(2.70)
42.2
(1.66)
6.8
(0.27)
0.6
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
197.2
(7.76)
Average snowfall cm (inches)21.7
(8.5)
21.0
(8.3)
21.6
(8.5)
31.5
(12.4)
27.6
(10.9)
9.3
(3.7)
0.0
(0.0)
0.9
(0.4)
13.2
(5.2)
29.4
(11.6)
29.7
(11.7)
23.4
(9.2)
229.3
(90.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)11.411.111.813.112.010.912.515.315.014.013.212.2152.2
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.10.00.31.47.412.716.710.62.20.30.051.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)12.211.612.713.412.03.90.10.57.213.713.812.3113.5
Average relative humidity (%)65.364.665.472.876.472.669.472.675.678.176.671.571.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 32.494.0172.2216.5180.5200.2236.8156.887.951.435.612.61,476.8
Percent possible sunshine 18.539.047.448.231.932.539.331.022.416.817.78.929.5
Average ultraviolet index 0012444321002
Source 1: Environment and Climate Change Canada [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] and Weather Atlas [92]
Source 2: Météo Climat [93] [94]
Climate data for Clyde River (Clyde River Airport)
WMO ID: 71090; coordinates 70°29′10″N68°31′00″W / 70.48611°N 68.51667°W / 70.48611; -68.51667 (Clyde River) ; elevation: 26.5 m (87 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1933–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)3.3
(37.9)
3.3
(37.9)
0.1
(32.2)
11.7
(53.1)
8.9
(48.0)
17.8
(64.0)
22.2
(72.0)
20.6
(69.1)
14.6
(58.3)
10.3
(50.5)
6.7
(44.1)
2.8
(37.0)
22.2
(72.0)
Average high °C (°F)−25.2
(−13.4)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−14.1
(6.6)
−4.2
(24.4)
3.9
(39.0)
8.8
(47.8)
7.3
(45.1)
2.8
(37.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
−13.4
(7.9)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−8.9
(16.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−29.1
(−20.4)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−8.2
(17.2)
1.0
(33.8)
5.0
(41.0)
4.3
(39.7)
0.5
(32.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
−17.2
(1.0)
−24.1
(−11.4)
−12.6
(9.3)
Average low °C (°F)−33.0
(−27.4)
−33.8
(−28.8)
−31.7
(−25.1)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−12.2
(10.0)
−1.8
(28.8)
1.2
(34.2)
1.1
(34.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
−10.1
(13.8)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−16.2
(2.8)
Record low °C (°F)−50.2
(−58.4)
−50.1
(−58.2)
−47.8
(−54.0)
−41.1
(−42.0)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−17.2
(1.0)
−6.8
(19.8)
−5.6
(21.9)
−16.1
(3.0)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−39.5
(−39.1)
−45.0
(−49.0)
−50.2
(−58.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)8.8
(0.35)
6.3
(0.25)
7.4
(0.29)
15.6
(0.61)
17.7
(0.70)
16.5
(0.65)
22.3
(0.88)
31.4
(1.24)
33.0
(1.30)
37.7
(1.48)
22.9
(0.90)
13.5
(0.53)
233.0
(9.17)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.02)
5.6
(0.22)
14.5
(0.57)
32.2
(1.27)
10.2
(0.40)
0.3
(0.01)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
63.3
(2.49)
Average snowfall cm (inches)10.6
(4.2)
8.7
(3.4)
8.4
(3.3)
12.7
(5.0)
16.5
(6.5)
12.5
(4.9)
6.6
(2.6)
5.2
(2.0)
27.7
(10.9)
40.4
(15.9)
28.2
(11.1)
17.2
(6.8)
194.7
(76.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)7.16.36.68.510.36.97.610.614.016.711.68.1114.4
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.00.00.00.31.66.69.13.80.30.10.021.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)7.36.66.88.710.55.62.43.312.017.011.88.4100.3
Average relative humidity (%)65.163.663.671.281.183.578.580.180.881.674.867.574.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 0.056.1175.6253.3264.1273.4279.0161.683.945.50.00.01,592.5
Percent possible sunshine 0.028.648.851.837.938.037.628.020.716.40.00.034.2
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada [95]
Climate data for Pond Inlet (Pond Inlet Airport)
WMO ID: 71095; coordinates 72°41′22″N77°58′08″W / 72.68944°N 77.96889°W / 72.68944; -77.96889 (Pond Inlet Airport) ; elevation: 61.6 m (202 ft); 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex 3.6−4.0−0.83.99.415.022.018.911.86.01.2−0.522.0
Record high °F (°C)38.7
(3.7)
26.1
(−3.3)
32.0
(0.0)
39.0
(3.9)
53.8
(12.1)
59.9
(15.5)
71.6
(22.0)
66.2
(19.0)
53.4
(11.9)
43.7
(6.5)
35.6
(2.0)
30.2
(−1.0)
71.6
(22.0)
Average high °F (°C)−22.0
(−30.0)
−22.4
(−30.2)
−15.2
(−26.2)
0.3
(−17.6)
22.5
(−5.3)
41.4
(5.2)
50.9
(10.5)
46.0
(7.8)
35.2
(1.8)
20.5
(−6.4)
0.0
(−17.8)
−12.1
(−24.5)
12.0
(−11.1)
Daily mean °F (°C)−28.1
(−33.4)
−28.7
(−33.7)
−22.0
(−30.0)
−7.4
(−21.9)
15.3
(−9.3)
36.3
(2.4)
43.9
(6.6)
40.6
(4.8)
30.6
(−0.8)
14.5
(−9.7)
−7.1
(−21.7)
−18.8
(−28.2)
5.7
(−14.6)
Average low °F (°C)−34.1
(−36.7)
−34.8
(−37.1)
−28.5
(−33.6)
−15.0
(−26.1)
8.2
(−13.2)
30.9
(−0.6)
36.9
(2.7)
35.1
(1.7)
25.9
(−3.4)
8.8
(−12.9)
−13.4
(−25.2)
−25.2
(−31.8)
−0.4
(−18.0)
Record low °F (°C)−57.6
(−49.8)
−65.0
(−53.9)
−56.2
(−49.0)
−40.4
(−40.2)
−19.1
(−28.4)
6.8
(−14.0)
21.0
(−6.1)
21.0
(−6.1)
2.5
(−16.4)
−22.2
(−30.1)
−43.6
(−42.0)
−49.9
(−45.5)
−65.0
(−53.9)
Record low wind chill −64.8−68.5−60.3−51.4−36.2−20.7−6.7−17.8−25.0−42.0−51.6−58.6−68.5
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.19
(4.8)
0.15
(3.8)
0.26
(6.6)
0.41
(10.5)
0.37
(9.4)
0.61
(15.6)
1.26
(32.0)
1.53
(38.8)
0.78
(19.9)
0.99
(25.1)
0.54
(13.7)
0.35
(8.9)
7.44
(189.0)
Average rainfall inches (mm)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.48
(12.1)
1.24
(31.5)
1.41
(35.9)
0.39
(9.8)
0.05
(1.3)
0.02
(0.4)
0.0
(0.0)
3.58
(91.0)
Average snowfall inches (cm)2.3
(5.8)
2.0
(5.0)
3.4
(8.6)
5.0
(12.7)
5.6
(14.3)
1.7
(4.4)
0.2
(0.4)
1.1
(2.8)
5.4
(13.7)
13.3
(33.8)
7.0
(17.9)
5.0
(12.6)
51.9
(131.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)4.64.16.56.26.25.98.09.97.911.78.27.486.7
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.00.00.00.04.47.99.22.80.20.00.024.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)4.64.26.66.16.22.10.21.05.311.58.27.463.3
Average relative humidity (%)65.365.365.070.478.175.871.675.177.080.372.567.672.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 0.00.0177.0301.7353.7330.4359.6192.190.239.30.00.01,844
Percent possible sunshine 0.00.049.559.048.445.948.330.721.915.00.00.039.8
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 [96]
Climate data for Nanisivik (Nanisivik Airport)
Climate ID: 2402730; coordinates 72°59′N84°37′W / 72.983°N 84.617°W / 72.983; -84.617 (Nanisivik Airport) ; elevation: 641.9 m (2,106 ft); 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex −3.01.2−2.2−1.26.514.518.416.79.01.2−6.3−1.318.4
Record high °C (°F)−2.0
(28.4)
2.0
(35.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
7.0
(44.6)
18.5
(65.3)
18.2
(64.8)
17.0
(62.6)
8.5
(47.3)
2.0
(35.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−4.4
(24.1)
18.5
(65.3)
Average high °C (°F)−26.8
(−16.2)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−16.6
(2.1)
−7.6
(18.3)
2.2
(36.0)
7.5
(45.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−11.3
(11.7)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−12.3
(9.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−29.6
(−21.3)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−10.3
(13.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.1
(41.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−13.6
(7.5)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−14.8
(5.4)
Average low °C (°F)−32.4
(−26.3)
−32.3
(−26.1)
−30.1
(−22.2)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−13.0
(8.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
−6.7
(19.9)
−15.8
(3.6)
−24.9
(−12.8)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−17.2
(1.0)
Record low °C (°F)−48.5
(−55.3)
−53.0
(−63.4)
−47.5
(−53.5)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−14.0
(6.8)
−6.0
(21.2)
−10.0
(14.0)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−35.0
(−31.0)
−39.4
(−38.9)
−45.5
(−49.9)
−53.0
(−63.4)
Record low wind chill −62.9−72.3−67.0−54.8−39.4−24.9−12.8−21.0−30.3−50.0−53.5−60.6−72.3
Average precipitation mm (inches)5.4
(0.21)
5.1
(0.20)
8.4
(0.33)
10.9
(0.43)
24.0
(0.94)
25.2
(0.99)
45.7
(1.80)
45.0
(1.77)
38.4
(1.51)
37.4
(1.47)
18.1
(0.71)
7.3
(0.29)
270.9
(10.67)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
6.7
(0.26)
37.0
(1.46)
29.2
(1.15)
4.4
(0.17)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
77.3
(3.04)
Average snowfall cm (inches)5.4
(2.1)
5.2
(2.0)
8.4
(3.3)
11.2
(4.4)
24.0
(9.4)
17.7
(7.0)
8.5
(3.3)
15.0
(5.9)
32.3
(12.7)
38.2
(15.0)
17.9
(7.0)
7.5
(3.0)
191.3
(75.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)4.44.66.25.79.68.812.412.613.314.28.46.3106.5
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.00.00.00.02.210.48.11.70.00.00.022.3
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)4.44.66.25.89.67.13.05.412.114.38.56.487.3
Average relative humidity (%)64.165.066.671.281.380.775.684.988.689.772.968.775.8
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 [97]

Economic resources

The Hall Peninsula of southern Baffin Island includes the Chidliak Kimberlite Province, which had been found to include kimberlite pipes of diamond-bearing kimberlite. [98]

The White Dawn is a 1974 film set on and filmed on Baffin Island. All performers except three Hollywood actors were Inuit who spoke their own language. [99]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Inuit Nunangat Inuit regions of Canada

For Inuvialuit Nunangat, see Inuvialuit Settlement Region

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The North Water Polynya or Pikialasorsuaq to Inuit in Greenland and Sarvarjuaq to Inuit in Canada (NOW) is a polynya that lies between Greenland and Canada in northern Baffin Bay. The world's largest Arctic polynya at about 85,000 km2 (33,000 sq mi), it creates a warm microclimate that provides a refuge for narwhal, beluga, walrus, and bowhead whales to feed and rest. While thin ice forms in some areas, the polynya is kept open by wind, tides and an ice bridge on its northern edge. Named the "North Water" by 19th century whalers who relied on it for spring passage, this polynya is one of the most biologically productive marine areas in the Arctic Ocean.

Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park

Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park is a Canadian territorial park on Baffin Island.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 "Baffin Island". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), Nunavut". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
  3. Does not include Kinngait (1,396) and Qikiqtarjuaq (593). Both of which do not lie on Baffin Island proper
  4. 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile for Nunavut communities.
  5. Baffin Island / Île de Baffin (Formerly Baffin Land)
  6. "Inuit Heritage Trust: Place Names Program: Map Series". ihti.ca. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  7. Canadian Geographical Names Database (CGNDB) Search Results for Qikiqtaaluk
  8. 1 2 3 George, Jane. "Hare fur yarn, wooden tally sticks may mean visitors arrived 1,000 years ago". Nunatsiaq News . Archived from the original on August 1, 2018.
  9. McDermott, James (2001a). Martin Frobisher: Elizabethan Privateer. Yale University Press. ISBN   978-0-300-08380-4, page 139
  10. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Baffin, William"  , Encyclopædia Britannica , vol. 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 192
  11. Quinn, Joyce A.; Woodward, Susan L. (January 13, 2015). Earth's Landscape: An Encyclopedia of the World's Geographic Features. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. ISBN   978-1-61069-446-9.
  12. "About Iqaluit: History & Milestones". Archived from the original on April 19, 2019.
  13. 1 2 "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  14. "Fury and Hecla Strait". Archived from the original on October 2, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
  15. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  16. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  17. "Baffin Bay". April 2, 2004. Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. with Greenland to the east
  18. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  19. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  20. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  21. "Mount Odin, Nunavut". Peakbagger.com.
  22. "Mount Odin at the Atlas of Canada".
  23. "Mount Thor -The Greatest Vertical Drop on Earth!". November 19, 2012.
  24. Mount Sharat
  25. "Nunavut – Lake Areas and Elevation (lakes larger than 400 square kilometres)".
  26. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  27. "The Atlas of Canada - Search". archive.is. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013.
  28. S. Brooke; R. Park (2016). "Pre-Dorset Culture". In M. Friesen; O. Mason (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic. Vol. 1. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199766956.013.39.
  29. 1 2 3 Weber, Bob (July 22, 2018). "Ancient Arctic people may have known how to spin yarn long before Vikings arrived". Old theories being questioned in light of carbon-dated yarn samples. CBC . Retrieved January 2, 2019. ... Michele Hayeur Smith of Brown University in Rhode Island, lead author of a recent paper in the Journal of Archaeological Science. Hayeur Smith and her colleagues were looking at scraps of yarn, perhaps used to hang amulets or decorate clothing, from ancient sites on Baffin Island and the Ungava Peninsula. The idea that you would have to learn to spin something from another culture was a bit ludicrous," she said. "It's a pretty intuitive thing to do.
  30. 1 2 3 Wallace, Birgitta (2003). "The Norse in Newfoundland: L'Anse aux Meadows and Vinland". The New Early Modern Newfoundland. 19 (1).
  31. The Fate of Greenland's Vikings, by Dale Mackenzie Brown, Archaeological Institute of America, February 28, 2000
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Maps

Further reading

  • Boas, Franz, and Ludger Müller-Wille. Franz Boas Among the Inuit of Baffin Island, 1883–1884 Journals and Letters. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. ISBN   0-8020-4150-7
  • Kuhnlein HV, R Soueida, and O Receveur. 1996. "Dietary Nutrient Profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit Differ by Food Source, Season, and Age". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 96, no. 2: 155–62.
  • Lee, Alastair. Baffin Island: the Ascent of Mount Asgard. London: Frances Lincoln, 2011. ISBN   9780711232211
  • Matthiasson, John S. Living on the Land Change Among the Inuit of Baffin Island. Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press, 1992. ISBN   0-585-30561-7
  • Maxwell, Moreau S. Archaeology of the Lake Harbour District, Baffin Island. Mercury series. Ottawa: Archaeological Survey of Canada, National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada, 1973.
  • Sabo, George. Long Term Adaptations Among Arctic Hunter-Gatherers A Case Study from Southern Baffin Island. The Evolution of North American Indians. New York: Garland Pub, 1991. ISBN   0-8240-6111-X
  • Sergy, Gary A. The Baffin Island Oil Spill Project. Edmonton, Alta: Environment Canada, 1986.
  • Stirling, Ian, Wendy Calvert, and Dennis Andriashek. Population Ecology Studies of the Polar Bear in the Area of Southeastern Baffin Island. [Ottawa]: Canadian Wildlife Service, 1980. ISBN   0-662-11097-8
  • Utting, D. J. Report on ice-flow history, deglacial chronology, and surficial geology, Foxe Peninsula, southwest Baffin Island, Nunavut. [Ottawa]: Geological Survey of Canada, 2007. http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/collection%5F2007/nrcan-rncan/M44-2007-C2E.pdf. ISBN   978-0-662-46367-2
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