Bagar tract

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Bagar, also Bagad ('बागड़) and even Bar, [1] a term meaning the "dry country", [2] refers to the sandy tract of north-western India and eastern parts of current Pakistan bordering India. [3] For example, area north and south of Ravi river between Chenab river and Sutlej is called Ihang Bar. [1]

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Sutlej river in India

The Sutlej River (Punjabi: ਸਤਲੁਜ, Sanskrit: शतद्रुम, , is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree It is addressed as Shatarudra by the Gorkhalis. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.

Contents

Etymology

Bagar means the prairie (grazing shurbs and grassland) of northern Rajputana, [4] which likely comes from eponymous Arabic word "bagar" meaning "cow" (sacred to Hindus), [5] derived from the Arabic word "cattle". [6] [7] Baggara in Arabic means "cattle herders". [6] [8] Bagar tract refers to the semi-arid semi-fertile rain-fed sandy shrubby grassland tract at the confluence of arid Thar Desert and fertile bangar and khadir areas of Indo-Gangetic Plain, which as historically inhabited by the cattle herders who remained semi-nomadic until they began to adop to settled life in the mid to late Medieval Period. Before the adoption of Arabic name bagar, the area was earlier known as Jangladesh during the vedic era of Mahabharata and even in early medieval times at least until the end of Hindu reign of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Prairie ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome

Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, and the steppe of Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan. Lands typically referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America. The term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of Canada, the United States, and Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, hillier land to the east.

Rajputana

Rājputāna, meaning "Land of the Rajputs", was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, as well as parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.

The Baggāra are a grouping of Arab ethnic groups inhabiting the portion of Africa's Sahel mainly between Lake Chad and southern Kordofan, numbering over six million. They are known as Baggara in Sudan, and as Shuwa/Diffa Arabs in Chad and Nigeria. Their name derives from the Arabic word literally meaning "cattle herder".

Rājputāna, meaning "Land of the Rajputs", [9] is a historic term for a region in India that includes mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, [9] as well as adjining areas of Punjab and Haryana, and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan. [10] It lies to the west of the Aravalli Hills, and was earlier known as Samarkand, the earlier form of Registan, before it came to be known as Rajputana, early in the Medieval Period. [11] The name was later adopted by British government as the Rajputana Agency for its dependencies in the region of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, [12] which comprised 18 princely states, two chiefships and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara, which was renamed to "Rajasthan" in 1949. [12]

Rajasthan State in India

Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.

Madhya Pradesh State in India

Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior, Ujjain and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state.

Gujarat State in India

Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi) – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area and the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state. The economy of Gujarat is the third-largest state economy in India with 14.96 lakh crore (US$210 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 157,000 (US$2,200).

Bagri people

Mani Ram Bagri with Rajiv Gandhi. Mani Ram Bagri with Rajiv Gandhi and others.jpg
Mani Ram Bagri with Rajiv Gandhi.

The term Bagri people was originally applied to the Hindu Jatsand Rajputs, such as Bagri Jat and Bagri Rajput, [2] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [2] [18] but now also applied to Bishnoi and one of the sections of Maheshwari Banias (traders), as well as Badhik ("butcher"), Pardhi ("hunter") and Bawariya (semi-nomads) castes. [14] [17] Prominent bagri people include was politician from Haryana Mani Ram Bagri (1 January 1920 – 31 March 2012, a politician from Haryana), Raj Bagri, Baron Bagri (24 August 1930 – 26 April 2017, India-born British businessman and a Conservative member of the House of Lords from 1997 to 2010, who was made a life peer in 1997). [19]

Jat people jat jatt

The Jat people are a traditionally agricultural community native to the Indian subcontinent, comprising what is today Northern India and Pakistan. Originally pastoralists in the lower Indus river-valley of Sindh, Jats migrated north into the Punjab region, Delhi, Rajputana, and the western Gangetic Plain in late medieval times. Primarily of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh faiths, they now live mostly in the Indian states of Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh.

Bishnoi is a Hindu religious sect found in the Western Thar Desert and northern states of India. They follow a set of 29 principles/commandments given by Guru Jambheshwar (1451-1536). Jambheshwar founded the sect at Samrathal Dhora in 1485 and his teachings, comprising 120 shabads, are known as Shabadwani. He preached for the next 51 years, travelling across India. There are an estimated 10,00,000 followers of Vishnoi sect residing in large number in states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. A significant population of this sect also lives in some villages of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

The historic homeland of the Maheshwari community is around Khandela in Sikar district, Rajasthan, India, although significant communities exist elsewhere in the country.

Bagri language

"Bagri people" of the sandy dry "Bagar tract" speak the "Bagri language" (बागड़ी), a dialect of overlapping Rajasthani language, Haryanvi language and Punjabi language of the Indo-Aryan family, spoken by about five million speakers. [20] [21]

Bagri language Indian language

The Bagri language (बागड़ी) forms something of a dialect bridge between Haryanvi, Rajasthani, and Punjabi and takes its name from the Bagar tract region of Northwestern India. It has about two million speakers, mostly in India, with pockets in the Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts of the Punjab in Pakistan.

The term dialect is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:

Rajasthani refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India. There are also Rajasthani-speakers in the Pakistani provinces of Sindh and Punjab. The Rajasthani language is distinct from neighbouring related Hindi languages, however, it is officially considered to be a dialect of Hindi.

Bagri region

"Bagri region" or tract is long strip of shifting sand dunes called tibba (टिब्बा) and relatively semi-fertile lands between them called lal (लाळ ) along the western border of Haryana and eastern border of Rajasthan. [22]

Khadir and Bangar Distinction of types of river plain in the Indo-Gangetic region

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Haryana State in northern India

Haryana is one of the 29 states in India, located in northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area with less than 1.4% of India's land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages panchayats.

The Bagar region has potentially very fertile alluvial soil interspersed with highly permeable very sandy tracts in several places with water table more than 100 feet below ground containing brackish water usually unfit for human consumption, where dust storms frequent during the warm summer months from April till the end of July when monsoon arrives. Previously the tract was solely based on the rain and irrigation was possible only in the small area of Bagar region in districts of Fatehabad, Sirsa, Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar where the season Ghaggar river flows. After the opening of Bhakra Nangal Dam canal system in 1963 as well as the earlier Western Yamuna Canal now irrigate most of Haryana including all of the Bagar region falling in Haryana on its western border. Opening of Indira Gandhi Canal in 1983 brought the water of Sutlej and Beas rivers to the fields of Rajasthan including its Bagar tract stabilizing the sand dunes and soil erosion by preventing the expansion of desert. [23]

In Haryana, it covers southern parts of Sirsa district (earlier known as Bhattiana), and western villages of Fatehabad, Hisar, Bhiwani and Charkhi Dadri districts. [20] [21] [22] [22]

In Rajasthan, it covers parts of tehsils of Ganganagar; Bhadra, Nohar in Hanumangarh district; Taranagar tehsil in Churu district. [20] [22]

In Punjab (India), bagar tract covers Fazilka district and southern villages of Muktsar district. [20] [21] [24]

In Punjab, Pakistan, Bagri as minor language is spoken in Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar district, though these are not considered parts of Bagar tract. [20] [21] [25]

See also

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Bagar may refer to:

Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert of the present-day state of Rajasthan, India, many centuries ago, although exactly when is unknown.

Dhani (settlement type)

Dhani or Thok is a type of hamlet, the smallest conglomeration of houses, in sandy Bagar region of northwestern states of Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab in India. Per Census of India, 70% of Indians live in villages. 80% of the villages have a population of less than 1000 people and each consists of a cluster of hamlets. Most dhanis are nucleated settlements, while others are more dispersed. A dhani could be as small as one isolated house for a single family or a small cluster of several houses which could grow in number with successive generations, and even become a village by itself. All families living in a dhani are relatives or at least are of the same caste. An isolated collection of several of dhanis, which could be few hundred meters apart, constitutes a gram panchayat village community. A typical dhani in the arid zone of Rajasthan is a cluster of huts with a boundary made of dried shrubs around it and with owners' livestock such as goats, sheep and camels inside the bara. Dhani are atypically mud huts in Rajasthan. Houses in dani nowadays are made of modern brick and mortar, specially in affluent higher-per-capita-income states of Haryana and Punjab, and some richer families of Rajasthan.

Malwai dialect

Malwai is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Malwa region of Punjab. Major Malwai speaking centers are Ferozepur, Fazilka, Faridkot, Muktsar, Moga, Bathinda, Barnala, Mansa districts and Jagraon, Raikot and Ludhiana (West) tehsils of Ludhiana district. In Pakistan, it is spoken in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Punjab. A big number of Malwai speakers also living in Dabwali, Kalanwali and Rania tehsils of Sirsa and Jakhal, Ratia & Tohana tehsils of Fatehabad districts of Haryana, Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts of Rajasthan.

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