|• Governor||Mohammad Akbar Barekzai|
|• Total||21,118 km2 (8,154 sq mi)|
|• Density||49/km2 (130/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||AF-BGL|
|Main languages|| Dari (Dari-Persian)|
Baghlan (Dari/Pashto: بغلان Baġlān) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the north of the country. As of 2020, the province has a population of about 1,014,634.
Its capital is Puli Khumri, but its name comes from the other major town in the province, Baghlan. The ruins of a Zoroastrian fire temple, the Surkh Kotal, are located in Baghlan. The lead nation of the local Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) was Hungary, which operated from 2006 to 2015.
|History of Afghanistan|
|Related historical names of the region|
The name Baghlan is derived from Bagolango or "image-temple", inscribed on the temple of Surkh Kotal during the reign of the Kushan emperor, Kanishka in the early 2nd century CE. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang traveled through Baghlan in the mid-7th century CE, and referred to it as the "kingdom of Fo-kia-lang".
In the 13th century CE, a permanent garrison of Mongol troops was quartered in the Kunduz-Baghlan area, and in 1253 fell under the jurisdiction of Sali Noyan Tatar, appointed there by Möngke Khan. Sali Noyan's position was later inherited by his son Uladu, and grandson Baktut. [ when? ] By the Islamic year 900 (1494–1495 CE), the area was noted in the Baburnama as ruled by a Qipchaq emir.These Turco-Mongol garrison troops (tamma) formed the Qara'unas faction, and by the 14th Century had allied with the Chaghataite Khanate. Under the rule of Temür the Qara'unas were given to Chekü Barlas, and then to his son Jahānshāh. Forbes Manz notes that these Kunduz-Baghlan forces appear to have remained cohesive and influential throughout the Timurid period, though under different leaders and different names, up until the Uzbek invasion.
In the mid-20th century, as Afghanistan became the target of international development from both the Western and Soviet world, agricultural-industrial projects were initiated in Baghlan. These included factories for the production of sugar from sugar beets (initiated by Czech experts in the 1940s) and for vegetable oil. Czech expertise also figured heavily into the development of Baghlans' coal-mining industry, centred at Baghlan's Karkar Valley, the only coal mine in Afghanistan to remain operational up through 1992.
The modern Baghlan Province was created out of the former Qataghan Province in 1964.
During the Soviet–Afghan War, the Soviets in 1982 established the Kayan military zone in southern Baghlan. The area was defended by 10,000 Ismaili militiamen, increasing to 18,000 by 1992, who sided with the Soviets due to differences with the Islamist opposition.Afghan Ismailis overall were inclined to support the Communists, though a local Ismaili leader, Sayed Manuchehr, lead a partisan movement against the Communists until Ismaili leader Sayed Mansur Naderi accepted Soviet support.
Large portions of Baghlan and neighbouring Samangan Province were under the sway of the Soviet-aligned Naderi clan, the hereditary Ismaili Sayeds (spiritual leaders) of Kayan. Under their jurisdiction, was largely quiet and societally functional throughout the 1980s, with hospitals, schools, and administrative services, funded by the communist central government. Despite the Naderi's alliance with the Communists, they also maintained positive relations with the Mujahideen as well, permitting them to move through the area provided they refrained from attacks.
One of the Soviets' three primary bases in Afghanistan, Kiligai, was located in Baghlan Province, and served as the "largest military supply and armoury centre of the Soviet troops in Afghanistan."
As the 2001 Afghan War commenced, Ismaili leader Sayed Mansoor Naderi attempted to retake Baghlan from the Taliban. Naderi was aligned with Uzbek warlord Abdul Rashid Dostum and his Jumbesh-e Milli party, and the competing Tajik-dominated Jamiat-e Islami party was also keen to seize control of Baghlan as Taliban power eroded. The Jamiat were able to seize the capital of Pul-i Khumri before Naderi, who despite his strong backing among the Afghan Ismailis and Shia Hazaras, was unable to rally enough supporters to control the province. Naderi failed to retake the capital in 2001 and 2003, in the latter event he negotiated a power-sharing agreement with the dominant Andarabi militias and made the Ismaili bastion of the Kayan Valley his base.
On 13 June 2012, two earthquakes hit Afghanistan and there was a major landslide in Burka District of Baghlan Province. The village of Sayi Hazara was buried under up to 30 meters of rock, killing an estimated 71 people.
On 13 April 2021, an official in Baghlan Province said on that day a group of Taliban militants attacked a checkpoint in the province that day and killed six security personnel.
Claiming that the Taliban had not acted in the spirit of amnesty, the Public's Resistance Forces under Khair Muhammad Andarabi reportedly attacked Taliban fighters 20 August 2021 in several parts of Baghlan province, inflicting up to 60 Taliban killed or wounded. They claim to have captured Puli Hisar, Dih Salah and Banu districts, and are advancing on other Taliban-held districts.
The town of Puli Khumri serves as the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). The provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), including the NATO-led forces. Taj Mohammad Jahid has been the governor of the province since July 2020.
According to the National Statistics Agency of Afghanistan, as of 2021, Tajiks and Hazaras make up the majority of the population, followed by Pashtuns and Uzbeks.In addition, a significant number of Hazaras are also counted as part of the Persian-speaking people which makes Persian the overwhelmingly spoken language. Persian-speakers are followed by Pashtuns who make up the majority ethnic group in Baghlani Jadid district, and by Uzbeks and some Tatars.
Baghlan is also home to a small community of Ismaili Muslims of Hazara background, led by the Sayeds of Kayan.
The percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 19% in 2005 to 25% in 2011.The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 5.5% in 2005 to 22% in 2011.
The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 21% in 2005 to 24% in 2011.The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 29% in 2005 to 62% in 2011.
Baghlan's primary crops (as of 1974) were cotton and sugar beets, industrial sugar production having begun under Czech supervision in the 1940s. The area also produced grapes, pistachios, and pomegranates. The primary livestock is Karakul sheep.
The province also produces silk, and coal is mined in the Karkar Valley.
|Andarab||29,334||Sub-divided in 2005. Tajik dominated|
|Baghlani Jadid||Baghlan||202,375||Pashtun 70%, Tajik 20%, Uzbek 10%|
|Burka||60,561||Uzbek 60%, Tajik 20%, Hazara 10%, Pashtun 10%|
|Dahana-I-Ghuri||67,796||80% Pashtun, 10% Hazara, Uzbek 10%|
|Dih Salah||31,100||Created in 2005 within Andarab District. Tajik dominated|
|Dushi||36,769||60% Hazara, 39% Tajik|
|Farang Wa Gharu||19,060||Tajik dominated, created in 2005 within Khost Wa Fereng District|
|Guzargahi Nur||11,625||Tajik dominated, created in 2005 within Khost Wa Fereng District|
|Khinjan||35,011||85% Tajik, 5% Hazara, 5% Pashtun, 5% other|
|Khost Wa Fereng||72,592||Tajik dominated, sub-divided in 2005|
|Khwaja Hijran||27,442||Tajik dominated, created in 2005 within Andarab District|
|Nahrin||79,847||Tajik 60%, Pashtun 35%, Uzbek 5%|
|Puli Hisar||31,767||Tajik dominated, created in 2005 within Andarab District|
|Puli Khumri||Puli Khumri||247,923||Tajik 30%, Hazara 20%, Pashtun 30%, Uzbek 10%|
|Tala wa Barfak||34,741||Hazara 70%, Tajik 30%|
Mazār-i-Sharīf, also called Mazār-e Sharīf, or just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a population estimate of 500,207 people. It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the southwest and Termez, Uzbekistan in the north. It is about 55 km (34 mi) from the Uzbek border. The city is also a tourist attraction because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites. The ancient city of Balkh is also nearby.
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Samangan is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The province covers 11,218 square kilometres (4,331 sq mi) and is surrounded by Sar-e Pol Province in the west, Balkh in the north, Baghlan in the east, and Bamyan in the south.
Puli Khumri (پلخمری), also spelled Pul-i-Khumri or Pol-e Khomri, is a city in northern Afghanistan, located about 100 kilometres (60 mi) south of Kunduz, 200 kilometres (120 mi) southeast of Mazar-i-Sharif, and 230 kilometres (140 mi) north of Kabul. Puli Khumri is the capital and largest city of Baghlan Province, whose name comes from the other major town in the province, Baghlan. It is a major industrial city. The city of Puli Khumri has a population of 221,274. It has 6 districts and a total land area of 3,752 hectares. The total number of dwellings in the city are 24,586.
Malistan is a district in the west of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Its population, which is 100% Hazara, was estimated at 350,000 in 2009. The district capital is Mir Adina.
Sayed Jafar Naderi is an ethnic Hazara-Ismaili who controlled Baghlan Province of Afghanistan during the early 1990s. He was born in Kayan, Baghlan and is also known as Sayyid-e Kayan The son of Sayed Mansoor Naderi, The previous Vice-President of Afghanistan, Sayed Jafar Naderi went to school in England at age 10, after his father was made a political prisoner. He was sent to the United States at age 13 where he became known as Jeff Naderi.
Burka district is in the northeastern part of Baghlan province. Its population is approximately 49,000. The capital is the city of Burka. It is in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. The district is prone to earthquakes. On 5 May 2021 it was captured by Taliban forces.
Dahana i Ghuri district is located in the most southwestern part of Baghlan province, Afghanistan. The capital is Dahana i Ghuri. Its population is about 3,400 people. It is connected with Baghlan and Puli Khumri with an all-weather primary road.
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Khost wa Fereng or Khost wa Fring is the easternmost district of Baghlan province, Afghanistan in the Hindu Kush mountains. Its capital is Khost wa Fereng. The population of the district was estimated to be around 60300 in 2011–2012, of which ethnic Tajiks made up 90% and Hazaras 10% of the total population.
Puli Khumri, also spelled Pul-i-Khumri or Pol-e Khomri, is a district of Baghlan Province, Afghanistan. The population of the district was estimated to be around 191,640 in 2004. Tajiks are around 50% of the population and make up the majority in the district, followed by 30% Hazaras, 15% Pashtuns and 5% Uzbeks. The capital city is Puli Khumri.
Kayan is a village in Baghlan Province in north eastern Afghanistan. It is located in the valley of Kayan, some 30 kilometres west of Dushi. The residents of Kayan valley are mostly members of Sadat and Hazara tribes. The Sayyids follow Shi´a Islam.
Bādghīs is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country, on the border with Turkmenistan. It is considered to be one of the country's most underdeveloped provinces, with the highest poverty rate. The capital is Qala i Naw, while the most populous city and district is Bala Murghab. The ruins of the medieval city of Marw al-Rudh, the historical capital of the medieval region of Gharjistan, are located in the province near the modern city of Bala Murghab.
Sayed Kayan or Sayed of Kayan is a position of leadership amongst the Ismaili community in Afghanistan Baghlan province. The Ismaili community in Baghlan Province is led by a family of Sayeds hailing from the village of Kayan.
Sayed Mansur Naderi is a leader of a Hazara-Ismaili Shi'a community centred in Baghlan Province of Afghanistan. Like other Ismaili communities in Afghanistan and worldwide, the Baghlan Ismailis do submit to the spiritual leader of Ismailis worldwide, the Agha Khan, Naderi acts as a figurehead of the local Ismailies till the socio/religious leadership structure is established in the country. This community although Shia is smaller than the mainstream Twelver Shia community in Afghanistan.
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The Sheikh Ali are a major tribe of Hazaras. They live in Afghanistan generally in Bamyan, Parwan, Kunduz and Baghlan provinces, inhabiting the road from Kabul to Mazar-e-Sharif.
The persecution of Hazara people refers to discrimination against the Hazaras, who are mostly from Afghanistan, primarily from the central regions of Afghanistan, known as Hazarajat. Significant communities of Hazara people also live in Quetta, Pakistan, and in the city of Mashad, Iran, as part of the Hazara and Afghan diasporas.
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