Bahmani Sultanate

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Bahmani Sultanate

1347–1527
Bahamani-sultanate-map.svg
Bahmani Sultanate, 1470 CE
Capital
Common languages
Religion
Shia Islam [1] [2]
GovernmentMonarchy
Sultan  
 1347–1358
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
 1525–1527
Kalim-Allah Shah
Historical era Late Medieval
 Established
3 August 1347
 Disestablished
1527
Currency Taka
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Delhi Sultanate
Vijayanagara Empire Blank.png
Bijapur Sultanate Blank.png
Golconda Sultanate Blank.png
Ahmadnagar Sultanate Blank.png
Bidar Sultanate Blank.png
Berar Sultanate Blank.png
Today part ofFlag of India.svg  India

The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms. [3] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India. [4] The Kingdom later split into five offshoots that were collectively known as the Deccan sultanates.The last remnant of the Bahmani sultanate was defeated and destroyed in 1509 by Vijayanagara Empire.

Deccan Plateau large plateau in India

The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in western and southern India. It rises to 100 metres (330 ft) in the north, and to more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) in the south, forming a raised triangle within the South-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.

South India Group of Southern Indian states

South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Periyar and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam, Madurai, Trivandrum and Calicut are the largest urban areas.

The Deccan Sultanates were five Muslim dynasties that ruled several late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate. They were noted for the destruction of temples and general economic misery. In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528.

Contents

History

The empire was established by an Ismaili military general from Badakhshan, Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, after revolting against the Turkic Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. [5] Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Hasanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and in 1425 it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijayanagara Empire to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan. The south Indian Emperor Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed. [6] After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states: Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Qutb Shahi of Golconda (Hyderabad), Baridshahi of Bidar, Imadshahi of Berar, Adilshahi of Bijapur. They are collectively known as the "Deccan Sultanates".

Badakhshan historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan

Badakhshan is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan, and the Tashkurgan county in China. The name is retained in Badakhshan Province, which is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan and is located in North-East Afghanistan. Much of historic Badakhshan lies within Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region located in the south-eastern part of the country. The music of Badakhshan is an important part of the region's cultural heritage.

Ala-ud-Din Hasan Bahman Shah, whose original name was Zafar Khan, was the founder of the Bahmani sultanate.

Delhi Sultanate Successive Islamic dynasties that ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent (1206–1526)

The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.

Society and Culture

Rulers of the dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman, the mythological figure of Greater Iranian legend and lore. The Bahamani Sultans were patrons of the Persian language, culture and literature, and some members of the dynasty became well-versed in that language and composed its literature in that language. [4]

Greater Iran Cultural region

Greater Iran is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of the Iranian Empire, having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran, or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranian peoples who patronize their respective cultures. It roughly corresponds to the territory on the Iranian plateau and its bordering plains. The Encyclopædia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent for this region.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Culture of Iran culture of an area

The culture of Iran, also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world. Owing to its dominant geo-political position and culture in the world, Iran has directly influenced cultures and peoples as far away as Italy, Macedonia, and Greece to the West, Russia to the North, the Arabian Peninsula to the South, and South and East Asia to the East. Thus an eclectic cultural elasticity has been said to be one of the key defining characteristics of the Persian spirit and a clue to its historical longevity. Furthermore, Iran's culture has manifested itself in several facets throughout the history of Iran as well as the Caucasus, Central Asia, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia.

Bahamani Tombs in Bidar district Bahamani Tombs in Bidar district.jpg
Bahamani Tombs in Bidar district

The first sultan, Alauddin Bahman Shah is noted to have captured 1,000 singing and dancing girls from Hindu temples after he battled the northern Carnatic chieftains. The later Bahmanis also enslaved civilian women and children in wars; many of them were converted to Islam in captivity. [7] [8] The craftspersons of Bidar were so famed for their inlay work on copper and silver that it came to be known as Bidri.

Carnatic region

The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh.

Although the sultanate practice Shi'a Islam, the majority of the population adhered to Hinduism. The common people, who were mostly Hindus, had to adjust their religious practices to become more acceptable to their Muslim political masters. [9]

List of Bahmani Shahs

Titular NamePersonal NameReign
Independence from Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
علاء الدین حسن بہمن شاہ
Ala-ad-Din Bahman Shah I
حسن گنگو
3 August 1347 – 11 February 1358
Shah
شاہ
Mohammad Shah I
محمد شاہ بہمنی
11 February 1358 – 21 April 1375
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Mujahid Shah
علاء الدین مجاہد شاہ
Mujahid Shah21 April 1375 – 16 April 1378
Shah
شاہ
Dawood Shah
داود شاہ بہمنی
16 April 1378 – 22 May 1378
Shah
شاہ
Mohammad Shah II
محمود شاہ بہمنی
21 May 1378 – 20 April 1397
Shah
شاہ
Ghiyath-ad-din Shah
عیاث الدین شاہ بہمنی
20 April 1397 – 14 June 1397
Shah
شاہ
Shams-ad-din Shah
شمس الدین شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Lachin Khan Turk
14 June 1397 – 15 November 1397
Shah
شاہ
Taj-ud-Din Feroze Shah
تاج الدین فیروز شاہ
Feroze Shah
فیروز خان
24 November 1397 – 1 October 1422
Shah
شاہ
Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani
احمد شاہ ولی بہمنی
1 October 1422 – 17 April 1436
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah
علاء الدین احمد شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah Bahmani
علاء الدین احمد شاہ بہمنی
17 April 1436 – 6 May 1458
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Humayun Shah
علاء الدین ھمایوں شاہ
Humayun Shah Zalim Bahmani
ھمایوں شاہ ظالم بہمنی
7 May 1458 – 4 September 1461
Shah
شاہ
Nizam Shah Bahmani
نظام شاہ بہمنی
4 September 1461 – 30 July 1463
Shah
شاہ
Muhammad Shah Lashkari
محمد شاہ لشکری
Muhammad Shah Bahmani II
محمد شاہ بہمنی دوئم
30 July 1463 – 26 March 1482
Vira Shah
ویرا شاہ
Mahmood Shah Bahmani II
محمود شاہ بہمنی دوئم
26 March 1482 – 27 December 1518
Shah
شاہ
Ahmed Shah Bahmani II
احمد شاہ بہمنی دوئم
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
27 December 1518 – 15 December 1520
Shah
شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Shah
علاء الدین شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Shah Bahmani II
علاء الدین شاہ بہمنی دوئم
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
28 December 1520 – 5 March 1523
Shah
شاہ
Waliullah Shah Bahmani
ولی اللہ شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
5 March 1522 – 1526
Shah
شاہ
Kaleemullah Shah Bahmani
کلیم اللہ شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1525–1527
Dissolution of the Sultanate into 5 Kingdoms namely; Bidar Sultanate; Ahmednagar Sultanate; Bijapur Sultanate; Golconda Sultanate and Berar Sultanate.
Great Mosque in Gulbarga Fort Great Mosque in Gulbarga Fort.jpg
Great Mosque in Gulbarga Fort

Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah was the ruler of the Bahmani Sultanate from 24 November 1397 to 1 October 1422.

Firman

A firman, or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire. During various periods they were collected and applied as traditional bodies of law. The word firman comes from Persian فرمان meaning "decree" or "order".

Ahmad Shah I Wali Ruler of Bidar

Ahmed Shah Al Wali Bahamani ruled the Kingdom of Bidar from 1 October 1422 to 17 April 1436 and was a great patron of arts and culture. He brought artisans from Iran, including the metal-worker Abdulla-bin-Kaiser, who was the master of Bidriware, the inlaying of zinc alloy with silver and gold.

Mahmud Gawan Madrasa was built by Mahmud Gawan, the Vizier of the Bahmani Sultanate as the centre of learning in the Deccan. Complete view of Mahumad Gawan.JPG
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa was built by Mahmud Gawan, the Vizier of the Bahmani Sultanate as the centre of learning in the Deccan.

See also

Historiography

Modern scholars have based their accounts on Bahmani dynasty mainly upon the medieval chronicles of Firishta, Syed Ali Tabatabai, etc. Other contemporary works were Sivatatva Chintamani and Guru Charitra. Athanasius Nikitin traveled this kingdom. He contrasts the huge wealth of the nobility with the wretchedness of the peasantry and the frugality of Hindus.

Vincent Smith and Nilakanta Sastri stated that the Bahmani Sultans were fanatics and did not show any interest in general welfare of their subjects. [9]

Related Research Articles

Beginning in the 13th century, several Islamic states were established in the Indian subcontinent in the course of a gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. This process culminated in the Mughal Empire, which ruled most of India during the mid-16th to early-18th centuries. The Islamic rule gradually declined due to the dominance of Maratha Empire, Kshatriya's and several other rebellions. The eventual end of the period of Islamic rule of India is marked by the two main events Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the beginning of British rule, although Islamic rule persisted in Hyderabad State and other minor princely states until Union of India in 1948. However, most Islamic rules had started to wane in the 17th and 18th century before that.

Qutb Shahi dynasty

The Qutb Shahi dynasty was a territory in south India. It was initially a highly Persianate Muslim Turkmen dynasty established in the 16th century that eventually adopted the regional culture of the Deccan.

Indo-Persian culture Persian aspects integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of the Indian subcontinent

Indo-Persian culture refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of the Indian subcontinent.

Tughlaq dynasty dynasty

The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turko-Indian origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1320 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. The dynasty ended in 1413.

Medieval India refers to a long period of the history of the Indian subcontinent between the "ancient period" and "modern period". Definitions of the period itself vary widely, and partly for this reason, many historians now prefer to avoid the term completely.

Rama Raya, popularly known as "Aliya" Rama Raya, was the progenitor of the Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagar Empire. This dynasty, the fourth and last to hold sway over the Vijayanagara Empire, is often not counted as a ruling dynasty of that empire, for reasons delineated below. Rama Raya patronised the Sanskrit scholar Rama Amatya. He reigned from 1543 to 1565.

Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests include the limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Umayyad campaigns in India, during the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.

Berar Sultanate Deccan sultanate

Berar was one of the Deccan sultanates. It was established in 1490 following the disintegration of the Bahmani Sultanate.

Bidar Sultanate former country

Bidar sultanate was one of the Deccan sultanates of late medieval southern India.

The Battle of Raichur was a battle fought between the Vijayanagar Empire and the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1520 CE in the town of Raichur, India. It resulted in a decisive victory for Vijayanagar forces, and the Bijapur ruler was defeated and pushed across the river Krishna. This battle had far-reaching effects. It weakened the power and prestige of the Adil Shah and got the ruler to make alliances with other Deccan sultanates to take on the Vijayanagara Empire; this culminated in the defeat of the Vijayanagara Empire at the Battle of Talikota.

Political history of medieval Karnataka

The political history of medieval Karnataka spans the 4th to the 16th centuries, when the empires that evolved in the Karnataka region of India made a lasting impact on the subcontinent. Before this, alien empires held sway over the region, and the nucleus of power was outside modern Karnataka. The medieval era can be broadly divided into several periods: The earliest native kingdoms and imperialism; the successful domination of the Gangetic plains in northern India and rivalry with the empires of Tamilakam over the Vengi region; and the domination of the southern Deccan and consolidation against Muslim invasion. The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent power date back to the fourth-century birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the earliest of the native rulers to conduct administration in the native language of Kannada in addition to the official Sanskrit. This is the historical starting point in studying the development of the region as an enduring geopolitical entity and of Kannada as an important regional language.

Qasim Barid I Deccan politician

Qasim Barid I (r.1489-1504) was prime-minister of the Bahmani sultanate and the founder of the Bidar Sultanate, one of the five late medieval Indian kingdoms together known as the Deccan sultanates. Qasim Barid was a Muslim (Shia) Turk domiciled in Safavid Georgia. He entered the service of the Bahmani sultan Muhammad Shah III and later became the prime-minister of the Bahmani sultanate. Qasim Barid was of Hungarian descent.

Bidar Fort hind

Bidar Fort is a fort situated in the Bidar, Karnataka, India. The fort, the city and the district are all affixed with the name Bidar. Sultan Alla-Ud Din Bahman of the Bahmanid Dynasty shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1427 and built his fort along with a number of Islamic monuments. There are over 30 monuments inside Bidar fort.

Gulbarga Fort

The Gulbarga Fort is located in Gulbarga City in the Gulbarga district of North Karnataka. It was subsequently significantly enlarged in 1347 by Al-ud-din Hasan Bahmani of the Bahmani Dynasty after he cut off his ties with the Delhi Sultanate; Islamic monuments such as mosques, palaces, tombs, and other structures were also built later within the refurbished fort. The Jama Masjid built later, within the fort, in 1367, is a unique structure built in Persian architectural style, fully enclosed, with elegant domes and arched columns, which is unlike any other mosque in India. It was built to commemorate the establishment of the dynastic rule of the Bahmani kingdom at Gulbarga fort between 1327 and 1424. It remained the capital of the Bahmani Kingdom till 1424 where after the capital was shifted to Bidar Fort, as Bidar had better climatic conditions.

The Bahmani Sultanate, or Bahmanid Empire, was a Muslim state of the Deccan Plateau in southern India between 1347 and 1527 and was one of the great medieval kingdoms. It occupied the North Deccan region to the river Krishna. According to historians, a rebel chieftain of Daulatabad was under Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

History of Hyderabad

Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana. It is a historic city noted for its many monuments, temples, mosques and bazaars. A multitude of influences has shaped the character of the city in the last 400 years.

Abdul Malik Isami (1311-?) was a 14th-century Indian historian and court poet. He wrote in Persian language, under the patronage of Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, the founder of the Bahmani Sultanate. He is best known for Futuh-us-Salatin, a poetic history of the Muslim conquest of India.

References

  1. Shia Islam in India, Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian subcontinent, (Routledge, 2013), 91.
  2. Farooqui Salma Ahmed, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century, (Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd., 2011), 170.
  3. "The Five Kingdoms of the Bahmani Sultanate". orbat.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2007.
  4. 1 2 Ansari, N.H. "Bahmanid Dynasty" Archived 19 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Iranica
  5. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 106–108, 117. ISBN   978-9-38060-734-4.
  6. Eaton, Richard M. A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives. p. 88.
  7. Cambridge History of India ed. Wolseley Haig, Vol. III, p391, 397-398
  8. Sewell, Robert. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar) pp.57-58.
  9. 1 2 http://hdl.handle.net/10603/108004

Further reading