Bai Juyi

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Bai Juyi
Bai Le Tian .jpg
Portrait of Bai Juyi by Chen Hongshou
Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
Xiangshan Temple, Longmen (Luoyang), Henan, China
Occupation Poet, Government official
ChildrenBai Acui (son)
RelativesBai Huang (grandfather)
Bai Jigeng
Chinese name
Chinese 白居易
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Xiangshan Jushi
Chinese 居士
Literal meaning Householder of Mount Xiang
Korean name
Hangul 백거이
Hanja 白居易
Japanese name
Kanji 白居易
Hiragana はく きょい

Bai Juyi (also Bo Juyi or Po Chü-i; Chinese :白居易; 772846), courtesy name Letian (Chinese :樂天), was a renowned Chinese poet and Tang dynasty government official. Many of his poems concern his career or observations made about everyday life, including as governor of three different provinces.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Courtesy name name bestowed in adulthood in East Asian cultures

A courtesy name, also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

Poet Person who writes and publishes poetry

A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience.


Bai was also influential in the historical development of Japanese literature. [1] His younger brother Bai Xingjian was a short story writer.

Bai Xingjian Chinese writer

Bai Xingjian was a fiction writer and poet in imperial China's Tang Dynasty. He was a younger brother of the famed poet Bai Juyi.

Among his most famous works are the long narrative poems "Chang hen ge" ("Song of Everlasting Sorrow"), which tells the story of Yang Guifei, and "The Song of the Pipa Player".

<i>Chang hen ge</i> (poem)

Chang Hen Ge is a literary masterpiece Tang dynasty by the famous Chinese poet Bai Juyi (772-846). It retells the love story between Emperor Xuanzong of Tang and his favorite concubine Yang Guifei (719-756). This epic poem is dated from 809.

Yang Guifei Tang Dynasty imperial consort

Yang Yuhuan, often known as Yang Guifei, known briefly by the Taoist nun name Taizhen (太真), was known as one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. She was the beloved consort of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang during his later years.


Bai Juyi lived during the Middle Tang period. This was a period of rebuilding and recovery for the Tang Empire, following the An Lushan Rebellion, and following the poetically flourishing era famous for Li Bai (701-762), Wang Wei (701-761), and Du Fu (712-770). Bai Juyi lived through the reigns of eight or nine emperors, being born in the Dali regnal era (766-779) of Emperor Daizong of Tang. He had a long and successful career both as a government official and a poet, although these two facets of his career seemed to have come in conflict with each other at certain points. Bai Juyi was also a devoted Chan Buddhist. [2]

An Lushan Rebellion A devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China in 755 C.E

The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. The rebellion overtly began on 16 December 755, when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, thus establishing a rival Yan Dynasty, and ended when Yan fell on 17 February 763. This event is also known as the An–Shi Rebellion or An–Shi Disturbances, as it continued after An Lushan's death under his son An Qingxu and his deputy and successor Shi Siming, or as the Tianbao Rebellion (天寶之乱), as it began in the 14th year of that era.

Li Bai Chinese poet

Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, courtesy name Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights. He and his friend Du Fu (712–770) were the two most prominent figures in the flourishing of Chinese poetry in the Tang dynasty, which is often called the "Golden Age of Chinese Poetry". The expression "Three Wonders" denote Li Bai's poetry, Pei Min's swordplay, and Zhang Xu's calligraphy.

Wang Wei (Tang dynasty) Chinese poet, musician, painter, and statesman

Wang Wei was a Chinese poet, musician, painter, and politician during the Tang dynasty. He was one of the most famous men of arts and letters of his time. Many of his poems are preserved, and twenty-nine were included in the highly influential 18th-century anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems.

Birth and childhood

Bai Juyi was born in 772 [3] in Taiyuan, Shanxi, which was then a few miles from location of the modern city, although he was in Zhengyang, Henan for most of his childhood. His family was poor but scholarly, his father being an Assistant Department Magistrate of the second-class. [4] At the age of ten he was sent away from his family to avoid a war that broke out in the north of China, and went to live with relatives in the area known as Jiangnan, more specifically Xuzhou.

Taiyuan Prefecture-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in Northern China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.

Shanxi Province

Shanxi is a landlocked province in Northern China. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.

Zhengyang County County in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Zhengyang County is a county in the southeast of Henan province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhumadian.

Early career

Bai Juyi's official career was initially successful. He passed the jinshi examinations in 800. Bai Juyi may have taken up residence in the western capital city of Chang'an, in 801. Not long after this, Bai Juyi formed a long friendship with a scholar Yuan Zhen. Bai Juyi's father died in 804, and the young Bai spent the traditional period of retirement mourning the death of his parent, which he did along the Wei River, near to the capital. 806, the first full year of the reign of Emperor Xianzong of Tang, was the year when Bai Juyi was appointed to a minor post as a government official, at Zhouzhi, which was not far from Chang'an (and also in Shaanxi province). He was made a member (scholar) of the Hanlin Academy, in 807, and Reminder of the Left from 807 until 815,[ citation needed ] except when in 811 his mother died, and he spent the traditional three-year mourning period again along the Wei River, before returning to court in the winter of 814, where he held the title of Assistant Secretary to the Prince's Tutor. [5] It was not a high-ranking position, but nevertheless one which he was soon to lose.

Imperial examination system used in appointing officials in dynastic China

Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although the exams had precedents from earlier times their implementation as a tool of recruitment selection only started in earnest during the mid-Tang dynasty. The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty and lasted until the final years of the Qing dynasty in 1905. The exams served to ensure a common knowledge of writing, the classics, and literary style among state officials. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule. The examination system played a significant role in tempering the power of military aristocracy and promotion of a gentry class of scholar-bureaucrats. Starting with the Song dynasty, the system was regularized and developed into a roughly three-tiered ladder from local to provincial to court exams. The content was narrowed and fixed on texts of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. By the Ming dynasty, the highest degree, the jinshi, became essential for highest office. On the other hand, the initial degree, the shengyuan (生員), became vastly oversupplied, resulting in holders who could not hope for office, yet were still granted social privilege. Critics charged that the system stifled creativity and created officials who dared not defy authority, yet the system also continued to promote cultural unity. Wealthy families, especially from the merchant class, could opt into the system by educating their sons or purchasing degrees. In the 19th century, critics blamed the imperial system, and in the process its examinations, for China's lack of technical knowledge and its defeat by foreign powers.

Changan Ancient capital and city of China

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.

Yuan Zhen Chinese poet

Yuan Zhen, courtesy name Weizhi (微之), was a politician of the middle Tang Dynasty, but is more known as an important Chinese writer and poet. In prose literature, Yuan Zhen is particularly known for his work Yingying's Biography, which has often been adapted for other treatments, including operatic and musical ones. In poetry, he is remembered for the inclusion of some of his poems by popular anthologies, his verses on exotic topics, and for being part of the group of "New Yuefu" poets, which often used poetry as a form of expression and protest, but one potentially subtle enough to avoid the likely repercussions of more direct criticism. The poetic circle in which Yuan Zhen was involved included Bai Juyi, among others. Politically Yuan Zhen was briefly chancellor, during the reign of Emperor Muzong.


Picture of Bai Juyi from the book "Wan hsiao tang". Bai Juyi.jpg
Picture of Bai Juyi from the book "Wan hsiao tang".

While serving as a minor palace official in 814, Bai managed to get himself in official trouble. He made enemies at court and with certain individuals in other positions. It was partly his written works which led him into trouble. He wrote two long memorials, translated by Arthur Waley as "On Stopping the War", regarding what he considered to be an overly lengthy campaign against a minor group of Tatars; and he wrote a series of poems, in which he satirized the actions of greedy officials and highlighting the sufferings of the common folk. [6]

At this time, one of the post-An Lushan warlords ( jiedushi ), Wu Yuanji in Henan, had seized control of Zhangyi Circuit (centered in Zhumadian), an act for which he sought reconciliation with the imperial government, trying to get an imperial pardon as a necessary prerequisite. Despite the intercession of influential friends, Wu was denied, thus officially putting him in the position of rebellion. Still seeking a pardon, Wu turned to assassination, blaming the Prime Minister, Wu Yuanheng, and other officials: the imperial court generally began by dawn, requiring the ministers to rise early in order to attend in a timely manner; and, on July 13, 815, before dawn, the Tang Prime Minister Wu Yuanheng was set to go to the palace for a meeting with Emperor Xianzong. As he left his house, arrows were fired at his retinue. His servants all fled, and the assassins seized Wu Yuanheng and his horse, and then decapitated him, taking his head with them. The assassins also attacked another official who favored the campaign against the rebellious warlords, Pei Du, but was unable to kill him. The people at the capital were shocked and there was turmoil, with officials refusing to leave their personal residences until after dawn.

The Three Gorges of the Yangzi had to be traversed on the boat ride from Jiujiang to Sichuan. YangtzeInThreeGorges.jpg
The Three Gorges of the Yangzi had to be traversed on the boat ride from Jiujiang to Sichuan.

In this context, Bai Juyi overstepped his minor position by memorializing the emperor. As Assistant Secretary to the Prince's Tutor, Bai's memorial was a breach of protocol — he should have waited for those of censorial authority to take the lead before offering his own criticism. This was not the only charge which his opponents used against him. His mother had died, apparently caused by falling into a well while looking at some flowers, and two poems written by Bai Juyi — the titles of which Waley translates as "In Praise of Flowers" and "The New Well" — were used against him as a sign of lack of Filial Piety, one of the Confucian ideals. The result was exile. Bai Juyi was demoted to the rank of Sub-Prefect and banished from the court and the capital city to Jiujiang, then known as Xun Yang, on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province. After three years, he was sent as Governor of a remote place in Sichuan. [7] At the time, the main travel route there was up the Yangzi River. This trip allowed Bai Juyi a few days to visit his friend Yuan Zhen, who was also in exile and with whom he explored the rock caves located at Yichang. Bai Juyi was delighted by the flowers and trees for which his new location was noted. In 819, he was recalled back to the capital, ending his exile. [8]

Return to the capital and a new emperor

In 819, Bai Juyi was recalled to the capital and given the position of second-class Assistant Secretary. [9] In 821, China got a new emperor, Muzong. After succeeding to the throne, Muzong spent his time feasting and heavily drinking and neglecting his duties as emperor. Meanwhile, the temporarily subdued regional military governors, jiedushi, began to challenge the central Tang government, leading to the new de facto independence of three circuits north of the Yellow River, which had been previously subdued by Emperor Xianzong. Furthermore, Muzong's administration was characterized by massive corruption. Again, Bai Juyi wrote a series of memorials in remonstrance.

As Governor of Hangzhou

Again, Bai Juyi was sent away from the court and the capital, but this time to the important position of the thriving town of Hangzhou, which was at the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and located in the scenic neighborhood of West Lake. Fortunately for their friendship, Yuan Zhen at the time was serving an assignment in nearby Ningbo, also in what is today Zhejiang, so the two could occasionally get together, [9] at least until Bai Juyi's term as Governor expired.

As governor of Hangzhou, Bai Juyi realised that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but, due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dike had collapsed and the lake had dried out to the point that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dike, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation, relieving the drought, and improving the livelihood of the local people over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the beauty of West Lake, visiting the lake almost every day. He ordered the construction of a causeway to allow walking on foot, instead of requiring the services of a boat. A causeway in the West Lake (Baisha Causeway, 白沙堤) was later referred to as Bai Causeway in Bai Juyi's honour, but the original causeway built by Bai Juyi named Baigong Causeway (白公堤) no longer exists.

Life near Luoyang

In 824, Bai Juyi's commission as governor expired, and he received the nominal rank of Imperial Tutor, which provided more in the way of official salary than official duties, and he relocated his household to a suburb of the "eastern capital," Luoyang. [10] At the time, Luoyang was known as the eastern capital of the empire and was a major metropolis with a population of around one million and a reputation as the "cultural capital," as opposed to the more politically oriented capital of Chang'an.

Governor of Suzhou

Suzhou Suzhou Downtown.jpg

In 825, at the age of fifty-three, Bai Juyi was given the position of Governor (Prefect) of Suzhou, situated on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Tai. For the first two years, he enjoyed himself with feasts and picnic outings, but after a couple years he became ill and was forced into a period of retirement. [11]

Later career

After his time as Prefect of Hangzhou (822-824) and then Suzhou (825-827), Bai Juyi returned to the capital. He then served in various official posts in the capital, and then again as prefect/governor, this time in Henan, the province in which Luoyang was located. It was in Henan that his first son was born, though only to die prematurely the next year. In 831 Yuan Zhen died. [11] For the next thirteen years, Bai Juyi continued to hold various nominal posts but actually lived in retirement.


Buddha and Bodhisattva images carved out of rock, at Longmen Longmen-lu-she-na-1.jpg
Buddha and Bodhisattva images carved out of rock, at Longmen

In 832, Bai Juyi repaired an unused part of the Xiangshan Monastery, at Longmen, about 7.5 miles south of Luoyang. Bai Juyi moved to this location, and began to refer to himself as the "Hermit of Xianshang". This area, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is famous for its tens of thousands of statues of Buddha and his disciples carved out of the rock. In 839, he experienced a paralytic attack, losing the use of his left leg, and became a bedridden invalid for several months. After his partial recovery, he spent his final years arranging his Collected Works, which he presented to the main monasteries of those localities in which he had spent time. [12]


The Tomb of Bai Juyi. Luo Yang Long Men Bai Ju Yi Mu .jpg
The Tomb of Bai Juyi.

In 846, Bai Juyi died, leaving instructions for a simple burial in a grave at the monastery, with a plain style funeral, and to not have a posthumous title conferred upon him. [13] He has a tomb monument in Longmen, situated on Xiangshan across the Yi River from the Longmen cave temples in the vicinity of Luoyang, Henan. It is a circular mound of earth 4 meters high, 52 meters in circumference, and with a 2.80 meter high Monument inscribed "Bai Juyi".


Bai Juyi has been known for his plain, direct, and easily comprehensible style of verse, as well as for his social and political criticism. Besides his surviving poems, several letters and essays are also extant.

He collected his writings in the anthology called the Bai Zhi Wen Ji  [ zh ]. [3]


One of the most prolific of the Tang poets, Bai Juyi wrote over 2,800 poems, which he had copied and distributed to ensure their survival. They are notable for their relative accessibility: it is said that he would rewrite any part of a poem if one of his servants was unable to understand it. The accessibility of Bai Juyi's poems made them extremely popular in his lifetime, in both China and Japan, and they continue to be read in these countries today.

Famous poems

Bai Juyi's "Pi Pa Xing", in running script, calligraphy by Wen Zhengming, Ming Dynasty. CMOC Treasures of Ancient China exhibit - Pi Pa Xing in running script, top view.jpg
Bai Juyi's "Pi Pa Xing", in running script, calligraphy by Wen Zhengming, Ming Dynasty.
Bai Juyi statue in front of Pipa Pavilion on the Xunyang River at Jiujiang, where he wrote his "The Song of the Pipa Player" poem. Jiu Jiang Pi Pa Ting Bai Ju Yi Shi Xiang .JPG
Bai Juyi statue in front of Pipa Pavilion on the Xunyang River at Jiujiang, where he wrote his "The Song of the Pipa Player" poem.

Two of his most famous works are the long narrative poems "Chang hen ge" ("Song of Everlasting Sorrow"), which tells the story of Yang Guifei, and "The Song of the Pipa Player". Like Du Fu, he had a strong sense of social responsibility and is well known for his satirical poems, such as The Elderly Charcoal Seller. Also he wrote about military conflicts during the Tang Dynasty. Poems like "Song of Everlasting Regret" were examples of the peril in China during the An Lushan rebellion.

Bai Juyi also wrote intensely romantic poems to fellow officials with whom he studied and traveled. These speak of sharing wine, sleeping together, and viewing the moon and mountains. One friend, Yu Shunzhi, sent Bai a bolt of cloth as a gift from a far-off posting, and Bai Juyi debated on how best to use the precious material:

About to cut it to make a mattress,
pitying the breaking of the leaves;
about to cut it to make a bag,
pitying the dividing of the flowers.
It is better to sew it,
making a coverlet of joined delight;
I think of you as if I'm with you,
day or night. [14]

Bai's works were also highly renowned in Japan, and many of his poems were quoted and referenced in The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu. [15]

Poetic forms

Bai Juyi was known for his interest in the old yuefu form of poetry, which was a typical form of Han poetry, namely folk ballad verses, collected or written by the Music Bureau. [16] These were often a form of social protest. And, in fact, writing poetry to promote social progress was explicitly one of his objectives. [16] He is also known for his well-written poems in the regulated verse style.

Art criticism

Bai was a poet of the middle Tang Dynasty. It was a period after the An Lushan Rebellion, the Tang Empire was in rebuilding and recovery. As a government official and a litterateur, Bai observed the court music performance that was seriously affected by Xiyu(西域, Western regions), and he made some articles with indignation to criticize that phenomenon. As an informal leader of a group of poets who rejected the courtly style of the time and emphasized the didactic function of literature, Bai believing that every literary work should contain a fitting moral and a well-defined social purpose. [17] That makes him not satisfied with cultural performance styles of Tang court.

For instance, in his work of FaquGe(法曲歌), translated as Model Music, is a poem regard to a kind of performing art, he made the following statement:

All the faqu's now are combined with songs from the barbarians;

but the barbarian music sounds evil and disordered whereas Han music sounds harmonious! (法曲法曲合夷歌,夷声邪乱华声和) [18]

Faqu is a kind of performing style of Yanyue, a part of court music performance. In this poem, Bai Juyi strongly criticized that Tang Daqu was heavily influenced by some non-native musical elements, which were absent in the Han Daqu-the original form of Daqu. Tang culture was an amalgamation of the culture of the Han majority, the culture of the "Western Region" (西域), and Buddhism. [18] The conflict between the mainstream Han culture and minority culture exposed after the An Lushan Rebellion. The alien culture was so popular and it had seriously threatened the status of Han culture.

Musical performances at the Tang court are of two types: seated performances (坐部) and standing performances (立部). Seated performances were conducted in smaller halls with a limited number of dancers, and emphasized refined artistry. Standing performances involves numerous dancers, and were usually performed in courtyards or squares intended for grand presentations.

Bai's another poem, Libuji(立部伎), translated as Standing Section Players, reflected the phenomenon of "decline in imperial court music". [19] In this poem, Bai mercilessly pointed out that music style of both seated performances and standing performances were deeply influenced by foreign culture.

Seated performances are more elegant than standing performances. Players in the Seating Section were the most qualified performers, while the performing level of the players in the Standing Section were a bit poor(立部贱,坐部贵). In Bai Juyi's time, those two performances were full of foreign music, the Yayue(雅乐, literally: "elegant music") was no longer be performed in those two sections. The Yayue music was only be performed by the players who were eliminated from those two sections(立部又退何所任,始就乐悬操雅音). [20] This poem shows the culture changing in the middle Tang Dynasty and the decline of Yayue, a form of classical music and dance performed at the royal court and temples

In those two poems of Bai reflected the situation of political and culture in the middle Tang Dynasty after the An Lushan Rebellion, and he was concerned that the popularity of foreign music could lead the Tang society into chaos.


Bai Juyi is considered one of the greatest Chinese poets, but even during the ninth century, sharp divide in critical opinions of his poetry already existed. [21] While other poets like Pi Rixiu only had the highest praise for Bai Juyi, others were hostile, like Sikong Tu (司空圖) who described Bai as "overbearing in force, yet feeble in energy ( qi ), like domineering merchants in the market place." [21] Bai's poetry was immensely popular in his own lifetime, but his popularity, his use of vernacular, the sensual delicacy of some of his poetry, led to criticism of him being "common" or "vulgar". In a tomb inscription for Li Kan (李戡), a critic of Bai, poet Du Mu wrote, couched in the words of Li Kan: "...It has bothered me that ever since the Yuanhe Reign we have had poems by Bai Juyi and Yuan Zhen whose sensual delicacy has defied the norms. Excepting gentlemen of mature strength and classical decorum, many have been ruined by them. They have circulated among the common people and been inscribed on walls; mothers and fathers teach them to sons and daughters orally, through winter's cold and summer's heat their lascivious phrases and overly familiar words have entered people's flesh and bone and cannot be gotten out. I have no position and cannot use the law to bring this under control." [22]

Bai was also criticized for his "carelessness and repetitiveness", especially his later works. [23] He was nevertheless placed by Tang poet Zhang Wei (張為) in his Schematic of Masters and Followers Among the Poets (詩人主客圖) at the head of his first category: "extensive and grand civilizing power". [23]

Modern assessment

Burton Watson says of Bai Juyi: "he worked to develop a style that was simple and easy to understand, and posterity has requited his efforts by making him one of the most well-loved and widely read of all Chinese poets, both in his native land and in the other countries of the East that participate in the appreciation of Chinese culture. He is also, thanks to the translations and biographical studies by Arthur Waley, one of the most accessible to English readers". [24]

See also

Works cited

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  1. Arntzen, S (2008) A Shared Heritage of Sensibility?: The Reception of Bai Juyi's Poetry in Japan. Paper presented at the conference Japan-China Cultural Relations at the University of Victoria, 25th Jan.
  2. Hinton, 266
  3. 1 2 Ueki et al. 1999, p. 123.
  4. Waley (1941), 126-27.
  5. Waley (1941), 126- 130
  6. Waley (1941), 130
  7. Waley (1941), 130-31, Waley refers to this place as "Chung-chou".
  8. Waley (1941), 130-31
  9. 1 2 Waley (1941), 131
  10. Waley (1941), 131. Waley refers to this village as "Li-tao-li."
  11. 1 2 Waley (1941), 132
  12. Waley (1941), 132-33
  13. Waley (1941), 133
  14. Hinsch, 80-81
  15. Bai Juyi (Chinese poet) from Britannica
  16. 1 2 Hinton, 265
  17. "Bai Juyi | Chinese poet". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  18. 1 2 "Download Limit Exceeded". Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  20. "从《七德舞》与《立部伎》看白居易的"刺雅乐之替" - 中国知网". Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  21. 1 2 Owen (2006), pg. 45
  22. Owen (2006), pg. 277
  23. 1 2 Owen (2006), pp. 45-47, 57
  24. Watson, 184.
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