A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given. Bailiffs are of various kinds and their offices and duties vary greatly.
Another official sometimes referred to as a bailiff was the Vogt . In the Holy Roman Empire a similar function was performed by the Amtmann .
Bailiff was the term used by the Normans for what the Saxons had called a reeve : the officer responsible for executing the decisions of a court. The duty of the bailiff would thus include serving summonses and orders, and executing all warrants issued out of the corresponding court. The district within which the bailiff operated was called his bailiwick , even to the present day. Bailiffs were outsiders and free men, that is, they were not usually from the bailiwick for which they were responsible.
Throughout Norman England, the Saxon and Norman populations gradually mixed, and reeve came to be limited to shire-level courts (hence sheriff as a contraction of "shire-reeve"), while bailiff was used in relation to the lower courts. Primarily then, bailiff referred to the officer executing the decisions of manorial courts, and the hundred courts. Likewise, in Scotland a bailie was the chief officer of a barony (baron bailie), and in the Channel Islands they were the principal civil officers. With the introduction of justices of the peace (magistrates), magistrates' courts acquired their own bailiffs.
Historically, courts were not only concerned with legal matters, and often decided administrative matters for the area within their jurisdiction. A bailiff of a manor, therefore, would often oversee the manor's lands and buildings, collect its rents, manage its accounts, and run its farms (see Walter of Henley).
In the 19th century, the administrative functions of courts were mostly replaced by the creation of elected local authorities (councils). Nevertheless, the term bailiff is retained as a title by the chief officers of various towns and the keepers of royal castles, such as the High Bailiff of Westminster and the Bailiff of Dover Castle.In Scotland, bailie now refers to a municipal officer corresponding to an English alderman.
In the 20th century, the court system in England was drastically re-organised, with the assize courts taking some of the powers of the shire courts, and becoming the High Court of Justice; in turn, the remaining elements of the shire court took over the powers of the hundred courts, to form county courts. The High Court acquired the sheriffs, the county courts the bailiffs. Bailiffs were now appointed by a county court judge and were removable by the Lord Chancellor.
A bailiff could, for practical reasons, delegate his responsibilities, in regard to some particular court instruction, to other individuals. As the population expanded, the need for the services of a bailiff mainly arose from financial disputes; consequently, these assistants came to be closely associated with debt-collection, in the public's minds. By Shakespeare's time, they had acquired the nickname bum-bailiffs, perhaps because they followed debtors very closely behind them;[ citation needed ] in France, the term pousse-cul (literally push-arse) was similarly used for their equivalent officers.
To avoid confusion with their underlings, the County Courts Act 1888 renamed bailifs as high bailiffs. This act also formally acknowledged right of the high bailiffs to appoint (and dismiss) under-bailiffs as they wished, and establishing that the high bailiffs retain ultimate responsibility for their actions. The High Bailiff gradually became a purely ceremonial role, the court's clerk liaising with under-bailiffs directly.
The Law of Distress Amendment Act 1888 enacts that no person may act as an under-bailiff to levy any distress for rent unless he is authorized by a county court judge to act as an under-bailiff. a.m. and 10 p.m. (§ 142). It also limited the ability to bring a legal complaint against a bailiff; six days' notice now had to be given (§52).The County Courts Act 1888 restricted the hours an under-bailiff could execute a possession warrant, to only be between 6
In the Channel Islands the bailiff is the first civil officer in each of the two bailiwicks. He is appointed by the Crown, and holds office until retirement. He presides as a judge in the Royal Court, and takes the opinions of the jurats; he also presides over the States Assembly (Jersey) or States of Guernsey, and represents the Crown on civic occasions. The bailiff in each island must, in order to fulfill his judicial role, be a qualified lawyer.
In England and Wales, there are a number of offices either formally titled, or commonly referred to, as "bailiffs". Some of these bailiffs are concerned with executing the orders of the courts, generally around the collection of debts, and some exercise semi-official supervisory powers over certain activities. Those concerned with the execution of court orders are commonly referred to as bailiffs, although reforms to the law in 2014 have renamed all these positions to alternative titles.
With the 19th century renaming of bailiffs to "high bailiffs", their under-bailiffs generally came to be referred to as bailiffs themselves. The powers and responsibilities of these bailiffs depend on which type of court they take orders from. In emulation of these responsibilities, a number of roles established by 19th century statute laws have also been named "bailiffs", despite not having a connection to a court.
Civilian enforcement officers are employees of Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, and can seize and sell goods to recover money owed under a fine and community penalty notice, and also execute warrants of arrest, committal, detention and control (formally called distress or distraint). These functions can also be carried out by employees of private companies authorised by the Ministry of Justice. In July 2013 HM Court Service announced it is to fully contract out the whole of the compliance and enforcement process to a private company; this would involve the transfer of over 500 of its employees. This decision led to official strike action by some employees on 30 July 2013.
Certificated enforcement agents are used by local authorities, Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service and landlords for a variety of reasons such as collection of taxes, road traffic debts and commercial rent arrears.
County Court bailiffs remain directly employed by HM Courts Service, carrying out enforcement for the County Court. The current frequency of different types of case means that they are mainly involved in recovering payment of unpaid County Court judgments;like magistrates' bailiffs, they can seize and sell goods to recover a debt. They can also affect and supervise the possession of the property and the return of goods under hire purchase agreements, and serve court documents. They also execute arrest warrants and search warrants.
A High Court enforcement officer has similar functions to a County Court bailiff, in that they execute writs and warrants for unpaid court judgements, and evict people from land where possession has been granted. The majority of the work of High Court enforcement officers is carried out by certificated enforcement agents acting under the authority of a senior High Court enforcement officer, often a director of an enforcement firm for whom the enforcement agent works.
Another officer of the High Court, the tipstaff, is an employee of HM Courts and Tribunals Service, and is concerned with enforcing certain judgements of the High Court, typically involving the enforcement of court orders relating to the custody of children in family law cases.
Water bailiffs also exist in England and Wales to police bodies of water and prevent illegal fishing. They are generally employees of the Environment Agency and when executing their duties, have the powers and privileges of a police constable for the purpose of the enforcement of the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act 1975.
Farm bailiffs exist on landed estates. The farm bailiff is employed by the proprietor and his managerial duties can include collecting rent, taxes and supervising both farm operations and labourers.Historically, the estate would typically include a hall or manor house, a home farm managed by the bailiff, several smaller farms occupied by tenants and possibly a tiny village (a collection of small cottages) in which the farm labourers lived.
The Epping Forest Act 1878 allows the conservators of the forest to appoint forest keepers, reeves and also bailiffs. These individuals may also be attested as a constable, although currently only forest keepers are sworn in. The forest currently has volunteer fishing bailiffs, who support forest keepers.As the Epping Forest Act does include this title of appointment, these individuals are statutory bailiffs and the title is not merely just historic.
Jury bailiffs are court ushers who monitor juries during their deliberations and during overnight stays.
As most people's contact with bailiffs is when a bailiff comes to take property to enforce debt, public perception does not usually distinguish between bailiffs and debt collectors. Indeed, many mere debt collectors often publicly refer to themselves as bailiffs. However, it is illegal for a debt collector to call themselves a bailiff, if they are not – that is, if they are not a certified officer acting on a court order, they may not call themselves a bailiff. Mere debt collectors do not have the powers or authority of a bailiff.
The officer appointed by a sheriff was also sometimes described as the sheriff's bailiff, on account of the similarity of the role. However, they are not the same, and High Court enforcement officers have greater powers.
Due to the negative association with debt collection, in former times, in the Fens of eastern England, the term Bailiff of Bedford was often used as slang for destructive floods of the River Great Ouse.
The High Bailiff is the head stipendiary magistrate in the Isle of Man.
In the Republic of Ireland, a bailiff (Irish : báille) is an official appointed by the Revenue Commissioners who is involved with the enforcement of judgments, including evictions and repossessions, and the collection of unpaid tax. A bailiff is subordinate to a sheriff.
The Scottish form of this post is the bailie. Bailies served as burgh magistrates in the system of local government in Scotland before 1975 when the system of burghs and counties was replaced by a two-tier system of regional councils and district councils. The two-tier system was later replaced by a system of unitary authorities.
Under the new arrangements the bailies were abolished and replaced by justices of the peace serving in the District Courts of Scotland, these posts no longer holding any authority within the local authority as an administrative body. However, the term bailie is still used as an honorary title by Glasgow City Council for a number of senior councilors who can deputise for the Lord Provost.
The Scottish equivalent of a sheriff's bailiff or high bailiff is the sheriff officer (for the sheriff court) or the messenger-at-arms (for the court of session). These positions were to be abolished by §60 of the Bankruptcy and Diligence etc. (Scotland) Act 2007, and replaced with the office of judicial officer under §57(1) of that enactment. This enactment was never brought into effect and was repealed under schedule 4 of the Public Services Reform (Scotland) Act 2010
In Scotland, the office of water bailiff does exist, with power to enforce legislation relating to the illegal collection of salmon and trout.
In Australia, bailiffs service various legal documents (e.g. subpoenas), issued from any Australian jurisdiction.Bailiffs also have the duty of executing warrants.
In parts of Canada, bailiffs are responsible for the service of legal process. In some jurisdictions, duties of the bailiff include the service of legal documents, repossession and evictions in accordance with court judgments, application of wheel clamps and the execution of arrest warrants. Some jurisdictions also require that applicants receive special training and have a degree in paralegal technology to become a bailiff.
In Ontario, provincial bailiffs provide primary transportation of prisoners between correctional facilities such as jails and prisons.Under the Ministry of Correctional Services Act (Ontario), while transporting prisoners, bailiffs have the powers of police constables. When necessary, Provincial correctional officers will act as bailiffs for short and long term assignments and full-time bailiffs are typically recruited from the correctional officer ranks. Provincial bailiffs are armed with expandable batons and pepper spray and operate under the jurisdiction of the provincial Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. Duties normally associated with bailiffs in other jurisdictions, such as residential evictions, seizures, and other processes order by the court, are performed by sheriffs under the office of the Attorney General of Ontario or "private" bailiffs if initiated without a court order.
Private bailiffs are licensed by the Province of Ontario's Ministry of Consumer Services under the Bailiffs Act. Assistant bailiffs are similarly licensed, but must be supervised by a bailiff. Bailiffs in this capacity assist others who have a right to exercise self-help to repossess or seize something, or to evict under a commercial tenancy. Bailiffs are agents of the person contracting their services, not government employees or peace officers, and are prohibited from using force to seize goods or evict tenants.
Many in the United States use the word bailiff colloquially to refer to a peace officer providing court security. More often, these court officers are sheriff's deputies, state troopers, marshals, corrections officersor constables. The terminology varies among (and sometimes within) the several states.
In rural areas, this responsibility is often carried out by the junior lawyer in training under the judge's supervision called a law clerk who also has the title of bailiff.
Whatever the name used, the agency providing court security is often charged with serving legal process and seizing and selling property (e.g., replevin or foreclosure). In some cases, the duties are separated between agencies in a given jurisdiction. For instance, a court officer may provide courtroom security in a jurisdiction where a sheriff or constable handles service of process and seizures.
Within the State of Hawaii there are two types of bailiff, district court and circuit court. Both types of bailiff are employees of the State of Hawaii: district court bailiffs provide support services to the court staff and judge, call the cases and maintain order in the court. Circuit court bailiffs have similar duties to their district court counterparts, but also deal with the calling, selection and control of jury trials. They also provide security for the judge and courtroom. Circuit court bailiffs currently have limited law enforcement authority while on duty, but are unarmed. Currently there is only one Circuit court bailiff within the Hawaii Judiciary, he is located in the 5th Circuit (Kaua’i), all the other Circuit courts have replaced their bailiffs with Law clerks, who call calendars etc., but have none of the police powers or security responsibilities.
In the State of Indiana, bailiffs are administrative assistants that are employed by judges who reside in a county judicial circuit. For example, a county court judge, superior court judge, and circuit court judge may have at least one bailiff who is in charge of calling a jury, seating a jury, as well as attending to a juror's needs. They are sworn officers of the court.
Within the State of Maryland there are two types of bailiffs, circuit court and district court. Circuit court bailiffs are employees of the prospective county of which they work and possess no law enforcement authority. They are unarmed and provide services to the courtroom judge, escort and maintain the jurors/jury pool, and maintain courtroom decorum. district court bailiffs provide similar services as their circuit court counterparts but differ in that they are employees of the state of Maryland, are armed, and have limited law enforcement authority while on duty.
In the State of Massachusetts the trial court officers are responsible for the security of all court buildings in the state as well as for the people who work in or visit them.
In the New York State Unified Court System, court officers, are responsible for providing security and enforcing the law in and around court houses. Under New York State penal code, they are classified as "peace officers." New York State Court Officers are able to carry firearms both on and off duty, and have the power to make warrantless arrests both on and off duty anywhere in the State of New York. They also have the authority to make traffic stops.
In the State of Vermont a high bailiff is an elected county officer who performs certain duties when the sheriff is unable to do so.
In pre-revolutionary France, bailiff (French : bailli, French pronunciation: [baji] ) was the king's administrative representative during the ancien régime in northern France, where the bailiff was responsible for the application of justice and control of the administration and local finances in his bailiwick (baillage).
Bailli (12th-century French bailif, "administrative official, deputy") was derived from a Vulgar Latin term *bajulivus meaning "official in charge of a castle", i.e. a royal castellan.
In the late 12th and early 13th century, King Philip II, an able and ingenious administrator who founded the central institutions on which the French monarchy's system of power would be based, prepared the expansion of the royal demesne through his appointment of bailiffs in the king's northern lands (the domaine royal ), : baljuw). The equivalent agent in the king's southern lands acquired after the inheritance of the County of Toulouse was the seneschal.based on medieval fiscal and tax divisions (the "baillie") which had been used by earlier sovereign princes such as the Duke of Normandy. In Flanders, the count appointed similar bailiffs (Dutch
Unlike the local administration of Norman England through sheriffs drawn from the great local families, the French bailiff was a paid government official, who had no power network in the area to which he had been assigned, and, in the way of a true bureaucrat, owed his income and social status wholly to the central administration that he represented. "He was therefore fanatically loyal to the king," Norman Cantor observes, "and was concerned only with the full exercise of royal power."The cathedral schools and the University of Paris provided the clerks and lawyers who served as the king's bailiff.
Under the Ancien Régime in France, the bailli (earlier baillis), or bailie, was the king's chief officer in a bailiwick or bailiery (bailliage), serving as chief magistrate for boroughs and baronies, administrator, military organizer, and financial agent. In southern France the term generally used was sénéchal who held office in a sénéchaussée. The bailie convened a bailie court (cour baillivale) which was an itinerant court of first instance. The administrative network of bailiwicks was established in the 13th century over the Crown lands (the domaine royal ) by Philip Augustus who commissioned the first bailiff under the name bailli. They were based on pre-existing tax collection districts (baillie) which had been in use in formerly sovereign territories, e.g., the Duchy of Normandy. Bailie courts, as royal courts, were made superior over existent local courts; these lower courts were called:
The bailie court was presided over by a lieutenant-bailie (lieutenant général du bailli). Bailie courts had appellate jurisdiction over lower courts (manorial courts, provost courts) but was the court of first instance for suits involving the nobility. Appeal of bailie court judgments lay in turn with the provincial Parlements. In an effort to reduce the Parlements' caseload, several bailie courts were granted extended powers by Henry II of France and were thereafter called presidial courts (baillages présidiaux). Bailie and presidial courts were also the courts of first instance for certain crimes (previously the jurisdiction of manorial courts): sacrilege, treason, kidnapping, rape, heresy, money defacement, sedition, insurrection, and illegal bearing of weapons.
By the late 16th century, the bailie's role had become mostly symbolic, and the lieutenant-bailie was the only one to hear cases. The administrative and financial role of the bailie courts declined in the early modern period (superseded by the king's royal tax collectors and provincial governors, and later by intendants), and by the end of the 18th century, the bailiwicks, which numbered in the hundreds, had become purely judicial.
In medieval France court bailiffs did not exist as such, but their functions were carried out by several court officers. The ussier (modern huissier), or usher, originally the doorkeeper, kept order in the court. The somoneor (mod. semonneur), or court crier, adjourned and called the court to order and announced its orders or directions. The bedel (mod. bedeau), or beadle, was the court's messenger and served process, especially summonses (sumunse, somonse, mod. semonce). And finally the sergens (mod. sergent), or tipstaff, enforced judgments of the court, seized property, and made arrests. The tipstaff's badge of authority was his verge, or staff, made of ebony, about 30 cm long, decorated with copper or ivory, and mandatory after 1560.
The Parlement courts consolidated most of these functions in its tipstaff (varlet), and the rest of the court system followed suit as the tipstaff was given the broadest powers. During the Renaissance, the four officers were reduced to two—the huissier and sergent—who took on all these functions, with the distinction being that the huissier served in higher courts and sergent in bailie courts (sergent royal) and manorial courts (sergent de justice). In 1705 the two professions were fused by royal edict under the name huissier.
The office of bailiff was historically used in Flanders, Zealand, the Netherlands, Hainault, and in northern France. The bailiff was a civil servant who represented the ruler in town and country. In Flanders the count usually appointed the bailiff.
In the Low Countries and German-speaking Europe this position was known as baljuw (from bailli), but other words were used such as schout "reeve, (medieval) bailiff" (Holland, Antwerp, Mechelen, 's-Hertogenbosch, Turnhout), meier "majordomo" (Asse, Leuven), drossāte "steward, seneschal" (other parts of Brabant), amman (Brussels), and Amtmann and Ammann (Germany, Switzerland, Austria). The Amtmann was the senior official appointed by a territorial lord to oversee the administration and jurisdiction of a manorial estate or equivalent.
Most of the functions associated with the older Dutch-language terms translated as bailiff in English, are no longer found in one officer. The modern Belgian terms huissier de justice (in French) or gerechtsdeurwaarder (in Dutch), however, are often, and inaccurately, translated into English as bailiff, though the latter under an Anglo Saxon law system is by no means identical to the former who is typical for many countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code. He or she is a sworn officer who may legally deliver exploits (process serving), see to the execution of court orders such as the confiscation of goods, or make formal record of events, acts and circumstances. In Belgium, the bailiff can be appointed by a confiscating court to exercise the judicial mandate of schuldbemiddelaar (in Dutch) or médiateur de dettes (in French), a debt negotiator, in a procedure called collectieve schuldenregeling (CSR) or médiation collective de dettes, a collectively negotiated settlement of debts, which is comparable with the regulations by the Wet Schuldsanering Natuurlijke Personen (WSNP) in the Netherlands.
In auction catalogs published in Brussels at the beginning of the 20th century, the term "huissier" is associated with auction sales, i.e., vente aux enchères publiques par le ministère de Me Grégoire, huissier, 26, rue Josaphat, à Bruxelles.[Galerie Georges Giroux, November 27, 1937.]
In Netherlands during the Middle Ages, the term bailiff translates to Baljuw , which had various meanings and sometimes carried the same privileges and duties as the title Drost or Drossaard , depending on the jurisdiction. Pieter Cornelisz Hooft for example, carried both the titles "Drost van Muiden" and "Baljuw van Goeilandt", that were more or less honorary titles by that time. The two neighboring areas had needed the office to oversee the appointment of local council staff (mostly referred to as "schout & schepenen"), whose most important interests were the passage of travelers and goods by water (Muiden) and overland (Gooiland). The Netherlands was governed by waterschappen as well as by regional city councils, and both institutions once had honorary titles of Baljuw or Drost.
These days, the term "Bailiff" is not used in the Netherlands, except for the position of president and some honorary Bailiffs of the Dutch branch of the Knights Hospitaller.
A person who amongst others sees to the execution of court orders such as the confiscation of goods is called a deurwaarder.
In the Sovereign Military Order of Malta the term bailiff is used for an honour given to certain senior knights. The dignity of bailiff may be conferred upon:
The heads of several royal or princely houses who are Knights Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion usually receive the dignity of bailiff. These currently include King Albert II of Belgium; Franz, Duke of Bavaria; Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou; Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein; Carl, Duke of Württemberg.
In Poland, a court bailiff (komornik sądowy) is a public official (but not a civil servant) who is assigned to undertake enforcement action within the area of the jurisdiction of a single regional court (in Poland "a regional court is established for one or more communes, and, in justified cases, more than one regional court may be established for a single commune"*). With the 2008 amendment of the Court Bailiffs and Enforcement Act of 20 August 1997 a bailiff is allowed to act in the whole territory of the Republic of Poland if and only if the creditors remark in the enforcement application that they exercise a right of selecting a bailiff. Then the bailiff acts beyond its area of action, which might result in a prolonged and ineffective enforcement. However, such practices are inadmissible when the creditors apply for the enforcement to be carried out in respect of real property and other property rights where the regulations on the execution on real property shall apply. The execution proceedings on real property must be conducted only by the court bailiff who acts within the area of the jurisdiction of the regional court which keeps land and mortgage register for that real property.
A court bailiff is an individual who is appointed to act as such by the minister of justice on application of the person concerned, filed via the intermediary of the president of the court of appeal, within whose area the candidate intends to perform acts in enforcement proceedings. Before appointing, the minister of justice shall request the council of the chamber of the court bailiffs to give the opinion of the candidate. The bailiffs are not employed by the regional courts (they act at the regional courts) but they are self-employed, which means that they have their own registered offices (named Bailiff's Office in...) and are remunerated by percentage on money recovered and the other fees specified in The Court Bailiffs and Enforcement Act of 20 August 1997. The bailiff also incurs expenses including costs of correspondence, operating costs per kilometer when visiting debtors residing out of the place of bailiff's office; and the other expenses specified in above mentioned act. All those expenses incurred in the course of proceedings are to be covered by the debtor or by the creditor if the enforcement proceedings are ineffective. The regional courts supervise only the work of the bailiffs, especially with reference to the fastness, proficiency and accuracy of their activities; the correctness of office management and accounting. When enforcing the bailiffs are subordinate to the judicial decisions and president of the regional court. The bailiff acts on behalf of a creditor who is legally owed money. The creditor files an application for commencing enforcement proceedings and an original writ of execution with an enforcement clause inserted herein.
The court bailiffs are responsible for:
(Sources: *www.ms.gov.pl/en/the-judiciary-in-poland/ Ustawa o komornikach sądowych i egzekucji z dnia 29.08.1997; Kodeks postępowania Cywilnego)
The Swedish Enforcement Authority, Kronofogdemyndigheten, literally: The Crown Bailiff Authority is a government agency in charge of debt collection, distraint and evictions in Sweden.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below.
A bailiwick is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ. The bailiwick is probably modelled on the administrative organization which was attempted for a very small time in Sicily and has its roots in the official state of the Hohenstaufen.
The Tipstaff is an officer of a court or, in some countries, a law clerk to a judge. The duties of the position vary from country to country. It is also the name of a symbolic rod, which represents the authority of the tipstaff or other officials such as senior police officers.
Law enforcement in Australia is one of the three major components of the country's justice system, along with courts and corrections. Law enforcement officers are employed by all three levels of government – federal, state/territory, and local.
Distraint or distress is "the seizure of someone’s property in order to obtain payment of rent or other money owed", especially in common law countries. Distraint is the act or process "whereby a person, traditionally even without prior court approval, seizes the personal property of another located upon the distrainor's land in satisfaction of a claim, as a pledge for performance of a duty, or in reparation of an injury." Distraint typically involves the seizure of goods (chattels) belonging to the tenant by the landlord to sell the goods for the payment of the rent. In the past, distress was often carried out without court approval. Today, some kind of court action is usually required, the main exception being certain tax authorities – such as HM Revenue and Customs in the United Kingdom and the Internal Revenue Service in the United States – and other agencies that retain the legal power to levy assets without a court order.
A high sheriff is a ceremonial officer for each shrieval county of England and Wales and Northern Ireland or the chief sheriff of a number of paid sheriffs in U.S. states who outranks and commands the others in their court-related functions. In Canada, the High Sheriff provides administrative services to the supreme and provincial courts.
A bailiff was the king’s administrative representative during the ancien régime in northern France, where the bailiff was responsible for the application of justice and control of the administration and local finances in his bailiwick.
A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the enforcement of laws. The phrase can include police officers, prosecutors, municipal law enforcement officers, special police officers, customs officers, state troopers, special agents, secret agents, special investigators, border patrol officers, immigration officers, court officers, probation officers, parole officers, arson investigators, auxiliary officers, game wardens, sheriffs, constables, corrections, marshals, deputies, detention officers, correction officers, sworn campus police officers and public safety officers. Security guards are civilians and therefore not law enforcement officers, unless they have been granted powers to enforce particular laws, such as those accredited under a community safety accreditation scheme such as a security police officer.
A High Court enforcement officer (HCEO) is an officer of the High Court of England and Wales responsible for enforcing judgements of the High Court, often by seizing goods or repossessing property. Prior to 2004, HCEOs were known as sheriff's officers and were responsible for enforcing High Court writs on behalf of the high sheriff for each county, but they are now directly responsible for such writs. HCEOs operate only in England and Wales.
In Dutch-speaking areas, a schout was a local official appointed to carry out administrative, law enforcement and prosecutorial tasks. The office was abolished with the introduction of administrative reforms during the Napoleonic period.
The British Columbia Sheriff Service (BCSS) is a provincial law enforcement agency overseen by the Ministry of the Attorney General in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Founded in 1857, it is the oldest law enforcement agency in the province. Sheriffs are Provincial Peace Officers appointed under the BC Sheriff Act and BC Police Act with authority to enforce all relevant federal and provincial acts including the criminal code throughout British Columbia while in the lawful execution of their duties.
In the United States, a sheriff is an official in a county or independent city responsible for keeping the peace and enforcing the law. Unlike most officials in law enforcement in the United States, sheriffs are usually elected, although some states have laws requiring certain law enforcement qualifications of candidates. Elected sheriffs are accountable directly to the citizens of their county, the constitution of their state, and ultimately the United States Constitution.
The Suffolk County Sheriff's Office is the oldest law enforcement agency in Suffolk County, New York, having been established in 1683. The Sheriff's Office currently employs over 1200 people, including 898 correction officers, 288 deputy sheriffs, and 130 civilian personnel. Its Office and Business Operations are located at the Riverhead Correctional Facility, 100 Center Drive South in Riverhead.
Civilian enforcement officers (CEOs) are either employees or authorised officers of Her Majesty's Courts & Tribunals Service and are responsible for enforcing magistrates court orders. They can seize and sell goods to recover money owed under a fine and community penalty notice. They also execute, in England & Wales, warrants of arrest, committal, detention and distraint. Members of approved enforcement agencies have the same powers as civilian enforcement officers, but are employed by private companies. Both are referred to as 'authorised officers' in law.
County Court bailiffs are employees of Her Majesty's Courts & Tribunals Service and are responsible for enforcing orders of the County Court by recovering money owed under County Court judgments. They can seize and sell goods to recover the amount of the debt. They can also serve court documents and effect and supervise the possession of property and the return of goods under hire purchase agreements.
The Alberta Sheriffs Branch is a provincial law enforcement agency overseen by the Ministry of Justice and Solicitor General of the province of Alberta, Canada. Under the authority of the Peace Officer Act, Alberta Sheriffs are provincial peace officers with jurisdiction over the province of Alberta. The Premier of Alberta has the authority to grant emergency police powers to all Alberta Sheriffs in the case of any major emergencies that occur within the province. The Alberta Sheriffs Branch is the largest sheriff service in Canada.
The County sheriff (Florida) is a Florida constitutional officer and a part of the state judicial branch.
The Baltimore City Sheriff's Office is the law enforcement arm of the court, serving the citizens of Baltimore City, Maryland. The office is headquartered in the Baltimore City Circuit Courthouses which serves as the sites for the Circuit Court of Maryland for Baltimore City.
Bailiff usually refers to law enforcement officers involved with lower courts of the United Kingdom or providing courtroom security and order in the United States.
In the United States, there is no consistent use of the office of constable throughout the states; use may vary within a state. A constable may be an official responsible for service of process: such as summonses and subpoenas for people to appear in court in criminal and/or civil matters. They can also be fully empowered law enforcement officers. Constables may have additional specialized duties unique to the office. In some states, a constable may be appointed by the governor or a judge or magistrate of the court which he or she serves; in others, the constable is an elected or appointed position at the state or local level of local government. Their jurisdiction can vary from statewide to county/parish and local township boundaries based on the state's laws.
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