Balıkesir

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Coordinates: 39°38′N27°53′E / 39.633°N 27.883°E / 39.633; 27.883

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Contents

Balıkesir
Balikesir City Center Collage.jpg
A collage of Balıkesir City Center, center of the Balıkesir Province. Top left:Balıkesir Clock Tower, Top right:View of Clock Tower from Zagros Pasa Square, Middle left:Kuvayi Milliye Museum, Center:Balikesir Ataturk Park, Middle right:AHP Square, Bottom upper left:Ottoman style architecture houses in Mimarsi area, Bottom lower left:Ozmerkez headquarter in Kuymcular area, Bottom right:Balikesir Railroad Station
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Balıkesir
Location of Balıkesir
Coordinates: 39°38′N27°53′E / 39.633°N 27.883°E / 39.633; 27.883
CountryFlag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Region Marmara Region
Province Balıkesir Province
Government
  MayorAhmet Edip Uğur (AKP)
  GovernorAhmet Turhan
Area
[1]
  District1,453.97 km2 (561.38 sq mi)
Elevation
70 m (230 ft)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
267,903
  District
338,936
  District density230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3 (FET)
Postal code
10xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 266
Licence plate 10
Website www.balikesir.gov.tr

Balıkesir (Turkish pronunciation:  [baˈlɯkesiɾ] ) is a city and the capital city of Balıkesir Province. Balıkesir is in the Marmara region of Turkey and has a population of 331,788 [3] inhabitants. Between 1341–1922, it was the capital of Karasi.

Balıkesir Province Province of Turkey in West Marmara

Balıkesir Province is a province in northwestern Turkey with coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. Its adjacent provinces are Çanakkale to the west, İzmir to the southwest, Manisa to the south, Kütahya to the southeast, and Bursa to the east. The provincial capital is Balıkesir City. Most of the province lies in the Marmara Region except the southern parts of Bigadiç Edremit, Kepsut, İvrindi, Savaştepe and Sındırgı districts and ones of Ayvalık, Burhaniye, Dursunbey, Gömeç and Havran, that bound the Aegean Region.

Marmara Region Region of Turkey

The Marmara Region is a geographical region of Turkey.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

History

Balikesir district borders and red area shows Karesi (Provincial Centre) Balikesir location Karesi.png
Balıkesir district borders and red area shows Karesi (Provincial Centre)

Close to modern Balıkesir was the Roman town of Hadrianutherae, founded, as its name commemorates, by the emperor Hadrian. [4] Hadrian came to the region in A.D. 124, as a result of a successful bear hunting he had established a city called his own name here. It is estimated that the city consisted of the castle, the homestead, the stud and a few homes. It is thought that the small town was the stadium where to be present. [5] Members of the Roman and Pre-Byzantine dynasty had used this castle as a vacation area and for hunting.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Hadrian 2nd-century Roman Emperor

Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica, near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family. His father was of senatorial rank and was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and possibly at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian. When Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor immediately before his death.

During Byzantine period, the small town which had become increasingly neglected was known as Palaeokastron (Greek : Παλαιόκαστρο) meaning Old Castle. Also, when the Turkmens came from Middle Asia to Mysia, they called it Balak Hisar because of the remains of castle, as Hisar is the Turkish word for castle.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

In 1345, Balıkesir city was annexed by the Ottomans. In 1897 an earthquake destroyed much of the city. In 1914, Turkish students marched through the streets of the city singing a song of hatred against the Greeks. [6] In April 1916, the Christian refugees of the villages in the vicinity of Balikesser underwent persecution from the Turks. They were refused bread on payment. The women were told that they should become Muslim so as not to die of hunger. In the beginning of June, many young Greek girls were forced by the authorities to convert to Islam at Government headquarters. [6] On 30 June 1920 Balıkesir city was conquered by the invading Greeks but on 6 September 1922, the Turkish army took back the city. During the Turkish War of Independence, Balıkesir was a main centre of the militias in Western Anatolia against Greeks. In 1922 Turkish Çetes attacked the city and massacred all the Christians. [7]

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.

Turkish War of Independence war fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies

The Turkish War of Independence was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western Front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern, the royalists and the separatists in various cities, and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.

Balıkesir's former name was Karasi, because Balıkesir city was founded by Karasi Beg in the 13th century as using the remains of the small town. 1297 is considered as the date of establishment of the city which was one of the few to be founded by the Turks in Anatolia. The Karasids was a Turkic principality in Mysia. Until the 13th century, Balıkesir city had been the administral centre of the Mysia region.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

Karasids

The Karasids or Karasid dynasty, also known as the Principality of Karasi and Beylik of Karasi, was an Anatolian beylik in the area of classical Mysia from ca. 1297-1360. It was centered in Balıkesir and Bergama, and was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turks after the decline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.

Mysia Historical region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor

Mysia was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor. It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara. It was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west and by the Propontis on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians, Phrygians, Aeolian Greeks and other groups.

Climate

Balıkesir has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) under both the Köppen and Trewartha classification. Winters are cool and wet with frequent frosts and occasional snowfall, and summers are hot and dry.

Climate data for Balıkesir (1950–2014)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.5
(74.3)
24.8
(76.6)
30.7
(87.3)
35.2
(95.4)
38.2
(100.8)
42.5
(108.5)
43.2
(109.8)
43.7
(110.7)
40.3
(104.5)
36.4
(97.5)
29.0
(84.2)
26.1
(79.0)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F)9.1
(48.4)
10.6
(51.1)
13.9
(57.0)
19.4
(66.9)
24.6
(76.3)
29.4
(84.9)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
27.8
(82.0)
22.2
(72.0)
16.0
(60.8)
10.9
(51.6)
20.6
(69.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
5.9
(42.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.0
(55.4)
17.8
(64.0)
22.5
(72.5)
24.8
(76.6)
24.6
(76.3)
20.7
(69.3)
15.7
(60.3)
10.4
(50.7)
6.7
(44.1)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
1.8
(35.2)
3.3
(37.9)
6.9
(44.4)
10.9
(51.6)
14.8
(58.6)
17.6
(63.7)
17.8
(64.0)
13.9
(57.0)
10.1
(50.2)
5.8
(42.4)
3.1
(37.6)
8.9
(48.1)
Record low °C (°F)−13.8
(7.2)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−8.0
(17.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.6
(33.1)
4.0
(39.2)
9.1
(48.4)
8.7
(47.7)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
−7.9
(17.8)
−12.9
(8.8)
−18.8
(−1.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)80.1
(3.15)
68.5
(2.70)
57.8
(2.28)
52.6
(2.07)
41.8
(1.65)
24.8
(0.98)
8.1
(0.32)
6.3
(0.25)
24.4
(0.96)
45.1
(1.78)
77.4
(3.05)
96.5
(3.80)
583.4
(22.99)
Average precipitation days14.211.711.59.57.84.41.61.53.56.79.713.996
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.63.34.46.18.410.511.411.08.56.24.12.36.6
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [8]

Economy

The economic base of the city is both agricultural and industrial. The biggest industrial enterprises are Arı-Turyağ, Limak-Set Çimento, BEST, Mar-Tük, İşbir, Kula, Tellioğlu, Bu Pilic and Yarış Kabin which are among the first thousand factories in Turkey as of 2008. [9] Balıkesir city is also important for the stock breeding. Surrounding the city, are numerous dairies. The city is also an agricultural centre. Wheat, sunflowers, sugar beets, and other vegetables in front tomato and bean plantations have dence products. Traditional crops are melon and grapes. Balıkesir with its districts is the 12th largest economy in Turkish economy. Also, it is called Anatolian Tiger.

Other main exports are olive-based products. It is also a popular destination for both domestic and foreign tourists, who use it as a base to explore the nearly countryside which is renowned for its beauty, especially nearby Mount Ida (Kaz Dağı).

City is well known with borax deposit.

The rectorship of Balıkesir University and the university campus help to make Balikesir a student city. The 25.000 university students comprise 10% of the total city population, adding much to city life.

Cityscape

The central of Balıkesir province with 300,000 population is the fourth crowded city in the Marmara Region. Balıkesir has an aggregate settlement network. Until the 1950s, the city has grown by depending on the core being first settlements that it resembles break-up of the oil stains. The city has been carrying more Aegean character than Marmara. Anafartalar Street, Milli Kuvvetler Street, Vasıf Çınar Street, Kızılay Street, Atalar Street are important streets in the city. Aygören, Karaoğlan, Dumlupınar, Kasaplar, Hisariçi, Karesi, Kızpınar, Hacıilbey are the first settlements of the city. The eldest settlements are acclivity, lane and also have adjoint buildings. Many historical places are in these quarters. A summary of new settlements are Bahcelievler, Atatürk, Paşaalanı and Adnan Menderes quarters. The squares of the city: Ali Hikmet Pasha (AHP), Republica, Wrestler Kurtdereli Mehmed and Karesi.

Trade and economic life is concentrated on three streets. These are Milli Kuvvetler Street, Kızılay Street and Anafartalar Street. Commercial life focuses on these streets and the small streets which are intersecting these streets and avenues. As a part of the city skyline, New Bazaar Area is the oldest shopping place for the city. Vasıf Çınar Street and Gazi Boulevard are other busy areas. The face of the government, there is Balıkesir Park, the rest area, is one of Turkey's most beautiful parks. By the establishment of Balıkesir University in the city, social life is gradually developing. In 2007, with the modern shopping center, commercial life in Balıkesir has started to gain momentum.

Salih Tozan Cultural Center is important for cultural activities in the city. Public transport area where is the point of transport networks is near the Salih Tozan. Yaylada and Gala are important places for citylife.

Turkey's first jet base, 9th Main Air base is located in Balıkesir.

Main Sights

The capital of Balıkesir province contains many historical buildings. The clocktower (built in 1892) is the symbol of the city. A historical fountain (built in 1908) is another popular building. The Zaganos Pasha Mosque Complex and Yildirim Mosque are popular spiritual areas. Many old Balıkesir houses in the Aygoren and Karaoglan district remain from the Ottoman period.

Balıkesir National Photography Museum is the only photography museum in Turkey. The Museum of National Moment, exhibits historical memories of the city. Of course, Balıkesir is especially known for its historic windmills.

Many spas with health promoting features surround the city, including Pamukcu and Ilica. The center of the city also contains the historical Turkish "Pasha Hamami" bath, which is still in use.

  • Zaganos Pasha Mosque: Zaganos Pasha, named after one of the viziers and commanders during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet was built in 1461.
  • Yildirim Mosque: It's the oldest remaining work from the Ottoman period in Balikesir city. Yildirim Beyazid had it built in 1388 in the second half of the 14th century.
  • Umurbey Mosque: It has an epitaph of three lines engraved on marble using a special script called Sülüs. The date is 1412.
  • Clock Tower: Giridizade Mehmet, Pasha of the Governor of Silistre, had it built as a replica of the Galata Tower in İstanbul in 1827, but it collapsed in the earthquake in 1897. Governor Ömer Ali Bey, had the present tower rebuilt.
  • Karesi Principality Tomb: It was built in 1336. It contains Karasi Beg's and his five children's graves. Karasi Beg's sarcophagus is decorated with Sufic script.
  • Balıkesir's Historical Windmills: In Karakol village which is 25 km (15.53 mi) from Balikesir, there are seven historical windmills. But only three windmills remain. Hunting and tracking are the best sports, accompanied by windmills' views.
  • Değirmenboğazı: (means Strait of mill) City forest. It is a forest area situated between two hills. A pleasant picnic place – it contains a tea garden and restaurant.
  • Balikesir City Park: It is a beautiful park which has been in service since the 1960s. The ground is covered with grass. Lots of units and places are situated in park. There is poolside cafe and rest facility. Celtis (Hackberry) and pine trees are all over the park.
  • Balikesir Local-Civil Houses:The city's oldest districts have traditional houses which show the economy and lifestyle of the city until the 1500s.
  • Thermal Resorts: Balıkesir is very famous for its thermal springs. The major thermal spas are Pamukcu, Ilica, Kepekler and Hisaralani.

The major holidays of Balıkesir are Hıdrellez. And the Liberation Day and also the Remembrance Day of Local Combat are memorial days of Balıkesir city.

Hıdrellez is by tradition celebrated in the first week of May for those who live in Balıkesir. Today, it is the fulfillment of a religious ritual that is celebrated as a day of goodness. The night on the streets there is a fire, and one of the traditions is to jump over the fire seven times. That night going to such green and restful areas as Değirmenboğazı and Balıkesir Parkı or near the religious area like tombs is also a ritual of Hıdrellez. People wish the midnight and meet there. Accordingly, Hıdrellez day people have offerings. Drawing a picture of something that is desired to land or stone is determined. Individuals seeking goods put money into a red purse and hang it on a tree. On the other hand, those wishing for a baby type the name or draws baby figure on the ground. These rituals are traditions of Hıdrellez. One of the superstitions is that if someone takes a shower that night, he or she is protected from all diseases. Hıdrellez is a kind of Newroz or Spring New Years.

Lily is a symbol of Balikesir Lilium longiflorum (Easter Lily).JPG
Lily is a symbol of Balikesir

The Liberation Day from enemy occupation of Balıkesir is 6 September in 1922. Every year, 6 September is celebrating day as a local holiday. There is a celebration parade and a celebratory ceremony. The ceremony takes place on Stadium Street. In the past, the previous night of 6 September, the main streets of Balıkesir were washed with cologne with lilies, because lilies are a symbol of Balıkesir. This festival is celebrated with great enthusiasm. For two or three days, the people would come from the nearby villages and districts to celebrating. On 6 September morning, people in Balıkesir would picnic in advance of the festival, at Balıkesir Park. The festival evening, a great torchlight procession is organized. Tülü Tabaklar which had designed similarly the cannibals in order to frighten the enemies is special event of festival.

The Remembrance Day of Local Combat is called Kuvayi Milliye Haftası in Turkish which is organized between 16–23 May. The great success with 41 Balıkesirer people met at Alaca Mescit and they have managed the region such as a state and gained a military victory in 1922. 15 May 1919, after the capture of İzmir by the Greeks, Balıkesir is the first place in Turkey that the reaction of Balıkesir had shown by declared Redd-i Ilhak (Disclamation of Annexation). In 1919, the city of Balikesir Congress was met five times. Greek soldiers on 30 June 1920 was occupied Balıkesir. By had opened Ayvalik-İvrindi-Soma-Balikesir-front, Balıkesir had its liberation.

Local cultural heritages

Balıkesir's local cheese, called Kelle Peyniri, is known in European countries and exported France, Germany and Britain. It is a granular type cheese. Balıkesir's Turkmen carpets (called Yagcibedir) are another popular local good. The main souvenir of city is Eau de Cologne is aromatic lily . Hosmerim which is made from cheese and egg is the popular dessert of this city. Lots of old Turkmens dishes (like keskek, guvec, tirit, manti, kaymakli) are composed Balıkesir cuisine.

Balıkesir is a historical folkloric dance source. Balıkesir's historical folkloric dance is most popular in Turkey and academical searching. Bengi, Guvende and Balikesir Zeybeği are typical dance of this city. These dances' figures spread throughout Balıkesir plainness. Also, Balikesir's ballads are popular in Turkey. Akpınar, Mendili Oyaladım, Karyolamın Demiri are some ballads sing by women surround Balikesir city. Like these woman ballads on the other hand, have dance figures in terms of traditional dancing. Although Balıkesir is in industrial region, traditional village culture is superb and deeply. So that, for folk culture Balıkesir is important area in Turkey. Balıkesir's local dance came to first in Nice folk festival joined 21 countries at 1958 be of value by European academical folklore authorities. Also Balıkesir's local zeibek dance was the first zeibek participation from Turkey which had seen European folk authorities. Nowadays, Balıkesir folklore is chosen "unconcrete cultural heritage" of Turkey by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Transportation and Accommodation

CityDistance
Ankara 530 km
İstanbul 390 km
Bursa 151 km
İzmir 173 km
Antalya 510 km
Adana 894 km
Çanakkale 207 km
Manisa 137 km
Kütahya 221 km
Trabzon 1232 km

Balıkesir is a city that has shores on the Aegean and Marmara Seas. It is easy to reach from Ankara, İstanbul, Bursa and İzmir by motorway or railway. There are regular coaches from İstanbul, Ankara and İzmir. Balıkesir have got lots of small coastal towns. To make transportation comfortable, railway transport is done between Ankara-Balıkesir and İzmir-Balikesir at specific hours.

Balıkesir is joined to Bursa and İzmir by a quality motorway. Also there is Körfez Airport. On account of the Körfez Airport, Balıkesir Coach Terminal is out of the city so that there is servicing by municipality to the city centre. On the other hand, the Railway Station is at Republica Square. Directly, from Ankara to Balıkesir, there access to airlines three days a week.

In Balıkesir city, there are ten hotels with one five-star hotel. Some hotels are close to the city centre so that everywhere is attainable easily.

Balikesir Coach Terminal Balikesir Otogari.jpg
Balıkesir Coach Terminal

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Balıkesir is twinned with:

Notable natives

See also

Notes

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  3. "Statistics from Mayority". Balikesir.bel.tr. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  4. Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Balikisri"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 256.
  5. Prof. Dr. Bilge Umar, Mysia, İnkılap Yayınevi, 2006, sf.153
  6. 1 2 Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914–1918. Constantinople [London, Printed by the Hesperia Press]. 1919.
  7. Akçam, Taner (2018). Killing Orders: Talat Pasha’s Telegrams and the Armenian Genocid. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 227. ISBN   978-3319697864.
  8. "Meteoroloji" (in Turkish). Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  9. http://www.iso.org.tr/tr/web/BesYuzBuyuk/Türkiye-nin-500-Buyuk-Sanayi-Kurulusu--ISO-500-raporunun-sonuclari.html%5B%5D Balıkesir (in Turkish)
  10. "Schwäbisch Hall and its twin towns". Stadt Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  11. Sister/Twin Cities of Balıkesir
  12. http://www.turkishculture.org/whoiswho/visual-arts/illustrator-caricaturist/ramazan-bayrakoglu-1871.htm

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Fatih, historically Constantinople, is the capital district and a municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey, which hosts all the provincial authorities, including the governor's office, police headquarters, metropolitan municipality and tax office while encompassing the peninsula coinciding with old Constantinople. In 2009, the district of Eminönü, which had been a separate municipality located at the tip of the peninsula, was once again remerged into Fatih because of the small population of Eminönü. Fatih is bordered by the Golden Horn to the north and the Sea of Marmara to the south, while the Western border is demarked by the Theodosian wall and the east by the Bosphorus Strait.

Zagan Pasha Ottoman military commander 1446–1462(1469)?, "kapudan pasha" and the highest military rank, grand vizier, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror"

Zaganos Pasha was an Ottoman military commander, with the titles and ranks of kapudan pasha and the highest military rank, grand vizier, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror". Originally a Christian who was conscripted and converted through the devşirme system, he became a Muslim and rose through the ranks of the janissaries. He became one of the prominent military commanders of Mehmed II and a lala – the sultan's advisor, mentor, tutor, councillor, protector, all at once. He removed his rival, the previous Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger, amid the fall of Constantinople. He later served as the governor of Thessaly of Macedonia. He was the first non-Turk to be appointed Grand Vizier.

Ayvalık Town in Aegean, Turkey

Ayvalık is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey. It is a district of Balıkesir Province. The town center of Ayvalık is surrounded by the archipelago of Ayvalık Islands, which face the nearby Greek island of Lesbos.

Bandırma Town in Turkey

Bandırma is a city in northwestern Turkey with 143,000 inhabitants on the Sea of Marmara. Also, Bandırma is a district of Balıkesir.

Erdek Place in Balıkesir, Turkey

Erdek is a town and district of Balıkesir Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. The population was 34000 in 2010. Located on the north coast of Gulf of Erdek at the south of the Sea of Marmara, Erdek is known as a holiday destination that is popular among domestic tourists. The area has a rugged geology and topography and evergreen wooded areas. There are also large olive groves. The mayor is Hüseyin Sarı (CHP).

Gönen Place in Balıkesir, Turkey

Gönen is a district of Balıkesir Province of Turkey, in the southern part of Marmara Sea. The town is mostly known for its therapeutic hot springs, leather processing and rice production.

Lefka Place in Nicosia District, Cyprus

Lefka is a town in Cyprus, overlooking Morphou Bay. De facto, it is under the control of Northern Cyprus. In 2011, the town-proper had 3,009 inhabitants. It is the capital of the Lefke District of Northern Cyprus, having been a sub-district centre in the Güzelyurt District until the establishment of the district in 2016.

Rum Mehmed Pasha Mosque mosque

The Rum Mehmed Pasha Mosque is an old Ottoman mosque located in a large and densely populated district of Üsküdar, in Istanbul, Turkey. It was built for the Grand Vizier Rum Mehmed Pasha, who was of Greek origin. The mosque combines architectural elements of Ottoman and Byzantine styles. It was restored in 1953.

9th of September Express

The 9th of September Express was an overnight train, operated by the Turkish State Railways, from Basmane Terminal, İzmir to Ankara Central Station, Ankara. The name of the service refers to 9 September 1922, the date on which the Greek occupation of İzmir ended after World War I.

Karesi Express

The Karesi Express(Turkish: Karesi Ekspresi) is an overnight train, operating between Alsancak Terminal, İzmir and Central Station, Ankara. The train is one of two current train services between İzmir and Ankara. The eastbound journey takes about 14 hours and 16 minutes, while the westbound journey takes about 14 hours and 45 minutes. The Karesi Express services 6 provincial capitals: İzmir, Manisa, Balıkesir, Kütahya, Eskişehir and Ankara.

Walls of Trabzon

The Walls of Trabzon are a series of defensive walls surrounding the old town of the city of Trabzon, northeastern Turkey. The fortifications are sometimes called the Trabzon Castle. However, they did not function as a castle, rather as city walls. Constructed on foundations dating back to the Roman era with cut stones from former structures at site, the walls stretch from the hill on the backside of the old town to the Black Sea shore. The walls further divided the city into three parts; the Upper Town or "fortress", the Middle Town and the Lower Town. The upper and middle towns are flanked by steep ravines cut by the Zagnos (Iskeleboz) and Tabakhane (Kuzgun) streams to the west and east respectively, while the lower town extends to the west of Zagnos.

Albanians in Turkey ethnic group

Albanians in Turkey are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey. They consist of Albanians who arrived during the Ottoman period, Kosovar/Macedonian and Tosk Cham Albanians fleeing from Serbian and Greek persecution after the beginning of the Balkan Wars, alongside some Albanians from Montenegro and Albania proper. A 2008 report from the Turkish National Security Council (MGK) estimated that approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry, language and culture. There are other estimates however that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million.

Kara Mehmed Pasha (died 1722) Ottoman governor

Kara Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman who served as the Ottoman governor of various provinces (eyalets) and sub-provinces (sanjaks). He was also a vizier.

Museum of the Nationalist Forces in Balıkesir

Museum of the Nationalist Forces in Balıkesir is a museum in Balıkesir, Turkey, dedicated to the irregular Kuva-yi Milliye formed as part of the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923).