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Location of the Nordic countries and of the Baltic states:
Nordic countries
Baltic states Nordic countries and Baltic states.png
Location of the Nordic countries and of the Baltic states:
Language branches in Northern Europe
North Germanic (Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark)
Finnic (Finland, Estonia)
Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania) Languages in Northern Europe.png
Language branches in Northern Europe
   North Germanic (Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark)
   Finnic (Finland, Estonia)
   Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania)

The Baltoscandian Confederation or Baltoscandia is a geopolitical concept of a BalticScandinavian union (consisting of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). [1] The idea was proposed by a Swedish professor Sten de Geer (1886–1933) in the journal Geografiska Annaler in 1928 and further developed by Professor Kazys Pakštas  [ lt ; ru ] [2] (1893–1960), a Lithuanian scientist in the field of geography and geopolitics.

Concept mental representation or an abstract object or an ability

Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition.

Baltic states Countries east of the Baltic Sea

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign states in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The term is not used in the context of cultural areas, national identity, or language. The three countries do not form an official union, but engage in intergovernmental and parliamentary cooperation.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.


Development of the concept

Euler diagram indicating Baltoscandia among other subregions of Northern Europe Euler Diagram for Baltoscandia.jpg
Euler diagram indicating Baltoscandia among other subregions of Northern Europe

Pakštas states in his book The Baltoscandian Confederation that the term Baltoscandia was first used by Sten de Geer in an article in "Geografiska Annaler" in 1928. [3] In this book Baltoscandia is described in several different dimensions: as a geographical and cultural, as an economic and as a political and military unit. [4] Kazys Pakštas proposed that one of the ways for the small nations to withstand the influence coming from the large ones is to unite and to cooperate more closely among each other. As he mentions, unification is possible only among nations that are similar by their size, geographical environment, religion, also they have to respect and to tolerate each other.

As the foreign policy of Lithuania has shifted towards Northern Europe even more after Dalia Grybauskaitė came into post of the President of Lithuania, [5] voices questioning the return of the Baltoscandian Confederation idea are on the rise in this country. [6]

Northern Europe northern region of the European continent

Northern Europe is a general term for the geographical region in Europe that is roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54°N. Nations usually included within this region are Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden, and less often the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia. Major metropolian areas include Oslo, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Goteborg and Helsinki.

Dalia Grybauskaitė President of Lithuania

Dalia Grybauskaitė is a Lithuanian politician serving as the fifth and current President of Lithuania since 2009. She is the first woman to hold the position and became in 2014 the first President of Lithuania to be reelected for a second consecutive term.


For almost 20 years, the Academy of Baltoscandia (Baltoskandijos akademija) functioned in Panevėžys, Lithuania. It was founded on 17 November 1991 as the institute of science researches which regularly organizes arrangements dealing with Baltic and Scandinavian cultural, historical and political contacts. Its main aims were to "develop versatile links of the lands and nations in the region of Baltoscandia and to integrate the culture of Lithuania into the cultural space of Baltoscandia". [7] The academy was liquidated at the end of 2009 because of funding-related problems. The funding was provided by the Panevėžys city municipality, but the functions of the academy did not meet the criteria of the functions of the mentioned municipality.

Panevėžys City municipality in Aukštaitija, Lithuania

Panevėžys see also other names, is the fifth largest city in Lithuania. As of 2011, it occupied 52 square kilometres (20 sq mi) with 113,653 inhabitants.

Other terms

The Nordic-Baltic Eight or "NB8", where 8 stands for the number of States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden).

Nordic-Baltic Eight organization

Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) is a regional co-operation format that includes Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden. Under NB8, regular meetings are held of the Baltic and Nordic countries' Prime Ministers, Speakers of Parliaments, Foreign Ministers, branch ministers, Secretaries of State and political directors of Foreign Ministries, as well as expert consultations where regional issues and current international topics are reviewed.

See also

Baltic region geographic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries, and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

Fennoscandia Region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula

Fennoscandia or the Fennoscandian Peninsula is the geographical peninsula comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula. It encompasses Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as Murmansk Oblast, much of the Republic of Karelia, and parts of northern Leningrad Oblast in Russia. Its name comes from the Latin words Fennia (Finland) and Scandia (Scandinavian). The term was first used by the Finnish geologist Wilhelm Ramsay in 1898. Geologically, the area is distinct because its bedrock is Archean granite and gneiss with very little limestone, in contrast to adjacent areas in Europe.

Nordic identity in Estonia

Nordic identity in Estonia refers to opinions that Estonia is one of the Nordic countries or that it should/will be considered as such in the future. The current mainstream view outside of Estonia does not include it among them. Categorizing Estonia as a Nordic country is common in Estonia.

Related Research Articles

Scandinavian Peninsula peninsula in Northern Europe, which covers Norway, Sweden and most of northern Finland

The Scandinavian Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which roughly comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway, and the northwestern area of Finland.

Nordic Council geo-political inter-parliamentary forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries

The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries. Formed in 1952, it has 87 representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden as well as from the autonomous areas of the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and the Åland Islands. The representatives are members of parliament in their respective countries or areas and are elected by those parliaments. The Council holds ordinary sessions each year in October/November and usually one extra session per year with a specific theme.

Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European, especially Scandinavian, countries. The Nordic countries are generally taken to include Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The Nordic Council, an international organization, also includes the autonomous territories of Åland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Historically, the term Nordic was also applied to Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

TV3 (Viasat) brand name used by Viasats flagship channels in Scandinavia, the Baltic States, Hungary and Finland

TV3 is the brand name used by Viasat's flagship channels in Scandinavia, the Baltic States, Hungary, and Finland. Viasat is part of the Swedish media company Modern Times Group. The first TV3 channel was launched on New Year's Eve 1987, breaking the monopoly on broadcasting in the Scandinavian languages.

Viasat is a Nordic direct broadcast satellite television broadcaster and pay TV operator, owned by the Swedish media group Nordic Entertainment Group in Nordics, All Media Baltics in Baltics and some channels owned by Viasat World. Broadcasting from London, the target markets are in the Nordic and the Baltic Countries.

Europe is often divided into regions based on geographical, cultural or historical criteria. Many European structures currently exist, some are cultural, economic, or political - examples include the Council of Europe, the European Broadcasting Union with the Eurovision Song Contest, and the European Olympic Committees with the European Games. Several transcontinental countries which border mainland Europe, are often included as belonging to a "wider Europe" including, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Cyprus, Armenia, Greenland, as well as the Special member state territories and the European Union.

Scandinavian Americans US citizens of Scandinavian descent

Scandinavian Americans are Americans of Nordic, or part-Nordic ancestry, defined in this article to include Danish Americans, Faroese Americans, Finnish Americans, Greenlandic Americans, Icelandic Americans, Norwegian Americans, Sami Americans, Swedish Americans. Also included are persons who reported 'Northern European' ancestry or 'Scandinavian' ancestry. According to 2010 census data, there are approximately 11,890,524 people of Scandinavian ancestry in the United States.

The Lübeck Nordic Film Days is a film festival for movies from the Nordic and Baltic countries held annually in Lübeck, Germany, since 1956 on the first weekend in November. It is the only festival in Germany, and the only one in Europe apart from the Rouen Nordic Film Festival founded in Rouen, France, which is entirely devoted to the presentation of films from the North and Northeast of Europe. Thus is the most important festival for films from Scandinavia and the Baltic countries outside Scandinavia. The festival also presents films made in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.

Scandinavian studies field of study

Scandinavian studies is an interdisciplinary academic field of area studies, mainly in the United States and Germany, that covers topics related to Scandinavia and the Nordic countries, including languages, literatures, histories, cultures and societies. The term Scandinavia mainly refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden, although the term Scandinavian in an ethnic, cultural and linguistic sense also refers to the peoples and languages of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, and the Scandinavian-speaking minority in Finland. Scandinavian studies does not exist as a separate field within Scandinavia or the Nordic countries themselves, as its scope would be considered far too broad to be treated meaningfully within a single discipline. The closest related field in Scandinavia would be the more narrow discipline of Nordic linguistics, which covers North Germanic languages. A major focus of Scandinavian studies is the teaching of Scandinavian languages, especially the three large languages Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.

The Nordic agrarian parties, also referred to as Nordic Centre parties or Agrarian Liberal parties are agrarian political parties that belong to a political tradition particular to the Nordic countries. Positioning themselves in the centre of the political spectrum, but fulfilling roles distinctive to Nordic countries, they remain hard to classify by conventional political ideology.

Nordic countries Geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden. The term includes Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands—which are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands and Svalbard and Jan Mayen archipelagos that belong to Finland and Norway respectively, whereas the Norwegian Antarctic territories are often not considered a part of the Nordic countries, due to their geographical location. Scandinavians, who comprise over three quarters of the region's population, are the largest group, followed by Finns, who comprise the majority in Finland; other groups are indigenous minorities such as the Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people, and recent immigrants and their descendants. The native languages Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse. Native non-Germanic languages are Finnish, Greenlandic and several Sami languages. The main religion is Lutheran Christianity. The Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, history, religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure. The Nordic countries have a long history of political unions and other close relations, but do not form a separate entity today. The Scandinavist movement sought to unite Denmark, Norway and Sweden into one country in the 19th century, with the indepedence of Finland in the early 20th century, and Iceland in the mid 20th century, this movement expanded into the modern organised Nordic cooperation which includes the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. Especially in English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprises the mainland of Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland.

Norrland terrain

Norrland terrain is a geomorphic unit covering the bulk of Norrland and the northwestern half Svealand. Except for The High Coast the coastal areas of Norrland do not belong to the Norrland terrain. The southern and eastern boundary of the Norrland terrain is made up of geological faults that disrupt the Sub-Cambrian peneplain found the lowlands. In some locations these faults have been extensively eroded making the Norrland terrain boundary partly a result of erosion. Karna Lidmar-Bergström categorizes the Norrland Terrain into the following clases:

  1. Highlands with well developed valleys above 500 m.a.s.l.
  2. Plains with residual hills of Northern Sweden
  3. Undulating hilly land of Övertorneå/Överkalix
  4. Undulating hilly land of Boden area
  5. Large scale joint valley landscapes
  6. Plains with residual hills of Dalarna
  7. Undulanting hilly land of Central Sweden
South Småland peneplain

The South Småland peneplain is a large flattish erosion surface, a peneplain, formed during the Tertiary, covering large swathes of southern Småland and nearby areas in Southern Sweden. To the east the South Småland peneplain bounds with the Sub-Cambrian peneplain uphill across an escarpment. While is almost as flat as the Sub-Cambrian peneplain the South Småland peneplain differs in that it contain far more residual hills and that it has never been covered by sedimentary rocks. To the south and west the peneplain transitions into Mesozoic-aged hilly surfaces.

Joint valley landscape

Joint valley landscape or fissure valley terrain is a type of relief common in Finland, Sweden and Norway. The landscape originates from the erosion of joints in the bedrock which leaves out small plateaus or ridges in between. When the block summits in joint valley landscape are of different height it may indicate the past movement of a vertical geological fault.


  1. "SCAND 344: The Baltic States and Scandinavia, Spring 2002" . Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  2. "What is Baltoscandia? | Misija Lietuva 100" . Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  3. SCAND 344: The Baltic States and Scandinavia, Spring 2002
  4. The Concept of Baltoscandia according to Kazys Pakstas before the war and now (in Lithuanian)
  5. Lithuania looks towards Northern Europe
  6. Back to Baltoscandia? (in Lithuanian)
  7. "Politicians have closed the Academy of Baltoscandia" . Retrieved 26 March 2010.