Ban Gioc–Detian Falls

Last updated
Ban Gioc–Detian Falls
Ban Gioc - Detian Falls2.jpg
Ban Gioc–Detian Falls
Eastern China blank relief map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Eastern China
China Guangxi location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China
Vietnam relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Location in Vietnam
Coordinates 22°51′23″N106°43′19″E / 22.8564°N 106.7220°E / 22.8564; 106.7220 Coordinates: 22°51′23″N106°43′19″E / 22.8564°N 106.7220°E / 22.8564; 106.7220
Watercourse Quây Sơn River

Ban Gioc – Detian Falls or Ban Gioc falls (Vietnamese : thác Bản Giốc, Yue Chinese : 板約瀑布, 德天瀑布/dak1 tin1 baan2 joek3 daai6 buk6 bou6, Chinese :Détiān pùbù, Bǎnyuē pùbù) is a collective name for two waterfalls on the Quây Sơn River (Chinese: 归春河, Guichun River, Vietnamese: Quy Xuân Hà), that straddle the international border between China and Vietnam; more specifically located between the Karst hills of Daxin County, Guangxi, (Vietnamese: Đại Tân, Quảng Tây) and Trùng Khánh District, Cao Bằng Province. (Chinese Chongqing, Gaoping 重庆,高平) The waterfall is 272 km (169 mi) north of Hanoi (河內 Henei).

Contents

Characteristics

Over thousands of years the waterfall has eroded its crest and slowly moved upstream. It currently appears to be two waterfalls most of the time but when the river is swollen due to summer rains can form one fall again.

In Vietnamese, the two falls are considered as two parts of one waterfall with the sole name Bản Giốc. The two parts are thác chính (Main waterfall) and thác phụ (Subordinate waterfall). Chinese texts sometimes name both falls from the Détiān falls on the Chinese side. [1]

The waterfall drops 30 m (98 ft). It is separated into three falls by rocks and trees, and the thundering effect of the water hitting the cliffs can be heard from afar. [2]

It is currently the 4th largest waterfall along a national border, after Iguazu Falls, Victoria Falls, and Niagara Falls. [3] Somewhat nearby is the 1000m long by 200m wide Tongling Gorge (tōng líng dà xiá gǔ 通灵大峡谷 "Tongling Grand Canyon") in Jingxi County (靖西县), Baise City (百色市) of Guangxi (Thông Linh-Đại Tân-Tĩnh Tây-Bách Sắc-Quảng Tây), accessible only through a cavern from an adjoining gorge. Rediscovered only recently, it has many species of endemic plants, found only in the gorge.

Ban Gioc Panorama .jpg
Panorama of Ban Gioc–Detian Falls

Geology

The waterfalls are located in an area of mature karst formations where the original limestone bedrock layers are being eroded. Numerous streams spring from underground fissures along the lower levels of the area. The waterfalls have multiple drops, from bedrock layer to layer, which shows the multiple depositions of sediments of different hardness which formed the terrain over millions of years.

History

View from China in dry season DeTianPuBu.jpg
View from China in dry season
View of the falls from Vietnam during the rainy season when the flow is at its maximum Thac Ban Gioc.jpg
View of the falls from Vietnam during the rainy season when the flow is at its maximum

A road running along the top of the falls leads to a stone marker that demarcates the border between China and Vietnam in French and Chinese. Modern disputes arose as there are discrepancies as to the correlating legal documents on border demarcation and the placement of markers between the French and Qing administrations in the 19th century. [4]

Disputes regarding the border demarcation at this location were settled in 1999 Viet Nam-China Treaty on Land Borderline. Additional talks were held as late as 2009 to clarify the treaty. [5] However, there are controversies regarding the border demarcation around the Falls. One faction holds that the entirety of these falls belongs to Vietnam, and that the stone tablet had been moved there some time during or after the brief Sino-Vietnamese war of 1979. [6] To the southeast, the land dispute also along the Sino-Vietnamese border also includes Nam Quan Gate (Ải Nam Quan) which the Vietnamese claimed as well. Historically, [7] [8] [9] Nam Quan Gate served as the border marker and entry point to Vietnam between Vietnam & China (hence there's also a Vietnamese historical saying, [10] that Vietnam stretched from Cape Cà Mau to Ải Nam Quan).

Impact on industry and commerce

The waterfalls increase the quality of life for people who live within the sound of the falls. A road running along the top of the falls leads to a stone marker that demarcates the border between China and Vietnam in French and Chinese. 20th century disputes could not be resolved where inaccuracies in documents, maps and descriptions that were made in the 19th century became difficult to universally comprehend. The disappearance or inaccurate replacement of markers and landmarks from time to time, and the varied patterns of transportation, settlement and land use from generation to generation, and the successive administrative differences throughout periods of war and strife led to both Vietnam and China understanding that exactly defining the border would increase prosperity in the long term. [4]

The commercial focus of the area directly around the falls will likely remain tourism.

Transport

There are two directional aspects to transport at a waterfall: (1) portage along the river's course; and (2) fording or rafting across the river. Ban Gioc–Detian Falls was one of the crossing points for Chinese forces during the Sino-Vietnamese War. Rafts are currently used to boat tourists closer to the falls and return them to their dock of origination.

Preservation efforts

Preservation of the resource may require future cooperation between the local communities by use of a perpetual joint oversight committee.

Related Research Articles

Foreign relations of Vietnam Overview of relations

As of February 2019, Vietnam maintains diplomatic relationships with 189 nations throughout the world, including all UN member states and UN observer states other than (i) UN member states Malawi, Bahamas, Tonga and Tuvalu and (ii) the UN observer Holy See. In 2011 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, at the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, released an official statement about Vietnam's foreign policy and a section of the statement stated: "Vietnam is a friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community, actively taking part in international and regional cooperation processes. Deepen, stabilize and sustain established international relations. Develop relations with countries and territories in the world, as well as international organizations, while showing: respect for each other's independence; sovereignty and territorial integrity; non-interference in each other's international affairs; non-use or threat of force; settlement of disagreements and disputes by means of peaceful negotiations; mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit."

Hong River River in southwest China and northern Vietnam

The Hong River, also known as the Red River, the Hồng Hà and Sông Cái (lit. "Mother River") in Vietnamese, and the Yuan River in Chinese, is a 1,149-kilometer (714 mi)-long river that flows from Yunnan in Southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin. According to C. Michael Hogan, the associated Red River Fault was instrumental in forming the entire South China Sea at least as early as 37 million years before present.

Nguyễn dynasty Imperial dynasty in Vietnam

The Nguyễn dynasty was the last Vietnamese dynasty, which ruled Vietnam largely independently from 1802 to 1883. During its existence, the empire expanded into modern-day southern Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos through a continuation of the centuries-long Nam tiến and Siamese–Vietnamese wars. After 1883, the Nguyễn emperors ruled nominally as heads of state of the French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin until the final months of WWII; they later nominally ruled over the Empire of Vietnam until the Japanese surrender.

Tày people

The Tày people speak a language of the Central Tai language group, and live in northern Vietnam. They are sometimes also called Thô, T'o, Tai Tho, Ngan, Phen, Thu Lao, or Pa Di.

<i>Country Spirit</i>

Country Spirita.k.a.Plain Love III was a television drama series produced by TVB. The series takes place in a winery in China in around 1900–1930. Winemaking, as well as the trials and tribulations of a love story between a widow, who is part of a ghost marriage, and her husband's house servant, is the main theme of this series. There are 42 episodes in total.

Central Highlands (Vietnam) Mountainous region of Vietnam, that encompassed the southernmost part of the Annamite Range

Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam. It contains the provinces of Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Lâm Đồng.

Yên Bái Province Province of Vietnam

Yên Bái is an agricultural-based province located in Tây Bắc, the northern part of northern-central Vietnam. It shares borders with six provinces which are Hà Giang Province, Lào Cai Province, Lai Châu Province, Sơn La Province, Phú Thọ Province, and Tuyên Quang Province. The province covers an area of 6,899.5 square kilometres and as of 2008 it had a population of 750,200 people.

Huangguoshu Waterfall

Huangguoshu Waterfall, is one of the largest waterfalls in China and East Asia located on the Baishui River (白水河) in Anshun, Guizhou province. It is 77.8 m (255 ft) high and 101 m (331 ft) wide. The main waterfall is 67 m (220 ft) high and 83.3 m (273 ft) wide.

Chongzuo Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Chongzuo is a prefecture-level city in the south of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region along the Sino-Vietnamese border. It is home to one of China's largest Zhuang populations.

Changbai Waterfall

Changbai Waterfall is a 68 m (223 ft) waterfall in China in Changbai Mountain in the Changbai Mountain Range. It is most dramatic during the summer snow-melt season from the Lake Tianchi or "Heaven Lake" 天池 Tiānchí basin.

Hà Tiên City in Kiên Giang Province, Vietnam

Hà Tiên is a Provincial city in Kiên Giang Province, Mekong Delta in Vietnam. Its area is 10,049 ha and the population as of 2019 is 81,576. The city borders Cambodia to the west. Hà Tiên is a tourist site of the region thanks to its beaches and landscapes.

Quang Trung Vietnamese emperor

Emperor Quang Trung or Nguyễn Huệ, also known as Nguyễn Quang Bình, was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history. Nguyễn Huệ and his brothers, Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, together known as the Tây Sơn brothers, were the leaders of the Tây Sơn rebellion. As rebels, they conquered Vietnam, overthrowing the imperial Later Lê dynasty and the two rival feudal houses of the Nguyễn in the south and the Trịnh in the north.

Friendship Pass A pass near the China-Vietnam border

Friendship Pass, also commonly known by its older name Ải Nam Quan, is a pass near the China-Vietnam border, between China's Guangxi and Vietnam's Lạng Sơn Province. The pass itself lies just inside the Chinese side of the border.

Daxin County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Daxin County is a county in the west of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is under the administration of Chongzuo city.

Cao Bằng Province Province of Vietnam

Cao Bằng is a province of the Northeast region of Vietnam. The province has borders with Hà Giang, Tuyên Quang, Bắc Kạn, and Lạng Sơn provinces within Vietnam. It also has a common international border with Guangxi Province in China. The province covers an area of 6,724.6 square kilometres, and, as of 2008, its population was 528,100 people.

Quây Sơn River

The Quây Sơn River or Guichun River Quy Xuân Hà is a river of Cao Bằng Province, Vietnam and of Guangxi province, China. The river originates in China at Jingxi County in the Chongshan Mountain Range.

Chữ Nôm Writing system for the Vietnamese language using Chinese characters

Chữ Nôm, in earlier times also called Chữ Nam (𡨸南) or Quốc Âm, is a traditional logographic writing system used to write the Vietnamese language. It uses classical Chinese characters to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamese words, while new characters were created on the Chinese model to represent other words.

China–Vietnam border

The China–Vietnam border is the international boundary between China and Vietnam, consisting of a 1,297 km terrestrial border stretching from the tripoint with Laos in the west to the Gulf of Tonkin coast in the east, and a maritime border in the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea.

Sicradiscus mansuyi is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Plectopylidae.

Tự Đức Thông Bảo

Tự Đức Thông Bảo was an inscription used on different coins made from various metals and alloys during the reign of Emperor Tự Đức. The coinage of Tự Đức saw the introduction of the term văn (文) which was an accounting unit used for copper-alloy cash coins denominating their worth in number of zinc cash coins with a weight of 6 phần.

References

  1. 韩欣 中国名水 (Han Xin, Famous Waters of China) 2005 Volume 2 "德天瀑布位于广西南宁地区边陲大新县,在中越边境交界处.归春河上游,瀑布气势磅薄、银瀑飞泻.三级跌落,蔚为 ... 夏季,德天瀑布和板约瀑布会连在一起,应该是整个德天风景区一道最为奇特的景观。它们浩浩荡荡地飞奔而下,像是凭空而降的一支巨大的 ..."
  2. "Cao Bang - the land of mountains and water" . Retrieved 2007-02-13.
  3. "Top 10 most beautiful Chinese waterfalls". China Central Television. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
  4. 1 2 Vietnamese Embassy: On the settlement of Vietnam-China border issue vietnamembassy-usa.org
  5. "Vietnam and China's land demarcation itinerary". Archived from the original on 2012-05-31. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  6. The implementation of Vietnam-China land border treaty: bilateral and regional implications. Do Thi Thuy 5/3/2009 PDF
  7. Han Nam Quan 3 (English) Archived 2014-08-31 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "In Westminster, an Internet Bid to Restore Viet Land" Los Angeles Times
  9. Interview On Territory And Territorial Waters - General
  10. "Asia Finest Discussion Forum > Ai Nam Quan - An example of communist sellout of Motherland". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2012-10-17.