Banja Luka

Last updated

Banja Luka

Бања Лука
Grad Banja Luka
Град Бања Лука
City of Banja Luka
Banjalukaview000.jpg
NKD 013 gospodska ulica banja luka (3).jpg
NKD138 Ferhadija2.jpg
Spomenik parkovske arkhitekture ,,Univerzitetski grad".jpg
Tvrdjava Kastel 7.jpg
Saborna tsrkva Khrista spasitelja 1.jpg
From top, left to right: Panoramic view of Banja Luka, Gospodska pedestrian area, Ferhat Pasha Mosque, Monument of park architecture, Kastel Fortress on the left bank of the Vrbas river and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Coat of Arms of Banja Luka.jpg
Coat of arms
BH municipality location Banja Luka.png
Location within Republika Srpska / Bosnia and Herzegovina
Banja Luka-naselja.PNG
Bosnia and Herzegovina relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Banja Luka
Location within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Banja Luka
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 44°46′N17°11′E / 44.767°N 17.183°E / 44.767; 17.183 Coordinates: 44°46′N17°11′E / 44.767°N 17.183°E / 44.767; 17.183
Country Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Flag of the Republika Srpska.svg  Republika Srpska
Geographical region Bosanska Krajina
Government
  Mayor Draško Stanivuković (PDP)
Area
   City 1,238.91 km2 (478.35 sq mi)
Elevation
163 m (535 ft)
Population
 (2013 census) [1]
   Urban
138,963
  Municipality
185,042
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
78000
Area code(s) +387 51
Website www.banjaluka.rs.ba

Banja Luka (Serbian Cyrillic : Бања Лука, pronounced  [bǎɲa lǔːka] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) or Banjaluka (Serbian Cyrillic : Бањалука, pronounced  [baɲalǔːka] ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the largest city of Republika Srpska. Banja Luka is also de facto capital of this entity. It is the traditional centre of the densely-forested Bosanska Krajina region of northwestern Bosnia. According to the 2013 census, the city proper has a population of 138,963, while its administrative area comprises a total of 185,042 inhabitants.

Contents

The city is home to the University of Banja Luka as well as numerous entity and state institutions for Republika Srpska and Bosnia and Herzegovina respectively. The city lies on the Vrbas River and is well known in the countries of the former Yugoslavia for being full of tree-lined avenues, boulevards, gardens, and parks. [2] Banja Luka was designated European city of sport in 2018.

Name

The name Banja Luka was first mentioned in a document dated to 6 February 1494 by Ladislaus II of Hungary. The name is interpreted as the 'Ban's meadow', from the words ban (a mediaeval noble title), and luka ('valley' or 'meadow'). The identity of the ban and the meadow in question remains uncertain, and popular etymology combines the modern words banja ('bath' or 'spa'), or bajna ('marvelous') and luka ('port'). A different interpretation is suggested by the Hungarian name Lukácsbánya, in English 'Luke's Mine'. In modern usage, the name is pronounced and usually written as one word (Banjaluka). [3]

Geography

Overview

Banja Luka covers some 96.2 km2 (37.1 sq mi) of land in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on both banks of the Vrbas in the Banja Luka valley, which is characteristically flat within the otherwise hilly region. Banja Luka's centre lies 163 m (534.78 ft) above sea level.

The source of the Vrbas River is about 90 km (56 mi) to the south at the Vranica mountain. Its tributaries—the Suturlija, the Crkvena, and the Vrbanja—flow into the Vrbas at various points in the city. A number of springs can be found nearby.

The area around Banja Luka is mostly woodland and acre fields, although there are many mountains further from the city, especially south from the city. The most notable of these mountains are Ponir (743 m), Osmača (950 m), Manjača (1,214 m), Čemernica (1,338 m), and Tisovac (1,173 m). These are all part of the Dinaric Alps mountain range.

Settlements

The city of Banja Luka (aside from city proper) includes the following settlements:

Climate

Banja Luka has a moderate humid subtropical climate with mild winters, infrequent frosts, and warm summers. The warmest month of the year is July, with an average temperature of 22.8 °C (73.0 °F). The coldest month of the year is January, when temperatures average around 1.7 °C (35.1 °F).

The annual precipitation for the city is about 1,037.2 millimetres (41 inches). Banja Luka has an average of 104 rainy days a year. Due to the city's relatively high latitude and inland location, it snows in Banja Luka almost every year during the winter period. Strong winds can come from the north and northeast. Sometimes, southern winds bring hot air from the Adriatic sea.

Climate data for Banja Luka
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.3
(72.1)
25.2
(77.4)
29.0
(84.2)
31.8
(89.2)
35.2
(95.4)
37.9
(100.2)
41.6
(106.9)
41.1
(106.0)
40.2
(104.4)
30.9
(87.6)
27.1
(80.8)
23.2
(73.8)
41.6
(106.9)
Average high °C (°F)6.7
(44.1)
7.8
(46.0)
13.7
(56.7)
19.3
(66.7)
23.2
(73.8)
27.3
(81.1)
29.9
(85.8)
30.1
(86.2)
24.3
(75.7)
18.5
(65.3)
13.0
(55.4)
7.2
(45.0)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.7
(35.1)
2.5
(36.5)
7.3
(45.1)
12.5
(54.5)
16.8
(62.2)
20.8
(69.4)
22.8
(73.0)
22.3
(72.1)
17.1
(62.8)
11.8
(53.2)
7.3
(45.1)
2.8
(37.0)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F)−2.1
(28.2)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.8
(35.2)
6.4
(43.5)
10.0
(50.0)
14.4
(57.9)
16.0
(60.8)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
7.0
(44.6)
3.2
(37.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.8
(44.2)
Record low °C (°F)−22.8
(−9.0)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−5.9
(21.4)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
6.7
(44.1)
6.1
(43.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−11.0
(12.2)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−22.8
(−9.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)71.7
(2.82)
67.6
(2.66)
77.8
(3.06)
86.5
(3.41)
98.3
(3.87)
109.2
(4.30)
73.9
(2.91)
74.2
(2.92)
83.9
(3.30)
103.9
(4.09)
89.5
(3.52)
100.8
(3.97)
1,037.2
(40.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)8.99.79.49.29.88.17.95.87.98.98.110.2104.0
Average relative humidity (%)82807369717170737882848376
Mean monthly sunshine hours 547112515820622227223818613370461,781
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst (temperatures, 1992–2016, extremes 1973–2016, precipitation, 1926–2016, precipitation days, 1992–2016, humidity, 1973–1991 and sun, 1961–1990) [4] [5] [lower-alpha 1]

History

Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Banja Luka. Saborna tsrkva Khrista spasitelja 004.jpg
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Banja Luka.
The 1579 Ferhat Pasha Mosque was blown up in 1993. Following meticulous reconstruction it was reopened in 2016. NKD138 Ferhadija2.jpg
The 1579 Ferhat Pasha Mosque was blown up in 1993. Following meticulous reconstruction it was reopened in 2016.
WWII monument dedicated to the Fallen warriors of Krajina region Spomenik palim bortsima Bosanske krajine na Banj Brdu (na Shekhitlutsima).jpg
WWII monument dedicated to the Fallen warriors of Krajina region
The Vrbas River's left tributary, the Krupa, in a protected area a 30 kilometers upstream from the city. Rijeka Krupa 222.jpg
The Vrbas River's left tributary, the Krupa, in a protected area a 30 kilometers upstream from the city.

Roman times

The history of inhabitation of the area of Banja Luka dates back to ancient times. There is substantial evidence of Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries A.D., including the fort "Kastel" (Latin : Castra) in the centre of the city. The area comprising Banja Luka was entirely in the kingdom of Illyria and then a part of the Roman province of Illyricum, which split into provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia of which Castra became a part. Ancient Illyrian maps call the settlement in Banja Luka's present day location as Ad Ladios, [6] a settlement located on the river Vrbas.

Middle Ages

Slavs settled in the Balkans in the 6th century. Mediaeval fortresses in the vicinity of Banja Luka include Vrbas (1224), Župa Zemljanik (1287), Kotor Varoš (1323), Zvečaj (1404), and Bočac (1446). In one document written by king Vladislav II on 6 February 1494 Juraj Mikulasić was mentioned as castellan of Banja Luka. Below the town was a smaller settlement with one Catholic monastery. [7]

Ottoman rule

Banja Luka fell to the Ottomans in 1527. It became the seat of the Sanjak of Bosnia some time prior to 1554, until 1580 when the Bosnia Eyalet was established. Bosnian beylerbeys were seated in Banja Luka until 1639. [8] Ferhad Pasha Sokolović, a relative of Grand Vizier Mehmed-pasha Sokolović, had upon his return to Bosnia in 1574, begun the building of over 200 buildings ranging from artisan and sales shops to wheat warehouses, baths and mosques. Among more important commissions were the Ferhadija and Arnaudija mosques during whose construction plumbing infrastructure was laid out, that served surrounding residential areas. [9] This stimulated the economic and urban development of Banja Luka, which soon became one of the leading commercial and political centres in Bosnia. It was also the central sanjak in the Bosnia Eyalet. In 1688, the city was burned down by the Austrian army, but it quickly recovered. Later periodic intrusions by the Austrian army stimulated military developments in Banja Luka, which made it into a strategic military centre. Orthodox churches and monasteries near Banja Luka were built in the 19th century. Also, Sephardic Jews and Trappists migrated to the city in the 19th century and contributed to the early industrialisation of the region by building mills, breweries, brick factories, textile factories and other important structures.[ citation needed ]

The Trappist monastery built in the 19th century lent its name to the neighbourhood of Trapisti and has left a large legacy in the area through its Trappist cheese and its beer production.

In 1835 and 1836, during Ottoman administration, numerous people from Banja Luka emigrated to Lešnica, Lipnica and Loznica, the villages around Loznica, and to Šabac. [10]

Austro-Hungarian rule

Despite its leading position in the region, Banja Luka as a city was not modernised until Austro-Hungarian occupation in the late 19th century. Railroads, schools, factories, and infrastructure appeared, and were developed, which turned Banja Luka into a modern city.

Yugoslavia

After World War I, the town became the capital of the Vrbas Banovina, a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The provincial capital owed its rapid progress to the first Ban Svetislav Milosavljević. During that time, the Banski dvor and its twin sister, the Administration building, the Serbian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity, a theatre and a museum were built, the Grammar School was renovated, the Teachers College enlarged, a city bridge was built and the park renovated. 125 elementary schools were functioning in Banja Luka in 1930. The revolutionary ideas of the time were incubated by the "Pelagić" association and the Students' Club. Banja Luka naturally became the organisational centre of anti-fascist work in the region.

World War II

During World War II, Banja Luka was occupied by Axis troops and was included into the Pavelić's Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The fascist Ustashe regime committed the Genocide of the Serbs and the Holocaust. Most of Banja Luka's Serbs and Jews were deported to concentration camps such as Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška. The Jasenovac camp was one of the largest extermination camps in Europe, which was notorious for its high mortality rate and the barbaric practices which occurred in it. [11] [12] On 7 February 1942, Ustashe paramilitaries, led by a Franciscan friar, Miroslav Filipović (aka Tomislav Filipović-Majstorović), killed more than 2,300 Serbs (among them 500 children) [13] in Drakulić, Motike and Šargovac (a part of the Banja Luka municipality).

The city's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour and Orthodox church of the Holy Trinity were totally demolished by the Ustashe, as was the Church of St. George in Petrićevac. The Bishop of Banja Luka, Platon Jovanović, was arrested by the Ustaše on 5 May 1941, and was tortured and killed. His body was thrown into the Vrbanja river. [14] The city was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans on 22 April 1945.

1969 earthquake

On 26 and 27 October 1969, two devastating earthquakes (6.0 and 6.4 on the Richter scale) damaged many buildings in Banja Luka. Around 20 to 23 people were killed, and over a thousand injured. [15] A large building called Titanik in the centre of the town was razed to the ground, and the area was later turned into a central public square. [16] [17] With contributions from all over Yugoslavia, Banja Luka was repaired and rebuilt. During this period a large Serb population moved to the city from the surrounding villages, and from more distant areas in Herzegovina.

Bosnian War

During the 1990s, the city underwent considerable changes when the Bosnian War broke out. Upon the declaration of Bosnian-Herzegovinian independence and the establishment of the Republika Srpska, Banja Luka became the de facto centre of the entity's politics.

Nearly all of Banja Luka's Croats and Bosniaks were expelled during the war and all of the city's 16 mosques, including the Ferhat Pasha Mosque, were stacked with explosives and destroyed. [18] A court ruling resulted in the authorities of Banja Luka having to pay $42 million for the destruction of the mosques. [18] [19] Later, an estimated 40,000 Serbs from Croat- and Bosniak-dominated areas of Bosnia, having been exiled from their homes, settled in Banja Luka. [20] However, the Banja Luka district court later overturned the ruling stating that the claims had exceeded a three-year statute of limitations. [21] The Bosniak community vowed to appeal against the decision. [22]

On 7 May 2001, several thousand Serb nationalists attacked a group of Bosniaks and members of the diplomatic corps attending a ceremony of marking the reconstruction of the historic 16th-century Ferhadija mosque. [23] [24] [25] [26] There were indications of police collaboration. [27] More than 30 individuals were injured during the attack, and on 26 May, Murat Badić, who had been in a coma after the attack, died from head injuries. [28] Fourteen Bosnian Serb nationalists were jailed for starting the riots. [29]

Demographics

Banja Luka municipality by population proportional to the settlement with the highest and lowest population BanjaLukabypopulation.png
Banja Luka municipality by population proportional to the settlement with the highest and lowest population

The 2013 census in Bosnia indicated a population of 185,042, overwhelmingly Serbs. [30] [31] [32]

Population

Population of settlements – Banja Luka municipality
1879188518951910192119311948195319611971198119912013
Total158,736183,618195,692185,042
Agino Selo1,106429
Banja Luka9,56011,35713,56614,80018,00122,16531,22338,13550,65090,831123,937143,079138,963
Barlovci624685
Bistrica1,7031,367
Bočac1,685836
Borkovići976585
Bronzani Majdan1,019590
Debeljaci1,0731,190
Dragočaj2,5782,273
Drakulić3191,262
Goleši827369
Jagare1,2691,291
Kmećani458205
Kola2,2411,212
Kola Donja757413
Krmine980546
Krupa na Vrbasu1,8581,199
Kuljani1,2074,126
Ljubačevo663453
Melina1,260739
Motike2,0092,475
Obrovac1,046469
Pavići607262
Pavlovac1,5221,825
Pervan Donji672261
Piskavica3,7982,617
Potkozarje [Ivanjska]4,5772,965
Prijakovci576832
Priječani8401,992
Prnjavor Mali309374
Radosavska514268
Ramići1,0351,739
Rekavice2,6792,105
Šargovac1,3133,014
Slavićka985682
Stričići464208
Verići1,2371,041
Zalužani561629

Ethnic composition

Ethnic composition – Banja Luka city
2013199119811971
Total138,963 (100,0%)143,079 (100,0%)123,937 (100,0%)90,831 (100,0%)
Serbs121,185 (87,21%)70,155 (49,03%)51,839 (41,83%)41,297 (45,47%)
Bosniaks7,573 (5,450%)27,689 (19,35%)20,916 (16,88%)23,411 (25,77%)
Croats4,205 (3,026%)15,700 (10,97%)16,314 (13,16%)17,897 (19,70%)
Unaffiliated2,520 (1,813%)
Others1,418 (1,020%)6,890 (4,816%)2,570 (2,074%)2,014 (2,217%)
Yugoslavs615 (0,443%)22,645 (15,83%)30,318 (24,46%)4,606 (5,071%)
Ukrainians396 (0,285%)
Montenegrins321 (0,231%)695 (0,561%)600 (0,661%)
Unknown232 (0,167%)
Slovenes215 (0,155%)456 (0,368%)636 (0,700%)
Roma129 (0,093%)499 (0,403%)59 (0,065%)
Macedonians126 (0,091%)172 (0,139%)177 (0,195%)
Albanians28 (0,020%)158 (0,127%)134 (0,148%)
Ethnic composition – Banja Luka municipality
2013199119811971
Total185,042 (100,0%)195,692 (100,0%)183,618 (100,0%)158,736 (100,0%)
Serbs165,750 (89,57%)106,826 (54,59%)93,389 (50,86%)92,465 (58,25%)
Bosniaks7,681 (4,151%)28,558 (14,59%)21,726 (11,83%)24,268 (15,29%)
Croats5,104 (2,758%)29,026 (14,83%)30,442 (16,58%)33,371 (21,02%)
Unaffiliated2,733 (1,477%)
Others1,521 (0,822%)7,626 (3,897%)3,370 (1,835%)2,275 (1,433%)
Yugoslavs648 (0,350%)23,656 (12,09%)32,624 (17,77%)4,684 (2,951%)
Ukrainians413 (0,223%)
Unknown337 (0,182%)
Montenegrins335 (0,181%)715 (0,389%)612 (0,386%)
Slovenes230 (0,124%)495 (0,270%)685 (0,432%)
Roma132 (0,071%)503 (0,274%)59 (0,037%)
Macedonians130 (0,070%)189 (0,103%)178 (0,112%)
Albanians28 (0,015%)165 (0,090%)139 (0,088%)

[33]

Government

The building of the Assembly of the City of Banja Luka Banski Dvori 2019.jpg
The building of the Assembly of the City of Banja Luka

Banja Luka plays an important role on different levels of Bosnia and Herzegovina's government structures. Banja Luka is the centre of the government for the Municipality of Banja Luka. A number of entity and state institutions are seated in the city. The Republika Srpska Government and the National Assembly are based in Banja Luka. [34]

The Bosnia and Herzegovina State Agencies based in the city include the Indirect Taxation (VAT) Authority, the Deposit Insurance Agency as well as a branch of the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (formerly the National Bank of Republika Srpska). Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Serbia, the United Kingdom and the United States maintain diplomatic representation through consulates-general in Banja Luka. [35]

As of 2021, the mayor is Draško Stanivuković of the Party of Democratic Progress, elected in 2020.

Economy

GP Krajina building Zgrada GP Krajina.jpg
GP Krajina building
Nektar beer produced in Banjalucka Pivara "Nektar" pivo.jpg
Nektar beer produced in Banjalučka Pivara

In 1981 Banja Luka's GDP per capita was 97% of the Yugoslav average. [36]

Although the city itself was not directly affected by the Bosnian war in the early 1990s, its economy was. In this period Banja Luka fell behind the world in key areas such as technology, resulting in a rather stagnant economy. However, in recent years, the financial services sector has gained in importance in the city. In 2002, the trading began on the newly established Banja Luka Stock Exchange. The number of companies listed, the trading volume and the number of investors have increased significantly. A number of big companies such as Telekom Srpske, Rafinerija ulja Modriča, Banjalučka Pivara and Vitaminka are all listed on the exchange and are traded regularly. Investors, apart from those from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia, now include a number of investment funds from the EU, and from Norway, the United States, Japan and China.

A number of financial services regulators, such as the Republika Srpska Securities Commission and the RS Banking Agency are headquartered in Banja Luka. This, along with the fact that some of the major banks in Bosnia, the Deposit Insurance Agency and the value-added tax (VAT) authority are all based in the city, has helped Banja Luka establish itself as a major financial centre of the country.[ citation needed ]

Economic preview

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018): [37]

ActivityTotal %
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles12,57918%
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities7881%
Transportation and storage2,7474%
Real estate activities3180%
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security9,16213%
Professional, scientific and technical activities3,9006%
Other service activities1,9683%
Mining and quarrying250%
Manufacturing8,97213%
Information and communication3,5675%
Human health and social work activities5,9489%
Financial and insurance activities3,2125%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply8171%
Education5,3018%
Construction3,2415%
Arts, entertainment and recreation1,7603%
Agriculture, forestry and fishing5861%
Administrative and support service activities1,3682%
Accommodation and food services3,5645%
Total69,283100%

Culture

Museum of Modern Art of Republika Srpska Muzej savremene umjetnosti Republike Srpske.jpg
Museum of Modern Art of Republika Srpska
Museum of Republika Srpska Museum of Republika Srpska entrance.jpg
Museum of Republika Srpska

The Museum of Republika Srpska inherited the Ethnographic Museum established in 1930, [38] [39] and broadened its setting with collections of archeology, history, art history and nature. The Museum of Modern Art of Republika Srpska, also called MSURS, the Museum of Contemporary Art, displays exhibitions of both domestic and worldwide artists. [40]

Banja Luka is home to the National Theatre [41] and National Library, [42] [43] both dating from the first half of the 20th century, and of numerous other theatres. The headquarters of the Archives of Republika Srpska is situated in the building known as Carska kuća or Imperial House, built around 1880. It has been in continuous public use longer than any other structure in Banja Luka.

One of the best-known cultural sites in Banja Luka is the cultural centre of "Banski Dvor" (Halls of the Ban), built in the 1930s as the residence for the Bans of the Vrbas Banovina. [44] [45]

There is a number of Cultural Artistic Associations in the city. The oldest is CAA "Pelagić" (founded 1927), one of the oldest institutions of this kind in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [46]

Sport

In 2009 Banja Luka was the World Cup host in rafting. Rafting-Start slalom staza.jpg
In 2009 Banja Luka was the World Cup host in rafting.

Banja Luka has one major football stadium and several indoor sports halls. The local handball, basketball and football teams bear the traditional name Borac (fighter). There are sixteen football clubs in the city, [47] with the most notable being Luka are Borac Banja Luka (2020-2021 season champions of Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina), BSK Banja Luka, and Omladinac Banja Luka (both in the First League of the Republika Srpska), FK Naprijed Banja Luka and FK Vrbas Banja Luka

Tennis court in Banja Luka made for Adria tour Tennis court in Banja Luka.jpg
Tennis court in Banja Luka made for Adria tour

FK Borac Banja Luka is one of the most popular football club in the Republika Srpska. The club has won several major trophies in its history such as trophies as a champion of Mitropa Cup, Yugoslav Cup, Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina Football Cup, First League of the Republika Srpska, Republic Srpska Cup. The club has participated in UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League. [48]

The city has a long tradition of handball. RK Borac Banja Luka was the European Champion in 1976, the European Vice-Champion in 1975 and the winner of the IHF Cup in 1991. [49]

The local tennis tournament, "Memorijal Trive Vujića", has become professional and has been awarded ATP status in 2001, with the rank of a Challenger. The Banja Luka Challenger takes place in September each year. In 2006, the Davis Cup matches of the Europe/Africa Zone Group III took place in the city.

Since 2015, the city hosts the Banjaluka Half-marathon. [50]

In 2005 and 2019 the European Championships in Rafting were held on the Vrbas river. [51] [52]

Banja Luka was designated European city of sport in 2018. [53]

Transport

Banja Luka west transit road TranzitBL.jpg
Banja Luka west transit road
B&H Airlines (now defunct) ATR 72 at Banja Luka airport preparing for a flight to Zurich, August 2010 BH Airlines - Banja Luka airport - Aug-10 v1.jpg
B&H Airlines (now defunct) ATR 72 at Banja Luka airport preparing for a flight to Zürich, August 2010
Banja Luka railway bridge over the river Vrbas, April 2020 Zeljeznicki most Banja Luka.jpg
Banja Luka railway bridge over the river Vrbas, April 2020

Public transportation within Banja Luka is exclusively operated by the bus services. Over thirty bus lines connect downtown with the rest of the city and its suburbs. The oldest bus link in the city is line No 1. Taxis are also readily available. The expressway E-661 (locally known as M-16) leads north to Croatia from Banja Luka by way of Gradiška, near the Bosnian/Croatian border. A wide range of bus services are available to most neighbouring and larger towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to regional and European destinations such as Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Germany, France, Italy, Montenegro, The Netherlands, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland and Slovakia.

Banja Luka is a minor hub of the railway services of Željeznice Republike Srpske, which comprises one half of the railway network of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Services operate to most northern Bosnian towns, and two modern air-conditioned 'Talgo' trains run to Sarajevo every day. However, services are relatively slow and infrequent compared with neighbouring countries.

Banja Luka International Airport (IATA: BNX, ICAO: LQBK) is located 23 km (14 mi) north of Banja Luka. The airport is served by Air Serbia, which operates flights to Belgrade and summer charters to Antalya and Athens, while Ryanair operates flights to Bergamo, Berlin, Brussels, Gothenburg, Memmingen, Frankfurt–Hahn and Vienna. There is also Banja Luka Zalužani Airfield, a small airstrip.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Banja Luka is twinned with the following cities: [54]

People

Notes

  1. Station ID for Banja Luka is 14542 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration
  2. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states are said to have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
  3. As Serbia since Bosnia and Herzegovina does not recognize Kosovo.

    Related Research Articles

    The Army of Republika Srpska, commonly referred to in English as the Bosnian Serb Army, was the military of Republika Srpska (RS), the self-proclaimed Serb secessionist republic, a territory within the newly independent Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it defied. Active during the Bosnian War (1992–95), it continued to exist as the armed forces of RS, one of two entities making up Bosnia and Herzegovina, until 2006 when it was integrated into the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forces of the VRS engaged in a number of campaigns including Operation Corridor 92, Operation Vrbas '92, Operation Bura, Operation Spider and the army also perpetrated the siege of Sarajevo from 1992 to 1995 and the Srebrenica massacre in 1995.

    Republika Srpska Political entity of the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Republika Srpska is one of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the north and east of the country. Its largest city and administrative centre is Banja Luka, lying on the Vrbas river.

    Bijeljina City

    Bijeljina is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the Republika Srpska entity and is the provincial center of Semberija, a geographic region in the country's northeast. As of 2013, it has a population of 107,715 inhabitants. Bijeljina was designated European city of sport.

    FK Borac Banja Luka Association football club in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Fudbalski klub Borac Banja Luka is a professional association football club, based in the city of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it is the major part of the Borac Banja Luka Sports Society. Borac Banja Luka is the most successful club in Republika Srpska, and one of the most popular football clubs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The name Borac means "Fighter".

    Gradiška, Bosnia and Herzegovina City in Republika Srpska

    Gradiška, formerly Bosanska Gradiška, is a city and municipality located in the northwestern region of Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 51,727 inhabitants, while the city of Gradiška has a population of 14,368 inhabitants.

    Republika Srpska (1992–1995) Former proto-state

    The Republika Srpska was a self-proclaimed proto-state in Southeastern Europe under the control of the Army of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War. It claimed to be a sovereign state, though this claim was not recognized by the Bosnian government, the United Nations, or any other recognized state. For the first few months of its existence, it was known as the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Laktaši Town and municipality

    Laktaši is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, the municipality has a population of 34,966 inhabitants, while the town has a population of 5,879 inhabitants.

    Banja Luka City Stadium

    Banja Luka City Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Banja Luka in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FK Borac Banja Luka. The stadium has a capacity to hold 10,030 seated spectators.

    Franjo Komarica

    Franjo Komarica is a Bosnian prelate of the Catholic Church, the Bishop of Banja Luka and president of the Bishops' Conference of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    University of Banja Luka

    The University of Banja Luka is the second-oldest university in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A public university, it is the flagship institution of higher education in Republika Srpska, one of two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2018–19 school year, there are 11,186 enrolled students.

    Kneževo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Town and municipality

    Kneževo, formerly Skender Vakuf, is a town and municipality located in northwestern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 9,793 inhabitants.

    First League of the Republika Srpska Association football league in Republika Srpska

    The First League of the Republika Srpska is a second level football competition in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    RK Borac Banja Luka

    Rukometni klub Borac Banja Luka is a handball club from Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is part of the Borac sports society.

    FK Krajina Banja Luka Football club

    FK Krajina Banja Luka is a football club from the city of Banja Luka, in the entity of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The club competes in the country's fourth level Regional League RS - West.

    National and University Library of the Republika Srpska

    The People and University Library of the Republic of Srpska (NUBRS) is the national library of Republika Srpska, located in the city of Banja Luka.

    AK Borac or Atletski klub Borac Banjaluka is an athletics club from Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It competes in both the men's and women's national leagues under Atletski Savez Bosne I Hercegovine.

    Archives of Republika Srpska

    The Archives of Republika Srpska is an administrative organisation within the Ministry of Education and Culture of Republika Srpska, one of two constituent entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Archives' headquarters is in Banja Luka, and it has its regional offices in Doboj, Zvornik, Foča, Sokolac, and Trebinje. Its aim is to collect, store, preserve, organise, research, and provide access to archival materials on the territory of Republika Srpska, where it is designated as a central institution for the protection of cultural heritage. The Archives is also involved in research projects, exhibitions, and in the publishing of books and scholarly papers, mostly in the fields of archival science, history, and law. It is organised into two sectors, which are responsible for the protection of archival materials within and outside the Archives, respectively. The Archives currently holds 794 fonds and 35 collections, which span the period from the 17th century to the modern day.

    Belgrade Banjaluka is a road bicycle race held annually in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina respectively. It is made up of two stages; Belgrade Banjaluka I and Belgrade Banjaluka II and is organized as a 2.1 event on the UCI Europe Tour. First race was organized in 2007.

    Palace of the Republic, Banja Luka Official building in Banja Luka (Bosnia)

    Palace of the Republic is official residence of the President of Republika Srpska.

    References

    1. Preliminary Results of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia & Herzegovina . Banja Luka. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2019
    2. "АСБЛ >> GeFEneral information". www.banjaluka.rs.ba. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
    3. Ivan Lovrenović, " ‘Serb’ towns in Bosnia" Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine , BH Dani, 20 July 2001
    4. "Klimatafel von Banja Luka/Bosnien und Herzegowina" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
    5. "Station 14542 Banja Luka". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
    6. "Ad Ladios: a Pleiades place resource". Pleiades: a gazetteer of past places. 23 October 2012.
    7. HAMDIJA KREŠEVLJAKOVIĆ STARI BOSANSKI GRADOVI (VIEUX BOURGS BOSNIAQUES) https://www.fmks.gov.ba/download/zzs/1953/1-1953.pdf #page=26
    8. Društvo istoričara Bosne i Hercegovine (1952). Godišnjak: Annuaire. Бања Лука је постала сједиште босанског санџака нешто прије 1554 и остала то све до 1580 када је основан босански пашалук. У Бањој Луци су столовали и босански беглербези све до године 1639.
    9. Kolovos, Elias (2007). The Ottoman Empire, the Balkans, the Greek lands: toward a social and economic history: studies in honor of John C. Alexander. Isis Press. p. 192. ISBN   978-975-428-346-4.
    10. Jovan Cvijić, Balkansko poluostrvo i južnoslovenske zemlje /Balkan Peninsula and South Slav Countries/ (Belgrade: Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika, 1966), pp. 151-152.
    11. Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2008). Hitler's New Disorder: The Second World War in Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN   978-1-85065-895-5.
    12. Levy, Michele Frucht (2009). ""The Last Bullet for the Last Serb": The Ustaša Genocide against Serbs: 1941–1945". Nationalities Papers. 37 (6): 807–837. doi:10.1080/00905990903239174. S2CID   162231741.
    13. "Radio-Televizija Republike Srpske". Rtrs.tv. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
    14. Svestenomucenik Platon, spc.org.yu; accessed 14 December 2015.
    15. NOAA National Geographical Data Center, Significant Earthquake Database states that the 15:36 26 October 1969 earthquake was 6.0 magnitude (intensity 8 Mercalli scale) and killed 14 people and causing $50 million damage, whilst the 08:10 27 October 1969 earthquake was 6.4 magnitude (intensity 9 Mercalli scale) and killed 9 people. The earthquake location was 44.9 Lat 17.3 Long on 26 October, and 44.9 Lat 17.2 Long on 27 October. Both had a focal depth of 33.
      Observing our environment from space: new solutions for a new millennium, proceedings of the 21st EARSeL Symposium, Paris, France, 14–16 May 2001, edited by Gérard Bégni, pub Taylor & Francis, 2002, p267 claims that the earthquake in the vicinity of Banja Luka in 1969 had a magnitude of 6.4. (Comparison of other earthquakes mentioned shows that this is 6.4 on the Richter scale.)
      Chronology of Extreme Weather, by Ken Polsson, claims: "magnitude 6.4 earthquake occurs. 20 killed, 150 seriously injured, and 65,000 left homeless."
      Sarajevo Rocked by Two Earthquakes BalkanInsight.com 31 March 2009, which claims that: "The biggest earthquake in Bosnia and Herzegovina's history took place in 26 and 27 October 1969... That tremor measured 5.4 on the Richter scale and between 7 and 8 on the Mercalli scale."
      Gymnasium Banja Luka History Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine claims that the 26 October 1969 earthquake had an intensity of 7.5 on the Mercalli intensity scale, whilst the 27 October 1969 earthquake had an intensity of 8.5 on the Mercalli scale.
    16. Milojević, Milkica. "UKLETO IME Kako je potonuo banjalučki TITANIK". Blic.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    17. Banjaluka.com (28 October 2016). "Kako je potonuo banjalučki Titanik (Foto) (Video)". Banjaluka (in Bosnian). Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    18. 1 2 "Serbs ordered to pay for mosques". BBC News. 20 February 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    19. "Neriješena ubistva banjalučkih Hrvata". Orbus. 3 April 2007. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
    20. Perlez, Jane (7 August 1995). "CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS: THE SERBIAN REFUGEES; Serbs Become Latest Victims in Changing Fortunes of War". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    21. Mackic, Erna (13 November 2009). "Historic Decisions by Banja Luka Court". Balkan Investigative Reporting Network. Archived from the original on 20 February 2010.
    22. Saric, Velma (13 November 2009). "Bosnian Muslims Appeal Mosque Ruling". Institute for War & Peace Reporting.
    23. "UN: Officials Alarmed By Mob Violence In Bosnia". Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    24. Strauss, Julius (8 May 2001). "Serb mob attacks Muslims". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    25. "UN condemns Serb 'sickness'". BBC. 8 May 2001.
    26. "Bosnian Serb Crowd Beats Muslims at Mosque Rebuilding". The New York Times. 8 May 2001. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    27. "Helsinki Commission releases U.S. statement on tolerance and non-discrimination at osce human dimension implementation meeting". Helsinki Commission. 20 September 2001. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015.
    28. HRCC Human Rights Quarterly Report, 1 April-30 June 2001, HRCC Human Rights Quarterly Report, 1 April-30 June 2001
    29. "Bosnians jailed over mosque riots". BBC News. 21 October 2002. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
    30. "Popis 2013" (PDF) (in Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
    31. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina: U.N. Cease-Fire Won't Help Banja Luka". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
    32. "OSCE Regional Centre Banja Luka: Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2006.
    33. "nacion po mjesnim.xls" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
    34. "About National Assembly | NSRS". www.narodnaskupstinars.net. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    35. "Konzulati". www.banjaluka-tourism.com. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    36. Radovinović, Radovan; Bertić, Ivan, eds. (1984). Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju (in Croatian) (3rd ed.). Zagreb: Sveučilišna naklada Liber.
    37. "Cities and Municipalities of Republika Srpska" (PDF). rzs.rs.ba. Republika Srspka Institute of Statistics. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
    38. "Музеј Републике Српске – Бања Лука" . Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    39. http://www.esrpska.com/contentpage.aspx?kat_id=aeef26d5-f126-4ec1-b746-b615521e73b2&podkat_id=a6f9e5bd-27db-4fa2-87ad-8cb824b4d736&page_id=10
    40. "O muzeju". msurs.net. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    41. "Историјат│www.np.rs.ba". www.np.rs.ba. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    42. www.meliorsoft.com. "Biblioteka u Banjoj Luci". Upoznaj Srpsku. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    43. "Историјски преглед". nub.rs. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    44. "Novo ruho za simbol Banjaluke". N1 (in Bosnian). 26 July 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    45. "Banski Dvor - Nekad banov dom, danas dom kulture grada Banja Luka". BanjalukaTravel (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    46. "RKUD "Pelagić", Banja Luka". Rkud-pelagic.org. 13 August 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
    47. "Sportske organizacije i klubovi u Banjaluci - Banjalukasport.com". banjalukasport.com. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    48. "EVROPA NAKON 18 GODINA!" . Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    49. "FINALE KUPA I PRVI EVROPSKI NASTUPI" . Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    50. "Vodič za učesnike – Participants Guide | Polumaraton - polumaraton" (in Bosnian). Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    51. "BANJALUKA IS READY FOR THE EUROPEAN RAFTING CHAMPIONSHIP 2015 | Rafting klub Kanjon – Banja Luka" (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    52. Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Banjaluka svjetski rafting centar | DW | 17.05.2009". DW.COM (in Bosnian). Retrieved 18 January 2021.
    53. "European Cities of Sport". Aces Europe. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
    54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Градови партнери [City of Banja Luka - Partner cities]. Administrative Office of the City of Banja Luka (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
    55. В, А. "Београд се побратимио са Бањалуком". Politika Online. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
    56. e-patras.gr – Διεθνείς Σχέσεις
    57. "Међународна сарадња". Град Бања Лука (in Serbian). Retrieved 4 July 2021.