The Ilyasids at their greatest extent
|Muhammad ibn Ilyas|
|Ilyasa ibn Muhammad|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
• Buyid conquest
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|History of Iran|
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The Banu Ilyas (Persian : بنو الیاس) or Ilyasids was an Iranian dynasty of Sogdian origin which ruled Kerman from 932 until 968. Their capital was Bardasir.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire, eighteenth in the list on the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great. In the Avesta, Sogdiana is listed as the second best land that the supreme deity Ahura Mazda had created. It comes second, after Airyanem Vaejah, "homeland of the Aryans", in the Zoroastrian book of Vendidad, indicating the importance of this region from ancient times. Sogdiana was first conquered by Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. The region would then be annexed by the Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great in 328 BC. The region would continue to change hands under the Seleucid Empire, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Hephthalite Empire, and Sasanian Empire.
Kerman Province is the largest province of the 31 provinces of Iran. Kerman is in the southeast of Iran with its administrative center in the city of Kerman. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5. Mentioned in ancient times as the Achamenid satrapy of Carmania, it is the first-largest province of Iran with an area of 183,285 km2 (70,767 sq mi), that encompasses nearly 11 percent of the land area of Iran. The population of the province is about 3 million.
Abu 'Ali Muhammad b. Ilyas was a member of the Samanid army and was of Sogdian origin. He supported the failed 929 coup against the Samanid amir Nasr b. Ahmad. After the rebellion failed he fled south, eventually arriving at Kerman in 932. He managed to extend his control over the northern part of the province, while the southern and eastern mountainous portions remained under the control of the local Koch and Baloch . Despite Samanid and later Buyid attempts to expel him from Kerman, he succeeded in maintaining his rule there for over thirty years. He acknowledged either the Samanids or the Buyids as his overlords but was effectively independent. In 967 he suffered a stroke and was eventually compelled to abdicate in favor of his son Ilyasa.
Ilyasa b. Muhammad quickly angered the neighboring Buyids under 'Adud al-Daula by arguing over some territory on the border of Kerman and Fars. Before invading Kerman, 'Adud made sure to win over members of Ilyasa's army. This strategy was effective; when he did invade and capture Bardasir, the bulk of Ilyasa's army deserted him. Control of Kerman was transferred nominally to 'Adud's son Abu'l Fawaris Shirzil, while 'Adud's general Gorgir (Kurkir) was given real control. Ilyasa fled to Bukhara, where the Samanids welcomed him, but he aroused their hostility by complaining that they would not help him retake Kerman. He was expelled from Bukhara to Khwarazm, while the governor of Khurasan seized the possessions of Ilyasa's that he had left in Kuhistan. In Khwarazm Ilyasa was stricken with sympathetic ophthalmia and he soon died.
Fars Province also known as Pars or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2, and its administrative center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers (urban/suburbs), 32.1% villagers, and 0.3% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the historical importance of this region. Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people.
Kurkir ibn Justan was a Daylamite military officer of the Buyids, who served as the chief captain of the army of Kirman from 968 until his downfall in 972.
Bukhara is a city in Uzbekistan. Bukhara is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments. The nation's fifth-largest city, it had a population of 247,644 as of 31 August 2016. People have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time. The mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is Tajik. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. UNESCO has listed the historic center of Bukhara as a World Heritage Site.
In 969 or 970 Ilyasa's brother Sulaiman, who had fled to the Samanids before the Buyid conquest due to a quarrel with his father, convinced the Samanid amir Mansur b. Nuh to supply him an army to reconquer Kerman. His hope was that he could gain the support of the Koch and Baloch. Gorgir moved to stop them, and in the ensuing battle between Jiroft and Bam, Sulaiman, two of Ilyasa's sons, Bakr and al-Husain, and a large portion of the Khurasanian troops were killed.
Jiroft is a city and capital of Jiroft County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 95,031, in 19,926 families. It is located 230 kilometres (140 mi) south of the city of Kerman, and 1,375 kilometres (854 mi) south of Tehran along Road 91. In the past it was also called Sabzevaran, and on account of its being very fertile land it is famous as Hend-e-Koochak.
Bam is a city and capital of Bam County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 73,823, in 19,572 families.
One more attempt by the Ilyasids to retake Kerman occurred in 975 by a nephew or possibly son of Muhammad, al-Husain. Al-Husain, learning of a rebellion in Kerman, traveled from Khurasan and took control of part of the rebelling forces. 'Adud al-Duala's vizier Abu'l-Qasim al-Mutahhar b. 'Abdallah was sent to restore order to the province; he defeated al-Husain in Jiruft and captured him. Nothing more is heard of him and his capture marked the definite end of the Ilyasids in Kerman.
The Samanid Empire, also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana during its existence; at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, large parts of Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and parts of Kazakhstan and Pakistan.
The Ziyarid dynasty was an Iranian dynasty of Gilaki origin that ruled Tabaristan from 930 to 1090. At its greatest extent, it ruled much of present-day western and northern Iran.
Nuh II was amir of the Samanids (976–997). He was the son and successor of Mansur I.
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Abu Salih Mansur was amir of the Samanids (961–976). He was the son of Nuh I. His reign was characterized by weak rule and perpetual financial troubles.
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Hasan, better known by his laqab as Rukn al-Dawla, was the first Buyid amir of northern and central Iran. He was the son of Buya.
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Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Muhammad was the amir of Sistan from 923 until his death. He is responsible for restoring Saffarid rule over Sistan, and was a great patron of the arts.
Abu Ahmad Wali 'l-Dawla Khalaf ibn Ahmad was the Saffarid amir of Sistan from 963 until 1002. Although he was renowned in the eastern Islamic world as a scholar, his reign was characterized by violence and instability, and Saffarid rule over Sistan came to an end with his deposition.
The Al-i Muhtaj or Muhtajids was an Iranian or Iranicized Arab ruling family of the small principality of Chaghaniyan. They ruled during the 10th and early 11th centuries.
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Abu 'Ali Ahmad Chaghani was the Muhtajid ruler of Chaghaniyan (939–955) and governor of Samanid Khurasan. He was the son of Abu Bakr Muhammad.
Abu 'Ali Muhammad ibn Ilyas was the Ilyasid ruler of northern Kerman from 932 until 967. For over thirty years he was able to maintain a virtually independent territory against his aggressive neighbors, the Samanids and Buyids.
Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Razzaq ibn 'Abdallah ibn Farrukh, also simply known as Abu Mansur Muhammad and Ibn 'Abd al-Razzaq, was an Iranian aristocrat who served the Samanids during the most of career, and briefly served as governor of Azerbaijan under the Buyids.
Abu'l-Husain Abd-Allah ibn Ahmad Utbi, better known as Abu'l-Husain Utbi, was an Iranian statesman from the Utbi family, who served as the vizier of the Samanid ruler Nuh II from 977 to 982.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.