The Banuchi (Shitak) (Pashto : شيتک), originally BannuZai (Pashto : بنوزي), also Banusi (Pashto : بنوڅي) or Banisi, is a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the Bannu District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and North Waziristan of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with some members settled in Afghanistan. The Banuchi trace their descent to the Shitak superclan of the larger Karlani tribe. The word banuchi is strictly used for the people who descend from the Shitak super tribe namely Surani (Sur), Mirian (Miri) and Sam (Sami).
The Shitak tribe arrived Bannu after the fall of Ghazna in the first half of the 13th century, at that time their leader (Malak) was Shah Farid Shitak. The consensus is that Bano was one of the three wives of Shitak, the children from this marriage (Surani & Kevi) were known as BannuZai or BannudZai (Sons ofBano). Later for linguistic and spelling convenience of local and foreign languages multiple short names were used when referring to them (Bannuchi, Banusi, Banosi, Banisai or Banisi). The word banuchi is strictly used for the people who descend from the Shitak super tribe namely Surani (Sur), Mirian (Miri) and Sam (Sami).
The Banuchis originally lived in the Shawal area, which lies partly in the present-day North Waziristan tribal agency of Pakistan and partly in the Paktika Province of Afghanistan. The Banuchi, as well as their cousin tribe the Dawars descend from the Shitak supertribe who were settled in Shawal. In the 14th century, the Wazir tribe of Pashtuns, who were living in Birmal in the west, migrated eastwards to the Shawal area and fell into dispute with the Shitaks (Banuchis and Dawars), and succeeded to oust the Shitaks northeastwards towards the land between the Tochi and Kurram rivers. Eventually, the Banuchi Shitaks migrated to the Bannu District, where the Pashtun tribes of the Mangal and the Honai, as well as the Khattak were already settled. The Banuchis first defeated and drove away the Mangals and the Honais, then gradually pushed the Khattaks northwards to Kohat and Karak, and eventually captured and settled in Bannu District.
As soon as their conquest were secured the new colonist divided out the country equally amongst them, the credit for this division (wesh) goes to their spiritual guide Sheikh Mohammad Rohani and his family (Saadats of Bannu). During Khilji rule in India the newly inhabited Banuchis were mostly at peace with fellow Pashtuns. It is said that while attacking Delhi Amir Timur passed through Banuchi lands with no resistance with some might even have accompanied him. Mughal King Babur invaded Bannu in 1505 and brutally massacred Banuchis (Kevis) who physically resisted him. His successors could not hold the land and Bahadar Shah 1 (Son of Alamgir) suffered badly at the hands of Banuchis and Dawars (cousins). A portion of Nadir shah army of Iran entered Banuchi lands in 1738 collecting heavy tribute. The next seventy years Ahmad Shah and his successors newly created kingdom of Kabul maintained an unstable hold on Banuchis with minimal tax collections. As a result Bannu was given on lease to Sikhs in 1802 - 1808.
During Sikh Rule between 1802- 1845 political scene for Banuchis was all chaos. Sikhs had taken over the Dera Ismail Khan, IsaKhel and Marwats, had now come to Bannu for tax collection. They invaded Banuchis every second or third year. It is during this time that Ghazi Dilasa Khan Banuchi (Surani) of Daud Shah Tappa physically resisted each time and repulsed a much larger Sikh force.
“When Sikhs would come to Bannu with fear of Dilasa Khan, they would go with bad memories” Sir Herbert Edwardes.
The Sikh appointed Sir Herbert Edward (1847) as the governor of Bannu with responsibility to collect taxes from Banuchis on behalf of Sikh Emperor. The Banuchis were up against a much smarter and larger enemy now. With Dilasa Khan now post exile, old and out of scene, as expected the Sikhs and the British had an open ground to play. All the forts (no less than 400) from where Banuchis were resisting were destroyed. A fort was constructed at a strategic location from where all the canals passing through the lands could be controlled. With complete control of their water the Banuchis were now taxed with no future chances of rebellion in years to come under British rule. While Banuchis were weakened and kept busy by two foreign foes (Sikhs and English), the old rivals Wazirs had appeared on the scene, greedy for land were busy annexing many fair outlying fields.
It is important to mention that the greater Shitak clan includes the sons from his other two wives who are step brothers to Banuchis (Dawar, Tani, Haved and Zalem) as outlined in the table underneath.
Like other Pashtuns, Banuchi society is subdivided on patrilineal basis, each individual belongs to a Khel (section) a minor lineage and each Khel (section) than belongs to a major lineage. The purpose of the smaller khels (sections) is to identify genealogical lineages amongst themselves and major lineage (tribe) is to be identified by fellow Pashtuns and outsiders. Banuchis in total have a 150 smaller Khels (Sections) that originate from the major lineage as outlined in the table underneath. The details of each original smaller Khel(section) is available in books, “Hayat-I-Afghani” and “Pashtana da tarikh pa Ranra Kshe”.
Main gates in Bannu city were named after some of the major clan names, Hinjal gate, Sukari gate, Miryan gate, Mandan gate and Haved gate.
There are estimated 600,000 banuchi (Shitaks) mostly in Bannu and other parts of KPK and Pakistan.
Banuchis (Shitaks) are predominantly Sunni Muslims.
Banuchis speak with a local distinct Pashto dialect which is closer to regional languages (Dawar & Waziri).
Well known Banuchi food is Painda and Wresha.
Waziristan is a mountainous region covering the former FATA agencies of North Waziristan and South Waziristan which are now districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Waziristan covers some 11,585 square kilometres (4,500 sq mi). The area is populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Waziristani dialect. The region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which is now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
The Mohmand or Momand is Pashtun tribe. They are mostly based in the eastern districts of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan and Mohmand District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Khattak is a Pashtun tribe numbering over 3 million, who speak a variant of the softer Pashto. The Khattaks are settled along the western bank of the Indus River from as north upwards as Lund Khwar, Katlang, Sawaldher, Sher Garh and near Malakand, Shaidu Nowshera District, Kohat District, Mianwali District, Attock District & Karak District in Pakistan. Across the Pak-Afghan border, a smaller number of Khattaks are scattered in Kandahar, Ghazni, Logar and Khost in Afghanistan. The historic capitals of the Khattaks were Teri, a town at District Karak, and Akora Khattak, a town at District Nowshera in Pakistan..
Bannu District is a district in Bannu Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It was recorded as a district in 1861 during the British Raj. It is one of 26 districts that make up the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It borders North Waziristan to the northwest, Karak to the northeast, Lakki Marwat to the southeast, and South Waziristan to the southwest. It is represented in the provincial assembly by four MPAs.
The Marwat is a Pashtun tribe, a branch of the Lohani tribe and belong to Lodi section, located primarily in Lakki Marwat District, parts of Dera Ismail Khan District, some villages of Tank district in Pakistan and in the Katawaz area of Afghanistan. The Marwats are also known as Spin Lohani, and their most closely related kin are other Lohani tribes like Miankhel, Daulat Khel and Tatur. The Marwats were named for their ancestor Marwat Khan Lodi.
North Waziristan District is a district in Bannu Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It is the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering 4,707 square kilometres (1,817 sq mi). The capital city of North Waziristan is Miranshah.
The Tochi Valley, also known as Dawar ., is a fertile area located in the North Waziristan agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. In 1881, Nawab of Sarhad Nawab Gulmaizar Khan established the North Waziristan Tribal Agency with its headquarters at Miramshah in the valley.
The Dāwaṛ, also Daur or Dawari, are a Karlani Pashtun tribe mostly inhabiting the North Waziristan Agency located in the semi-autonomous Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The Dawaris inhabit the Tochi Valley and are a homogeneous tribe of considerable size. The Dawar speak the Waziristani dialect (Dawari) of Pashto.
Lakki Marwat or Lakki is the headquarters of Lakki Marwat District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Lakki Marwat has become one of the fastest growing cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is the most populous city in Bannu Division. Lakki Marwat is also the 20th most populous city in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Banū or Bannu is a city located in Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Founded by Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes in 1848 during the British colonial era, Bannu was once a British military base used for action against the Pashtun border tribes of the Tochi Valley and Waziristan. Bannu’s residents are primarily members of the Banuchi tribe and speak a dialect of Pashto that is similar to the distinct Wazir dialect.
The Dilazak is a Pashtun tribe, primarily living in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan.
The Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi: پنجابی پٹھان; Pashto: د پنجاب پښتانه; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi society and culture.
The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1823 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammed Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power.
The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).
Mir Ali or Mirali is a town in North Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan. Mir Ali is located in the Tochi Valley, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) east of Miramshah, 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Khost city, Afghanistan. Mir Ali has an altitude of 674 metres (2,211 ft). In October 2007, the battle between Taliban militants and Pakistani armed forces killed 175 civilians in Mirali.
Zhmaryānī also known as Gumoriani, also called Jamaryani, Gumoriani, Zimaryani, Zimri or Mizri, is a Pashtun tribe in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Some Zhmaryani lineages live in Afghanistan. They are Kasi Pashtuns.
Saleh Khana is a large village in the Nowshera District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The village lies just below the hill station of Cherat. The name Saleh Khana derives from Arabic meaning "home of the good". The village is known for their slogan "The few the proud". The people of this village are Pashtuns are all come from the Khattak tribe.
The Kakazai, also known as Loi or Loye Mamund, a division of the Mamund clan, are part of the larger Tarkani (ترکاڼي) tribe who are primarily settled in Bajaur Agency, Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province of Afghanistan. However, it has grown and scattered around to such an extent that it is recognized as tribe of its own.
Sheikh Muhammad Rohani(1220-1305 AD)(Pashto:شيخ محمد روحانى) also known as Shah Muhammad Rohani and Rohani Ba Ba was a Sufi cleric born around 1220 AD. The cleric, whose shrine in southern Afghanistan attracts thousands of Sufi visitors every year, is said to have migrated to current day Afghanistan in the later parts of the 13th century AD during the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. He was a disciple of the renowned Sheikh Rukn-e-Alam.
Bārakzai is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.