This article needs additional citations for verification .(June 2021)
|Founded||6th century as Antipargal |
|• Mayor||Dušan Raičević (DPS)|
|• Town and municipality||598 km2 (231 sq mi)|
|• Density||67.0/km2 (174/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||+382 30|
|ISO 3166-2 code||ME-02|
Bar (Montenegrin and Serbian: Бар, pronounced [bâr] ; Albanian : Tivar; Italian : Antivari or Antibari) is a coastal town and seaport in southern Montenegro. It is the capital of the Bar Municipality and a center for tourism. According to the 2011 census, the city proper had 13,503 inhabitants, while the total population of Bar Municipality was 42,068.
Bar is a shortened form of Antivari.The name is thought to be derived from the Latin Antibarum or Antibari, which later in Greek was transformed into Antivárion / Antivari due to its pronunciation. A name taken because of its location and which means "in front of Bari". Variations are in Italian, Antivari / Antibari; in Albanian, Tivari or Tivar; in Turkish, Bar; in Greek, Θηβάριον, Thivárion, Αντιβάριον, Antivárion; in Latin, Antibarium
Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.[ citation needed ]
In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000–1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018–1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050–1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered and destroyed Bar which remained under Serbian control until the death of Dušan (1355).
From 1443 to 1571, the region was ruled by the Venice who called it Antivari, and it was part of the Albania Veneta. It was a town with its own coat of arms, flag, statute and mint. In 1571, the Ottomans captured Antivari and held the town until 1878.The archdiocese was preserved. With the Ottoman conquest, the Catholic Church in the border area and the Archdiocese of Bar began to collapse, because indigenous people began to migrate as Ottomans to that area brought a new ethnic and religious element. Because of a lack of Catholic priests, entire parishes were converted to Orthodoxy. One of the archbishops during this period was Andrija Zmajević.
In 1571, The Ottomans expelled the Orthodox and Catholic population.
The Ottomans ceded Antivari to Montenegro at the Treaty of Berlin, after losing the Russo-Turkish War. Montenegro's initial main goal in the negotiations was its expansion in Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, but Austro-Hungarian expansion made it unrealistic. The Ottomans, represented by Alexander Karatheodori Pasha, declared that they would cede the port of Spizza to Montenegro but not Bar and other areas because they claimed they were primarily inhabited by Catholics and Muslim Albanians. After negotiations between Foreign Ministers Gyula Andrássy (Austria-Hungary) and Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov (Russia), it was agreed that Bar would be ceded to Montenegro in return for Russian support for Austrian control over Herzegovina. The city-port of Bar itself became militarily neutral, the total number of Montenegrin vessels in the port was placed under limitations and Austria-Hungary acquired the right of patrol of Bar's coastline.
Montenegro renamed the town Bar, although virtually everyone else, including their neighbours, Italy and Austria-Hungary, continued to name it Antivari. In the new Montenegrin Orthodox state, Bar went through urban depopulation because many of its urban inhabitants which were in fact Muslims either left or were expelled from the town. In the late 1850s, the town had 4,000 inhabitants, 62.5% of which were Muslims. More than half of its population left or was expelled after 1878. The first population register of the town under Montenegrin administration in 1879, counted 1,879 inhabitants. Muslims were 30.9% of the population, 24.6% were Catholics (mostly Albanians) in addition to a mostly Serbian Orthodox population. [ need quotation to verify ]
Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian scientist and pioneer in wireless telegraphy, using Nikola Tesla's patented technology, made a radio connection between Antivari (Bar) and Bari on 30 August 1904. In 1908, the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation there.[ citation needed ]
On 8 August 1914 Austria-Hungary responded to Montenegro's declaration of war by sending their protected cruisers SMS Zenta and SMS Szigetvár accompanied by the destroyer SMS Uskoke and torpedo boat 72F to conduct an unopposed bombardment of the port of Antivari, targeting its wireless station and harbour facilities. They were driven away by coastal batteries and destroyed only a wireless station. The Austrians declared a formal blockade of the Montenegrin coastline on August 10. On August 16, SMS Zenta and an accompanying destroyer were ambushed and trapped off Antivari by a very large French fleet (over twelve battleships), and in the subsequent battle of Antivari the Zenta was sunk with considerable loss of life. The destroyer escaped. On the 18 September following, the Austro-Hungarian coastal battleship SMS Budapest with supporting warships bombarded Antivari, the port and facilities, causing major damage, and on October 17–18 the destroyers SMS Scharfschutze, SMS Streiter and SMS Ulan bombarded Antivari's harbour. On November 18 the destroyer SMS Uskoke also conducted a brief bombardment. The Austrians made their largest raid to date on the evening and night of 1–2 March 1915 when their destroyers SMS Csikós, SMS Streiter, and SMS Ulan covered a raid by three torpedo-boats into Antivari harbour. The latter destroyed the main wharf and stocks of food and ammunitions along the waterfront, and captured the Montenegrin royal yacht Rumija, which was later torpedoed. The destruction of the wharves prevented larger ships from unloading supplies at the port restricting Allied shipments of food and munitions to the Montenegrin army. The Allies realised that with the Austro-Hungarian naval base of Cattaro close by there was little they could do.In 1979, there was an earthquake that devastated Bar. It has since been rebuilt.
When Montenegro signed an agreement with the Chinese Government to build a motorway from Bar to the Serbian border (part of the Belt and Road initiative) in 2014, large tracts of land around Bar were agreed as collateral in the event of the Montenegro government defaulting on payment of the 1 billion dollar loan. The project was financed by the Export-Import Bank of China.Contractual disputes can only be resolved through a Chinese court.
Bar is located on the coastal western border of Montenegro on the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It is approximately 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.To the east is the largest lake in the Balkans, Lake Skadar. To the west, across the sea, is Italy.
Bar has a wind blowing from the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm but raises the waves in the sea. The temperature is as in July – about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F). Bar has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 mm (1.6 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Snow is very rare occurrence in Bar, it usually snows once in a few years. The highest recorded snowfall occurred during January 2000, when 9 centimetres (3.5 in) was measured. Summers are generally warmer, drier and sunnier than the winter months. During summer, the highest temperatures are around 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F) and the lowest 18 °C (64 °F). Precipitation is low during the summer months, although rainfall can still occur, with July averaging 4.5 days with measurable precipitation. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that feature mild weather that can often be wet and unpredictable. There are, on average, 2523 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 111.6 hours in December to a high of 350.3 hours in July.
|Climate data for Bar, Montenegro (1961–1990, extremes 1949–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.2|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||4.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||155.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||13||13||12||12||9||7||5||5||7||9||14||14||120|
|Average relative humidity (%)||65||64||67||71||73||72||68||69||70||68||69||68||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||120.9||124.2||170.9||198.9||259.7||297.4||351.5||317.3||252.1||198.8||124.6||111.6||2,527.9|
|Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro|
The coastal part of Bar supports maquis shrubland with oak, holm oak, laurel, myrtle, Spanish broom, oleander, hawthorn, sloe, thorn, butcher's broom and asparagus. To the north and the mountains, there are oak and beech forests. Citrus fruits including tangerine, orange and lemon grow in the Bar area as do pomegranates, olives, grapevines and figs. Ginkgo biloba grows in the park of King Nikola's palace.[ citation needed ]
Skadar Lake is rich in bird life including the pelican. Game animals are found in Ostros, Rumija, Lisinj, Sutorman and Sozina and include rabbit, badger, fox, wolf and boar. At the Bar sea shore one finds various kinds of shells, snails, echinodermata, cephalopoda and crayfish.[ citation needed ]
Bar is the administrative centre of Bar Municipality, which includes the town of Sutomore and other small coastal towns. A census in 2011 recorded 42,048 people in the Bar Municipality. Bar city had 13,503 inhabitants.
The municipality of Bar is divided into 12 communes (mjesna zajednica), consisting of 83 settlements:
|Bar I||central business district|
|Bar II||Polje, Burtaiši, Čeluga, part of Rena;|
|Bar III||part of Bjeliši, Sokolana, Stara Ambulanta, Zgrade Prvoborca;|
|Bar IV||Popovići, part of Bjeliši, Ahmetov Brijeg, Vuletića Brijeg, part of Rena and Trsanj|
|Bar V||Sustaš, Zupci, Marovići, Tuđemili|
|Šušanj||Žukotrlica, Novi Pristan, Zeleni Pojas, Ilino, Šušanj, Carevići, Vitići and Paladini|
|Sutomore||Brca, Zelen, Obala Željezničke Kolonije, Mirošica I, Turke, Pobrđe, Gorelac, Miljevci, Sozina, Zankovići, Suvi Potok, Mirošica II, Zgrade, Bjelila, Papani, Haj-Nehaj, Zagrađe, Mišići, Đurmani and Čanj|
|Stari Bar (Old Bar)||Stari Bar, Baukovo, Belveder, Velembusi, Gretva, Brbot, Turčini, Menke, Mikulići, Podgrad, Bartula, Rap, Gornja Poda and Donja Poda, Tomba, Gornje Zaljevo and Donje Zaljevo|
|Mrko(je)vići||Pečurice, Dobra Voda, Grdovići, Pelinkovići, Dabezići, Velje Selo, Kunje, Velja Gorana and Mala Gorana|
|Krajina||Arbneš, Veliki Ostros, Mali Ostros, Martići, Runji, Koštanjica, Bobovište, Ckla, Tejani|
|Šestan||Livari, Gornja i Donja Briska, Gornji Murići, Donji Murići, Besa, Pinčići, Bapsulj, Šestan|
|Crmnica||Virpazar, Orahovo, Bračeni, Mikovići, Zabes, Boljevići, Sotonići, Bukovik, Mačuge, Dupilo, Popratnica, Komarno, Trnovo, Gornji Brčeli, Donji Brčeli, Brijege, Ovtočići, Tomići, Utrg, Godinje, Seoča, Krnjice, Limljani, Gluhi Do|
Ethnic composition of the town in 2011:
The main religion in Bar is Orthodox Christianity. However, there are churches from both the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic traditions as well as mosques built by Ottomans in the Islamic tradition. Bar is the birthplace of Saint Jovan Vladimir. In 1089, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, was founded and included most of Montenegro and Serbia.[ citation needed ]
Churches and monasteries dating to the era of the Balšić family (14th and 15th centuries) are located on the islands of Lake Skadar including Beška, Moračnik and Starčevo. This area is called the Holy Land of Montenegro.[ citation needed ]
The economy of Bar relies upon the Port of Bar, the Belgrade–Bar railway and the Sozina tunnel. The Port of Bar is the most recognizable feature of the city. It occupies 3,100 m (10,170.60 ft ) of seacoast, land area of 800 ha and aquatorium of 200ha. It is capable of reloading 5 million tons of goods annually. In 1976, the Belgrade – Bar railway was opened. It made the Adriatic coast accessible to tourists, and transport to the Port of Bar. The food company, Primorka has been operating in Bar for more than 50 years. It produces olive oil and pomegranate juice. There are 95,000 olive trees, about 80,000 citrus trees (lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit) in the municipal area. The centre for subtropical cultures, founded in 1937, is the oldest scientific institution in Montenegro. Tourism is also a major part of Bar's economy.[ citation needed ]
Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines. 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade–Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, London, Paris, Rome and Vienna.[ citation needed ]In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around
Although there are some stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, including Sutomore, with its long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This area is visited for its leisure activities and hiking.[ citation needed ] Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are a destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.[ citation needed ]
The Bar municipality has over 44 kilometres (27 miles) of sea coast. There are twenty beaches stretching over 9 kilometres (6 miles). In the north is Čanj, which has a 1,100-metre (3,600-foot) sandy beach. A boat takes tourists from Čanj to the Kraljičina Plaža. It lies below a natural wall of sedimentary rock. Further south is 300-metre-long (980-foot) Maljevik Beach. The beach at Sutomore, 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) long, has entertainments, activities and restaurants. Near the medieval monastery complex of Ratac is Crvena Plaža, named after the colour of its fine sand. The beach is surrounded by a pine forest and located about a hundred m from the main road to Bar. Just north of the Bar central business district is the 1,200-metre-long (3,900-foot) Žukotrlica Beach. It is a gravel beach, surrounded by a pine forest and varied Mediterranean vegetation. The Bar Gradska Plaža is located in front of King Nikola's palace. It is 750 metres (2,460 feet) long, part pebble and part sand. 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of central Bar is the 380-metre-long (1,250-foot) Veliki Pijesak. It is surrounded by tourist facilities, restaurants and discothèques. On the border of the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, in the village of Bušat, is the Val Maslina with its nearby olive groves. There are also beaches on the shore of Lake Skadar including the sandy Murići village beach and Pješačac.[ citation needed ]
Bar has over fifty sports clubs, and associations including a chess club. The town's major football club is FK Mornar who share the Stadion Topolica with lower league sides FK Hajduk Bar and Stari Bar team FK Sloga Bar. Bar once had two teams in the top tier, with OFK Bar featuring in the 2010–11 season alongside FK Mornar. KK Mornar Bar is the local basketball club.[ citation needed ]
There are numerous sports facilities in the Bar hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of the facilities are in the Sports and Recreation Centre. Water sports such as diving are common.[ citation needed ] Sports tourism is promoted because of the proximity to the sea and lake. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.
Bar is twinned with:
Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.
The history of Montenegro begins in the Early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by the Republic of Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Cetinje is a city in Montenegro. It is the former royal capital of Montenegro and is the location of several national institutions, including the official residence of the president of Montenegro. According to the 2011 census, the town had a population of 14,093 while the Cetinje Municipality had 16,657 residents as of 2011. Cetinje is the centre of Cetinje Municipality. The city rests on a small karst plain surrounded by limestone mountains, including Mount Lovćen, the legendary mountain in Montenegrin historiography. Cetinje was founded in the 15th century and became a cradle of the culture of Montenegro. Its status as the honorary capital of Montenegro is due to its heritage as a long-serving former capital of Montenegro.
Montenegrins are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.
Ulcinj is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and the capital of Ulcinj Municipality. It has an urban population of 10,707 (2011), the majority being Albanians.
Tivat is a coastal town in southwest Montenegro, located in the Bay of Kotor. As of 2011, its population was 9,367. Tivat is the centre of Tivat Municipality, which is the smallest municipality by area in Montenegro.
Sutomore is a small coastal town in Bar Municipality, Montenegro. A 2011 census put the population at 2,004.
Petrovac is a coastal town in Montenegro, within Budva Municipality.
The Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral of the Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest eparchy (diocese) of the Serbian Orthodox Church in modern Montenegro. Founded in 1219 by Saint Sava, as the Eparchy of Zeta, it continued to exist, without interruption, up to the present time, and remained one of the most prominent dioceses of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The current Metropolitan bishop is Joanikije. His official title is "Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Littoral".
Skadarska Krajina, simply known as Krajina is a geographical region in southeastern Montenegro stretching from the southern coast of Lake Skadar to the mountain of Rumija, comprising several villages. It is inhabited mainly by Albanians, with a minority of Montenegrins and Serbs. The area is divided between the municipalities of Bar and Ulcinj.
Bar Municipality is one of the municipalities of Montenegro. The center is the town Bar. The municipality is located at the Adriatic coast in the southeast Montenegro. According to the 2011 census, the city proper had 17,649 inhabitants, while the total population of Bar Municipality was 42,068.
The Sozina Tunnel is a road tunnel in Montenegro that is a part of the M-1.1 highway. It is located north of Sutomore and south of Virpazar, and is designed to bypass the "Paštrovska Gora" mountain range that separates the Montenegrin coast from the Zeta plain and the Skadar Lake basin. The Sozina road tunnel is 4,189 m long, and is the longest and most modern vehicular tunnel in Montenegro. It was opened on 13 July 2005, coinciding with Montenegro's national day. It was built at a cost of 70 million euros. Since 15 July 2005 a toll is collected at the tunnel entrance, using an open toll system.
Montenegro is one of the fastest-growing tourist destinations. In 2007, over a million tourists visited Montenegro, making some 7.3 million overnight stays. This accounted for some 480 million euros in tourism revenue in 2007. In 2015, tourism realised over 1.7 million arrivals, with a further increase in 2016. In the same year, the coastal town of Kotor was named the best city to visit by Lonely Planet, whereas the country itself is continuously included in touristic top lists. With a total of 1.8 million visitors in 2016, the nation became the 36th most popular country to travel to in Europe. Montenegro was further visited by over 2 million tourists in 2017. The Government aims to attract greenfield investments, which should make best use of undeveloped parts of the coast, such as Jaz Beach, Velika Plaža, Ada Bojana and Buljarica.
The culture of Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its history and geographical position would suggest. Montenegro's culture has drawn influences mainly from The Serbian Empire, the Byzantine Empire, Ancient Rome, Christianity, the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice, Austria-Hungary, and Yugoslavia.
Vranjina is a settlement, island, and a hill in Lake Skadar, in the Montenegrin municipality of Podgorica. Until the first half of the 18th century, Vranjina like other islands of Skadar lake, was one of the hills in the Zeta–Skadar lowlands.
Rumija is a mountain in southern Montenegro, situated between the Adriatic and Lake Skadar. The highest point is Rumija, which is 1,594 m (5,230 ft) high. Rumija rises above the town of Bar, and is a natural Dinaric barrier, separating the Adriatic from the Skadar basin. It is the southernmost mountain of Montenegro, and with prominence of 1,500 m (4,921 ft), one of the most prominent.
Stari Bar is a small town in Montenegro. It is located inland, a few miles from the new city of Bar, resting on Londša hill, at the foot of Mount Rumija. According to the 2003 census, the town has a population of 1,864 people.
Zeta was one of the medieval polities that existed between 1356 and 1421, whose territory encompassed parts of present-day Montenegro and northern Albania, ruled by the Balšić family from 1356.
Ratac or Ratac Abbey was a fortified monastic complex on the coast of the peninsula between Bar and Sutomore in modern-day Montenegro. Ratac Abbey was under jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, though relations between Ratac abbots and Bar archbishops were not always good.
Orahovo is a village in the municipality of Bar, Montenegro. It is considered as part of Crmnica region.