Bar-le-Duc

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Bar-le-Duc
Tour de l'Horloge21.JPG
Clock tower
Blason ville fr Bar-le-Duc (Meuse).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Bar-le-Duc
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Bar-le-Duc
Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region location map.svg
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Bar-le-Duc
Coordinates: 48°46′19″N5°09′37″E / 48.7719°N 05.1603°E / 48.7719; 05.1603 Coordinates: 48°46′19″N5°09′37″E / 48.7719°N 05.1603°E / 48.7719; 05.1603
Country France
Region Grand Est
Department Meuse
Arrondissement Bar-le-Duc
Canton Bar-le-Duc-1 and 2
Intercommunality Bar-le-Duc
Government
  Mayor (20142020) Bertrand Pancher (UMP)
Area
1
23.62 km2 (9.12 sq mi)
Population
(2016)2
15,221
  Density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
55029 /55000
Elevation175–327 m (574–1,073 ft)
(avg. 240 m or 790 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Bar-le-Duc (French pronunciation:  [baʁ lə dyk] ), formerly known as Bar, is a commune in the Meuse département, of which it is the capital. The department is in Grand Est in northeastern France.

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.

Meuse (department) Department of France

Meuse is a department in northeast France, named after the River Meuse. Meuse is part of the current region of Grand Est and is surrounded by the French departments of Ardennes, Marne, Haute-Marne, Vosges, Meurthe-et-Moselle, and has a short border with Belgium on the north. Parts of Meuse belong to Parc naturel régional de Lorraine. Front lines in trench warfare during World War I ran varying courses through the department and it hosted an important battle/offensive in 1916 in and around Verdun.

In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.

Contents

The lower, more modern and busier part of the town extends along a narrow valley, shut in by wooded or vine-clad hills, and is traversed throughout its length by the Ornain, which is crossed by several bridges. It is limited towards the north-east by the Marne–Rhine Canal, on the south-west by a small arm of the Ornain, called the Canal des Usines, on the left bank of which the upper town (Ville Haute) is situated. [1]

Vine plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems or runners

A vine is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can also refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work.

Ornain river in France

The Ornain is a 116 km long river in northeastern France, right tributary of the Saulx. It is formed near the village Gondrecourt-le-Château by the confluence of the small rivers Ognon and Maldite. It flows generally northwest. Its course crosses the following départements and towns:

Marne–Rhine Canal canal

The Canal de la Marne au Rhin is a canal in north-eastern France. It connects the river Marne and the Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne in Vitry-le-François with the port of Strasbourg on the Rhine. The original objective of the canal was to connect Paris and the north of France with Alsace and Lorraine, the Rhine, and Germany. The 313 km (194 mi) long canal was the longest in France when it opened in 1853.

The highly rarefied Bar-le-duc jelly, also known as Lorraine jelly, is a spreadable preparation of white currant or red currant fruit preserves, hailing from this town. First referenced in the historical record in 1344, it is also colloquially referred to as "Bar caviar".

Bar-le-duc jelly food

Bar-le-duc jelly is a highly regarded preparation of jelly originally composed of select whole seeded currants, typically white currants or alternatively red currants. The name Bar-le-duc refers to the geographical origin of the preparation in the French town of Bar-le-duc. Since the jelly's first documented reference in 1344, the culinary name "Lorraine jelly" is occasionally used, as the city of Bar-le-duc lies within the boundaries of the former province of Lorraine.

White currant common name

The white currant or whitecurrant is a group of cultivars of the red currant, a species of flowering plant in the family Grossulariaceae, native to Europe. It is a deciduous shrub growing to 1 m (3 ft) tall and broad, with palmate leaves, and masses of spherical, edible fruit (berries) in summer. The white currant differs from the red currant only in the colour and flavour of these fruits, which are a translucent white and sweeter. It is sometimes mislabelled as Ribes glandulosum,.

Redcurrant species of plant

The redcurrant, or red currant is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family. It is native across Europe. The species is widely cultivated and has escaped into the wild in many regions.

History

Bar-le-Duc was at one time the seat of the county, from 1354 the Duchy of Bar. Though probably of ancient origin, the town was unimportant until the 10th century when it was fortified by Frederick I of Upper Lorraine. [1] Bar was an independent duchy from 1354 to 1480, when it was acquired by Duchy of Lorraine.

Duchy of Bar duchy

The County of Bar was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc. It was held by the House of Montbéliard from the 11th century. Part of the county, the so-called Barrois mouvant, became a fief of the Kingdom of France in 1301 and was elevated to the Duchy of Bar in 1354. The Barrois non-mouvant remained a part of the Empire. From 1480, it was united to the imperial Duchy of Lorraine.

Duchy of Lorraine former state

The Duchy of Lorraine, originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy.

The Ville Haute, which is reached by staircases and steep narrow thoroughfares, is intersected by a long, quiet street, bordered by houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. In this quarter are the remains (16th-century) of the château of the dukes of Bar, dismantled in 1670, the old clock-tower, and the college, built in the latter half of the 16th century. Its church of Saint-Étienne (constructed during the 14th and 15th centuries) contains the Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon, a skillfully carved effigy in white stone of a half-decayed corpse. It was erected to the memory of René of Châlon (died 1544), and is the work of 16th-century artist Ligier Richier, a pupil of Michelangelo. [1]

Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon Life sized funerary statue and memento mori

The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.

Ligier Richier French artist

Ligier Richier was a French sculptor active in Saint-Mihiel in north-eastern France.

Michelangelo Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered by many the greatest artist of his lifetime, and by some the greatest artist of all time, his artistic versatility was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival, the fellow Florentine and client of the Medici, Leonardo da Vinci.

The lower town contains the official buildings and the churches of Notre-Dame, the most ancient in the town, and St. Antony, with 14th-century frescoes. Among the statues of distinguished natives of the town is one of Nicolas Oudinot, whose house serves as the hôtel-de-ville . [1] Other sights include the Notre-Dame Bridge, with five arches surmounted by a chapel in the middle.

Nicolas Oudinot Marshal of France

Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio, was a Marshal of France. He is known to have been wounded 34 times in battle. Oudinot is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, Eastern pillar Columns 13, 14.

Seat of local government chief administrative building of a municipality

In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It usually houses the city or town council, its associated departments, and their employees. It also usually functions as the base of the mayor of a city, town, borough, or county/shire.

Bar-le-Duc served as the assembly point for essential supplies going to the besieged city of Verdun during the Battle of Verdun in 1916. Thousands of trucks, carrying men, equipment and food, traveled north, around the clock, on the road linking Bar-le-Duc to Verdun. The route was given the name Voie Sacrée, which translates to Sacred Way, by the writer and politician Maurice Barres in April 1916, a reference to the ancient Roman Sacra Via, leading to triumph.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17939,111    
18008,961−1.6%
18069,970+11.3%
182111,432+14.7%
183112,496+9.3%
183612,383−0.9%
184112,526+1.2%
184613,191+5.3%
185114,816+12.3%
185613,835−6.6%
186114,922+7.9%
186615,334+2.8%
187215,175−1.0%
187616,728+10.2%
188117,485+4.5%
188618,860+7.9%
189118,761−0.5%
189618,249−2.7%
190117,693−3.0%
190617,307−2.2%
191117,068−1.4%
192116,261−4.7%
192616,365+0.6%
193116,550+1.1%
193616,697+0.9%
194615,460−7.4%
195416,609+7.4%
196218,346+10.5%
196819,159+4.4%
197519,288+0.7%
198218,471−4.2%
199017,545−5.0%
199916,944−3.4%
200616,041−5.3%
200915,895−0.9%

Notable residents

Bar-le-Duc was the birthplace of:

Other notable residents were:

Twin cities

Bar-le-Duc is twinned with:

See also

BlasonLorraine.svg
Part of the series on
Lorraine
Flag of Lorraine.svg
Flag of Lorraine since the 13th century


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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bar-le-Duc"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 404.