Barakzai

Last updated
Barakzai
Total population
several millions
Regions with significant populations
Afghanistan, Pakistan
Languages
Pashto, Dari, Balochi
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
other Pashtun tribes

Bārakzai (Pashto : بارکزی, bārakzay, plur. bārakzī) is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. [1] There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people. [2]

Contents

History

Ludwig W. Adamec wrote that the Barakzai are "an important section of the Zirak branch of the Durrani to which the former Barakzai/Muhammadzai ruling family belongs. In numbers, economic, and political strength, the Barakzai were the paramount tribe of Afghanistan...They were soldiers in the service of Nadir Shah, founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty in Iran, and were settled on land seized from the Ghilzai. They continued to hold jagirs, fiefs, in exchange for their military services to Ahmad Shah Durrani. When Painda Khan, leader of the Barakzais, was assassinated, the Barakzai chiefs under Dost Muhammad ousted and replaced the Sadduzai dynasty. The Barakzai continue to possess large areas of agricultural land and extensive flocks in the area between Herat and Kandahar." [3]

Pedigree of the Payendah Khel Pashtun clan of Afghanistan. PedigreeOfDostMohammed.png
Pedigree of the Payendah Khel Pashtun clan of Afghanistan.
Genealogy of the rulers of Afghanistan from the Barakzai dynasty. Barakzairulersofafghanistan.gif
Genealogy of the rulers of Afghanistan from the Barakzai dynasty.

Mohammadzai

Mohammadzai are the most prominent & powerful sub-tribe of Barakzai, they belong to the Zirak branch of the Durrani confederacy, and are primarily centered around Kandahar. They can also be found in other provinces throughout Afghanistan as well across the border in the Pakistan's Balochistan Province.

The Musahiban , originally the Yahya Khel clan, [4] [5] are descendants of Sultan Mohammad Khan. Mohammadzai Barakzai are closely related to Amanullah Khan.

Payendah Khel are descendants of Payendah Khan, head of the Mohammadzai branch of the Barakzai tribe during the reigns of Timur and Zaman Shah, who became rulers with the decline of the Sadozai dynasty.

The Tarzi family is a branch of the Mohammadzai of Afghanistan. The founder of Tarzi family was Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi.[ citation needed ]

Politics

From 1826 to 1978, most rulers of Afghanistan belonged to the two branches of one Barakzai dynasty descending from the chiefs of the Barakzai tribe (belonging to the Mohammadzai sub-tribe). [6]

Languages

The principal language of Barakzai is Pashto. Dari is also used as the language for records and correspondence. [7] [8] [9]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dost Mohammad Khan Emir of Afghanistan

Dost Mohammad Khan was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War. With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became Emir of Afghanistan from 1823 to 1839 and then from 1843 to 1863. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the 11th son of Sardar Payendah Khan who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. At the start of his rule in March 1823, the Afghans lost their former stronghold of Peshawar Valley to the Sikh Khalsa Army of Ranjit Singh at the Battle of Nowshera. The Afghan forces in the battle were supported by Azim Khan, half-brother of Dost Mohammad Khan.

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Durrani Pashtun tribe

The Durrānī formerly known as Abdālī (ابدالي), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in southern Afghanistan, straddling into Toba Achakzai in Balochistan, Pakistan, but they are also settled in other parts of Afghanistan and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Mohammadzai, also spelled Moḥammadzay, is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1823 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.

Achakzai, pronounced in Pashto, is a Pashtun tribe that resides on both sides of the Durand Line, centered on Killa Abdullah District in Pakistan with some clans as far away as Afghanistan's Kandahar Province.

Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi

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Barakzai dynasty

The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1823 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammed Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power.

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Muhammad Nadir Shah was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933. Previously, he served as Minister of War, Afghan Ambassador to France, and as a general in the military of Afghanistan. He and his son Muhammad Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are part of the Musahiban.

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Mahmud Tarzi

Mahmud Tarzi was an Afghan politician and intellectual. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism. He became a key figure in the history of Afghanistan, following the lead of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Turkey by working for modernization and secularization, and strongly opposing religious extremism and obscurantism. Tarzi emulated the Young Turks coalition.

Sultan Mohammad Khan, also known as "Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai" was an Afghan Aristocrat, Chief Minister and regent, who resigned in favor of his younger brother Amir Dost Muhammad Khan. His other brother was Fateh Khan died 1818. During the reign of his brother he was chief minister and gouvanor of various regions of the Emirate. He was the first Musahiban, an ethnic Pashtun, and the 15th son of Sardar Payendah Khan who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. Sultan Muhammad Khan's grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan. His immense love for materialism, like clothes and golden cutlery led to his family giving him his nickname "Telai", meaning golden. The result was amongst other things no progress and social injustice. This cases of power abuses were well known in the afghan monarchy, even in the regency of Sultan Muhammad Khan's descendants of the Musahiban branch.

References

  1. Martin, Mike (2014). An Intimate War: An Oral History of the Helmand Conflict, 1978-2012. Oxford University Press. p. 321. ISBN   978-0199387984 . Retrieved 26 July 2016. In Pushtun folklore, Barak, Alak and Popol were brothers who went their separate ways to found tribes in their own namesake with the addition of the—zai (son of) suffix, for example, Barakzai.
  2. Balland, D. "BĀRAKZĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University.
  3. Adamec, Ludwig W. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan 4th revised edition. Scarecrow Press. p. 81. ISBN   978-0810878150 . Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  4. "Help for Researchers". The British Library. British Library. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  5. Saikal, Amin (2004). Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival. B. Tauris. pp. 47–49. ISBN   978-1850434375 . Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  6. Afghanistan - Ethnic Groups
  7. Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan By Rizwan Hussain Page 16
  8. page 64 India and Central Asia By J. N. Roy, J.N. Roy And B.B. Kumar, Astha Bharati (Organization)
  9. Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India Archived May 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , Khyber.org (retrieved 30 January 2008)