Barangay

Last updated

Barangay
  • Also known as:
  • Barrio
Number of barangays per province.svg
Number of barangays per Philippine province
Category Village
Location Philippines
Found in Municipalities, cities, and barangay districts
Created
Number42,046 [2] (as of 2020)
Populations2 (Brgy. 76) [lower-alpha 2] [3] – 261,729 (Bagong Silang) [lower-alpha 3]
Areas0.14 ha (0.0014 km2) (Malusak) – 524.68 ha (5.2468 km2) (Bagong Silang) [lower-alpha 3]
Government
Subdivisions

A barangay ( /bɑːrɑːŋˈɡ/ ; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), historically referred to as barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district, or ward. In metropolitan areas, the term often refers to an inner city neighborhood, a suburb, or a suburban neighborhood. [5] The word barangay originated from balangay , a type of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines. [6]

Contents

Municipalities and cities in the Philippines are subdivided into barangays, with the exception of the municipalities of Adams in Ilocos Norte and Kalayaan in Palawan, with each containing a single barangay. Barangays are sometimes informally subdivided into smaller areas called purok (English: "zone"), or barangay zones consisting of a cluster of houses for organizational purposes, and sitios , which are territorial enclaves—usually rural—far from the barangay center. As of March 2021, there are 42,046 barangays throughout the Philippines. [2]

History

When the first Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, they found well-organized independent villages called barangays. The name barangay originated from balangay , a Malay word meaning "sailboat". [6] Early Spanish dictionaries of Philippine languages make it clear that balangay was pronounced "ba-la-ngay", while today the modern barangay is pronounced "ba-rang-gay". [7]

All citations regarding pre-colonial barangay lead to a single source, Juan de Plascencia's 1589 report Las costumbres de los indios Tagalos de Filipinas. However, historian Damon Woods challenges the concept of barangay as an indigenous political organization primarily due to lack of linguistic evidence. Based on indigenous language documents, Tagalogs did not use the word barangay to describe themselves or their communities. Instead, barangay is argued as a Spanish invention from an attempt by the Spaniards in reconstructing pre-conquest Tagalog society. [8]

The first barangays started as relatively small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communities. The encomienda of 1604 shows that many affluent and powerful coastal barangays in Sulu, Butuan, Panay, [9] Leyte and Cebu, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasig, Laguna, and Cagayan River were flourishing trading centers. Some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants; in Leyte (Baybay), 15,000 inhabitants; in Cebu, 3,500 residents; in Vitis (Pampanga), 7,000 inhabitants; Pangasinan, 4,000 residents. There were smaller barangays with fewer number of people. But these were generally inland communities; or if they were coastal, they were not located in areas which were good for business pursuits. [10] These smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varied from one hundred to five hundred persons. According to Legazpi, he founded communities with only twenty to thirty people.

Traditionally, [11] the original “barangays” were coastal settlements of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian people (who came to the archipelago) from other places in Southeast Asia (see chiefdom ). Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine. This is because most of the people were relying on fishing for their supply of protein and their livelihood. They also traveled mostly by water up and down rivers, and along the coasts. Trails always followed river systems, which were also a major source of water for bathing, washing, and drinking.

The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners. These were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other countries also meant contact with other cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan, Han Chinese, Indian people, and Arab people. [12] These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures (sovereign principalities), ruled by established royalties and nobilities.

During the Spanish rule, through a resettlement policy called the Reducción , smaller scattered barangays were consolidated (and thus, "reduced") to form compact towns. [13] [14] Each barangay was headed by the cabeza de barangay (barangay chief), who formed part of the Principalía – the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines. This position was inherited from the first datu s, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who also collected taxes (called tribute) from the residents for the Spanish Crown.

When the Americans arrived, "slight changes in the structure of local government was effected". [15] Later, Rural Councils with four councilors were created to assist, now renamed Barrio Lieutenant; it was later renamed Barrio Council, and then Barangay Council . [15]

The Spanish term barrio (abbr. "Bo.") was used for much of the 20th century. Mayor Ramon Bagatsing of the City of Manila established the first Barangay Bureau in the Philippines, creating the blueprint for the barangay system as the basic socio-political unit for the city in the early 70s. This was quickly replicated by the national government, and in 1974 President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the renaming of barrios to barangays. [16] The name survived the 1986 EDSA Revolution, though older people would still use the term barrio. The Municipal Council was abolished upon transfer of powers to the barangay system. Marcos used to call the barangay part of Philippine participatory democracy, and most of his writings involving the New Society praised the role of baranganic democracy in nation-building. [17]

After the 1986 EDSA Revolution and the drafting of the 1987 Constitution, the Municipal Council was restored, making the barangay the smallest unit of Philippine government. The first barangay elections held under the new constitution was held on March 28, 1989, under Republic Act number 6679. [18] [19]

The last barangay elections were held in October 2013. [20] Barangay elections scheduled in October 2017 were postponed following the signing of Republic Act number 10952. [21] The postponement has been criticized by election watchdogs and in both the Philippine Congress and Senate. [22] The Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting considers the postponement a move that would "only deny the people their rights to choose their leaders." [23]

Organization

Information sign at the boundary of Barangay Socorro in Quezon City listing the barangay's officials Barangay Officials Sign Board.jpg
Information sign at the boundary of Barangay Socorro in Quezon City listing the barangay's officials
Maybo Barangay Hall in Boac, Marinduque Maybo Barangay Hall.jpg
Maybo Barangay Hall in Boac, Marinduque
Sulop Barangay Hall Sulop Barangay Hall.JPG
Sulop Barangay Hall
Mariki Barangay Hall in Zamboanga City Mariki Barangay Hall.jpg
Mariki Barangay Hall in Zamboanga City

The modern barangay is headed by elected officials, the topmost being the Punong Barangay or the Barangay Chairperson (addressed as Kapitan; also known as the Barangay Captain). The Kapitan is aided by the Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council) whose members, called Barangay Kagawad ("Councilors"), are also elected.

The council is considered to be a local government unit (LGU), similar to the provincial and the municipal government. The officials that make up the council are the Punong Barangay, seven Barangay Councilors, and the chairman of Youth Council or Sangguniang Kabataan (SK). Thus, there are eight members of the Legislative Council in a barangay. [24]

The council is in session for a new solution or a resolution of bill votes, and if the counsels and the SK are at tie decision, the barangay captain uses their vote. This only happens when the SK which is sometimes stopped and continued. In absence of an SK, the council votes for a nominated Barangay Council President, this president is not like the League of the Barangay councilors which composes of barangay captains of a municipality.

The Barangay Justice System or Katarungang Pambarangay is composed of members commonly known as Lupon Tagapamayapa (Justice of the peace). Their function is to conciliate and mediate disputes at the Barangay level to avoid legal action and relieve the courts of docket congestion. [25]

Barangay elections are non-partisan and are typically hotly contested. Barangay captains are elected by first-past-the-post plurality (no runoff voting). Councilors are elected by plurality-at-large voting with the entire barangay as a single at-large district. Each voter can vote up to seven candidates for councilor, with the winners being the seven candidates with the most votes. Typically, a ticket usually consists of one candidate for Barangay Captain and seven candidates for the Councilors. Elections for the post of Punong Barangay and barangay kagawads are usually held every three years starting from 2007.

The barangay is often governed from its seat of local government, the barangay hall.

A tanod , or barangay police officer, is an unarmed watchman who fulfills policing functions within the barangay. The number of barangay tanods differs from one barangay to another; they help maintain law and order in the neighborhoods throughout the Philippines.

Funding for the barangay comes from their share of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) with a portion of the allotment set aside for the Sangguniang Kabataan. The exact amount of money is determined by a formula combining the barangay's population and land area.

Local government hierarchy. The dashed lines emanating from the president means that the President only exercises general supervision on local government. Philippine local government.png
Local government hierarchy. The dashed lines emanating from the president means that the President only exercises general supervision on local government.
Total Local Government Units in the Philippines
Type
(English)
Filipino
equivalent
Head of
Administration
Filipino
equivalent
Number [2]
Province Lalawigan/ProbinsyaGovernorGobernador81
City Lungsod/SiyudadMayorPunong Lungsod/Alkalde146
Municipality Bayan/MunisipalidadMayorPunongbayan/Alkalde1,488
BarangayBarangayBarangay Chairman/Barangay CaptainPunong-Barangay/Kapitan ng Barangay42,029

See also

Bibliography

Notes

  1. By virtue of Presidential Decree No. 557, s. 1974. [1]
  2. Excluding barangays whose population declined to zero due to various reasons.
  3. 1 2 Barangay 176 or Bagong Silang in Caloocan is the largest barangay in the Philippines in terms of land area and population. [4]

Related Research Articles

Elections in the Philippines are of several types. The president, vice-president, and the senators are elected for a six-year term, while the members of the House of Representatives, governors, vice-governors, members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, mayors, vice-mayors, members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod/members of the Sangguniang Bayan, barangay officials, and the members of the Sangguniang Kabataan are elected to serve for a three-year term.

San Jose, Romblon Municipality of the Philippines in the province of Romblon

San Jose, officially the Municipality of San Jose, is a 5th class municipality in the province of Romblon, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 10,881 people. 

Norzagaray Municipality in Central Luzon, Philippines

Norzagaray, officially the Municipality of Norzagaray, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 111,348 people. 

Synchronized Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) elections were held on October 29, 2007, based on the newly amended Republic Act No. 9340, approved on September 22, 2005, by the 13th Congress of the Philippines which prescribed that Barangay and SK elections would occur on the last Monday of October 2007 and in subsequent elections after three years. The 14th Congress of the Philippines tried twice to reset the Barangay and SK Elections instead to May 2008 so the elections could be trial for the computerization of elections following Republic Act No. 9369, also known as Amending the Election Modernization Act but were unsuccessful since the Senate rejected the bill. The elections were held in the country's 41,995 barangays and contested 41,995 posts for the Barangay Chairman also known as the Punong Barangay also for the SK Chairman and 293,965 posts for the Members of the Sangguniang Barangay also known as the Barangay Kagawad also for the Members of the Katipunan ng mga Kabataan also known as the SK Kagawad.

A barangay kagawad, abbreviated as kgwd., known in English as a barangay councilor and in Filipino as a konsehal ng barangay, is an elected government official who is a member of the Sangguniang Barangay, or Barangay Council, of a particular barangay. The barangay is the smallest political unit in the Philippines and the council serves as the legislature of the barangay and is headed by the barangay captain or punong barangay.

A Barangay captain, also known as a barangay chairman, is the highest elected official in a barangay, the smallest level of administrative divisions of the Philippines. Sitios and puroks are sub-divisions of barangays, but their leadership is not elected. As of September 2012, there are 42,028 barangays and therefore 42,028 barangay captains.

Barangay state

In early Philippine history, the barangay was a complex sociopolitical unit which scholars have historically considered the dominant organizational pattern among the various peoples of the Philippine archipelago. The term, barangay, refers to both a house on land and a boat on water; containing families, friends and dependents and is currently the basic political unit of the Philippines.

Sangguniang Kabataan

Sangguniang Kabataan is a council meant to represent the youth in each barangay in the Philippines. It was put "on hold", but not quite abolished, prior to the 2013 barangay elections. In January 2016, the Sangguniang Kabataan Reform Act was signed into law which made some significant changes to the SK and initially scheduled new elections for October 2016. In March 2017, the elections were postponed anew to May 2018.

Balangay

Balangay, also spelled barangay, is a type of lashed-lug boat built by joining planks edge-to-edge using pins, dowels, and fiber lashings. They are found throughout the Philippines and were used largely as trading ships up until the colonial era. The oldest known balangay are the Butuan boats, which have been carbon-dated to 320 AD and were recovered from several sites in Butuan, Agusan del Norte.

Synchronized Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) elections were held on October 25, 2010 in the Philippines. The electorate elected in nonpartisan elections, the Barangay chairman also known as the Punong Barangay and members of the Sangguniang Barangay for voters aged 18 and above. While voters aged 15 to 17 voted for the chairman of the Sangguniang Kabataan and members of the Katipunan ng mga Kabataan. Due to funding issues, the Commission on Elections opted to use the manual voting system instead of the automated elections as was done in the last 2010 national elections.

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Local elections was held in Manila on May 13, 2013, within the Philippine general election. The voters elected for the elective local posts in the city: the mayor, vice mayor, the six congressmen, and the councilors, six in each of the city's six legislative districts.

Barangay elections was held on Monday, October 28, 2013. The election shall elect the Punong Barangay, more commonly known as barangay captains, and members of the Sangguniang Barangay, or barangay council, in 42,028 barangays throughout the Philippines whose terms start on November 30, 2013. Barangays are the smallest local government unit in the Philippines.

Barangay elections are elections in the Philippines in the barangays, the smallest of the administrative divisions in the Philippines. Barangays make up cities and municipalities and in turn are made up of sitios and puroks, whose leaders are not elected. Voters of each barangay over 18 years old are eligible to vote for one Barangay captain and seven Barangay councilors. Together, the barangay captain and barangay councilors make up the Sangguniang Barangay. Voters aged 15 to 17 years old vote in elections for the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK): one SK chairman and seven SK councilors during the same election. The winning SK chairman serves as a member of the barangay council.

The Zamboanga City Council is Zamboanga City's Sangguniang Panlungsod or local legislature.

2016 Philippine general election Election in the Philippines on 2016

A general election in the Philippines took place on May 9, 2016, for executive and legislative branches for all levels of government – national, provincial, and local, except for the barangay officials.

Barangay elections in the Philippines were held on May 14, 2018. The election shall elect the Punong Barangay, more commonly known as barangay captains, and members of the Sangguniang Barangay, or barangay council, in 41,948 barangays (villages) throughout the country whose terms start on June 30, 2018. Barangays are the smallest local government unit in the Philippines.

2016 Philippine local elections

Local elections in the Philippines were held on May 9, 2016. This was conducted together with the 2016 general election for national positions. All elected positions above the barangay (village) level were disputed.

2019 Philippine general election Election in the Philippines on 2019

The 2019 Philippine general election was conducted on May 13, 2019. A midterm election, those elected therein will take office on June 30, 2019, midway through the term of President Rodrigo Duterte.

2019 Philippine local elections

Local elections in the Philippines were held on May 13, 2019. This was conducted together with the 2019 general election for national positions. All elected positions above the barangay (village) level were disputed. The following positions were disputed:

Barangay elections in the Philippines will be held on December 5, 2022. The election shall elect the Punong Barangay, more commonly known as barangay captain, and members of the Sangguniang Barangay, or barangay council, in 41,948 Barangays (villages) throughout the country. Barangays are the smallest local government unit in the Philippines.

References

  1. "Presidential Decree No. 557, s. 1974". Official Gazette . Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 "First Quarter 2020 PSGC Updates: One New Barangay Created and The Names of Two Barangays Corrected". Philippine Statistics Authority . May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  3. "Philippine Standard Geographic Code (PSGC) March 2020". Philippine Statistics Authority . Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  4. Melican, Nathaniel (September 17, 2013). "Largest barangay in PH can't live up to 'new hope' image; split pushed". Philippine Daily Inquirer . Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  5. "barangay". Oxford Dictionaries . June 25, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  6. 1 2 Zaide, Sonia M.f (1999), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing, pp. 62, 420, ISBN   971-642-071-4 , citing Plasencia, Fray Juan de (1589), Customs of the Tagalogs, Nagcarlan, Laguna, archived from the original on January 23, 2009, retrieved January 14, 2009
    ^ Junker, Laura Lee (2000), Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms, Ateneo de Manila University Press, pp.  74, 130, ISBN   978-971-550-347-1 ISBN   971-550-347-0, ISBN   978-971-550-347-1.
  7. William Henry Scott (1994). Barangay: sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN   9789715501354.
  8. Woods, Damon (2017). The Myth of the Barangay and Other Silenced Histories. E. de los Santos St., UP Campus, Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. pp. 117–153. ISBN   978-971-542-821-7.
  9. During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines the Spanish Augustinian Friar, Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A., describes Iloilo and Panay as one of the most populated islands in the archipelago and the most fertile of all the islands of the Philippines. He also talks about Iloilo, particularly the ancient settlement of Halaur, as a site of a progressive trading post and a court of illustrious nobilities. The friar says: Es la isla de Panay muy parecida a la de Sicilia, así por su forma triangular come por su fertilidad y abundancia de bastimentos... Es la isla más poblada, después de Manila y Mindanao, y una de las mayores, por bojear más de cien leguas. En fertilidad y abundancia es en todas la primera... El otro corre al oeste con el nombre de Alaguer [Halaur], desembocando en el mar a dos leguas de distancia de Dumangas...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla...Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975, pp. 374–376.
  10. Cf. F. Landa Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage (1998), pp. 157–158, 164
  11. Cf. Maragtas (book)
  12. Hisona, Harold (July 14, 2010). "The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan". Philippinealmanac.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
  13. Constantino, Renato; Constantino, Letizia R. (1975). "Chapter V - The Colonial Landscape". The Philippines: A Past Revisited (Vol. I) (Sixteenth Printing (January 1998) ed.). Manila, Philippines: Renato Constantino. pp. 60–61. ISBN   971-895-800-2. OL   9180911M.
  14. Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). "New States and Reorientations 1368-1764". State and Society in the Philippines. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 53, 55. ISBN   0742510247 . Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  15. 1 2 Zamora, Mario D. (1966). "Political Change and Tradition: The Case of Village Asia". In Karigoudar Ishwaran (ed.). International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology: Politics and Social Change. Leiden, the Netherlands: E.J. Brill. pp. 247–253. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  16. "Presidential Decree No. 557; Declaring All Barrios in the Philippines as Barangays, and for Other Purposes". The LawPhil Project. Malacañang, Manila, Philippines. September 21, 1974. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  17. Marcos, Ferdinand. 1973. "Notes on the New Society of the Philippines."
  18. "Looking back: The first barangay polls in PH". Rappler. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  19. Team, COMELEC Web Development. "Official COMELEC Website :: Commission on Elections". COMELEC. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  20. News, Ron Gagalac, ABS-CBN. "Barangay, SK polls to push through on May 14". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  21. "Republic Act No. 10952 | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  22. News, RG Cruz, ABS-CBN. "Duterte told: Get druggies, but don't halt barangay polls". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  23. "PPCRV opposes another postponement of barangay SK polls | UNTV News". www.untvweb.com. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  24. "The Barangay". Local Government Code of the Philippines. Chan Robles Law Library.
  25. "Barangay Justice System (BJS), Philippines". ACCESS Facility. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2013.