Barbara Billingsley

Last updated

Barbara Billingsley
Barbara Billingsley in 1958.JPG
Billingsley in 1958
Barbara Lillian Combes

(1915-12-22)December 22, 1915
DiedOctober 16, 2010(2010-10-16) (aged 94)
Resting place Woodlawn Memorial Cemetery
Alma mater Los Angeles Junior College
Years active1945–2007
Glenn Billingsley
(m. 1941;div. 1947)
(m. 1953;died 1956)
William Mortensen
(m. 1959;died 1981)

Barbara Billingsley (born Barbara Lillian Combes; December 22, 1915 – October 16, 2010) [1] was an American actress. She began her career with uncredited roles in Three Guys Named Mike (1951), The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), and Invaders from Mars (1953), and was featured in the 1957 film The Careless Years opposite Natalie Trundy. She then appeared in recurring TV roles, such as The Brothers .


Billingsley gained prominence for her best-known role of June Cleaver, the mother in the television series Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963) and its sequel The New Leave It to Beaver (1983–1989). She appeared as the "Jive Lady" in Airplane! (1980), and her final film role was as Aunt Martha in the 1997 film version of Leave It to Beaver.

Early life

Billingsley was born Barbara Lillian Combes on December 22, 1915, in Los Angeles, California, the daughter of Lillian Agnes (née McLaughlin) and Robert Collyer Combes, a police officer. [2] [3] She had one elder sibling, Elizabeth. [4] Her parents divorced sometime before her fourth birthday, and her father, who later became an assistant chief of police, [2] remarried. [5] After the divorce, Billingsley's mother began working as a foreman at a knitting mill. [6]


Early years

Billingsley and Bruce Edwards play a Jewish couple in Prejudice (1949). Barbara Billingsley and Bruce Edwards in "Prejudice" (1949) (cropped).jpg
Billingsley and Bruce Edwards play a Jewish couple in Prejudice (1949).

After attending Los Angeles Junior College for one year, Billingsley traveled to Broadway, when Straw Hat, a revue in which she was appearing, attracted enough attention to send it to New York City. When the show closed after five days, she took an apartment on 57th Street and went to work as a $60-a-week fashion model. In 1941, she married Glenn Billingsley Sr. She landed a contract with MGM Studios in 1945, and moved with her husband to Los Angeles in 1946. That same year, Glenn Billingsley opened a steakhouse there. [7]

She had mostly uncredited roles in major movies in the 1940s. These roles continued into the first half of the 1950s with supporting roles in Three Guys Named Mike (1951), opposite Jane Wyman; The Bad and the Beautiful (1952); and the science-fiction film Invaders from Mars (1953). In 1952, Billingsley had her first role as a guest star in an episode of The Abbott and Costello Show .

In 1955, she won a costarring role in the sitcom Professional Father , starring Stephen Dunne and Beverly Washburn. It lasted one season. The next year, Billingsley had a recurring role in The Brothers (with Gale Gordon and Bob Sweeney) and an appearance with David Niven in his anthology series Four Star Playhouse . In 1957, she costarred with Dean Stockwell and Natalie Trundy in The Careless Years , her first and only major role in a film.[ citation needed ]

Billingsley had guest roles in The Pride of the Family , Schlitz Playhouse of Stars , Letter to Loretta , You Are There , and Cavalcade of America . She appeared on Make Room for Daddy on January 14, 1957 in the episode "Danny's Date", where she played Mary Rogers.[ citation needed ]

Leave It to Beaver

Cast of Leave It to Beaver Cleaver family Leave it to Beaver 1960.JPG
Cast of Leave It to Beaver

After Billingsley signed a contract with Universal Studios [ citation needed ] in 1957, she made her mark on TV as June Cleaver in the sitcom Leave It to Beaver . It debuted on CBS in 1957 to mediocre ratings. It was picked up by ABC the following year and became a hit, airing for the next five seasons, and broadcast in over 100 countries. It also starred Hugh Beaumont as Ward Cleaver, June's husband and the kids' father, and child actors Tony Dow as Wally Cleaver and Jerry Mathers as Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver.

In the show, Billingsley was often seen doing household chores wearing pearls and earrings. The pearls, which were Billingsley's trademark, were, in turn, her idea to have her alter ego wear on television. She had what she termed "a hollow" in her neck [2] [8] [9] and thought that wearing a strand of white pearls would lighten it up for the cameras. In later seasons, she started wearing high heels to compensate for the fact that the actors playing her sons were getting taller than she was. [2] [10] [9] The pearl necklace was so closely associated with the character that an entire episode of the sequel series dealt with the necklace when it was lost.

Billingsley had one regret about the show's lasting success: In standard actors' contracts in the 1950s, residual payments ended after six reruns—and the show, subsequently considered a classic, was syndicated for the rest of her life. [11]

Billingsley said that her character was the "ideal mother" during a 1997 interview with TV Guide. She said that some people thought June was a weak character, but that she didn't: "She was the love in that family. She set a good example for what a wife could be. I had two boys at home when I did the show. I think the character became kind of like me and vice versa. I've never known where one started and where one stopped." Billingsley explained her view on the enduring appeal of the Leave It to Beaver characters: "I think everybody would like a family like that. Wouldn't it be nice if you came home from school and there was Mom standing there with her little apron and cookies waiting?" [12]

Billingsley, however, questioned her character's reactions to the Cleaver children's misbehavior, basing her concern on personal experience as the mother of two sons. As co-producer Joseph Connelly explained: "In scenes where she's mad at the boys, she's always coming over to us with the script and objecting. 'I don't see why June is so mad over what Beaver's done. I certainly wouldn't be.' As a result, many of Beaver's crimes have been rewritten into something really heinous like lying about them, in order to give his mother a strong motive for blowing her lady-like stack." [13]

After six seasons and 234 episodes, the series was canceled because of the cast's desire to move on to other projects, especially Mathers, who retired from acting to enter his freshman year in high school. The younger actor considered Billingsley a mentor, a second mother, and a close professional friend:

Barbara was always, though, a true role model for me. She was a great actress. And a lot of people, you know, when they see her talk jive talk, they always say she can do other things besides be a mom on Leave It to Beaver. And I tell them Airplane! (1980); she's been a great comedienne all her life. And in a lot of ways, just like All in the Family, we kind of stifled her because her true talent didn't really come out in Leave It to Beaver. She was the straight woman, but she has an awful lot of talent. [14]

After Beaver

When production of the show ended in 1963, Billingsley had become typecast and had trouble obtaining acting jobs for years. She traveled extensively abroad until the late 1970s. After an absence of 17 years from the public eye (other than appearing in two episodes of The F.B.I. in 1971), she spoofed her wholesome image with a brief appearance in the comedy Airplane! (1980) as a passenger who could "speak jive." She said the role gave her as much publicity as Beaver and revived her career. [15]

Returning to TV, she appeared on episodes of Mork & Mindy and The Love Boat . In 1983 she reprised her role as June Cleaver in the Leave It to Beaver television movie titled Still the Beaver in 1983. Hugh Beaumont had died the previous year of a heart attack, so she played his widow. She also appeared in the revival of the series The New Leave It to Beaver from 1985 to 1989. During the run of The New Leave It to Beaver, Billingsley became the voice of Nanny on Muppet Babies from 1984 to 1991. For her performance as Nanny, she was nominated for the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Performer in a Children's Series in 1989 and 1990.[ citation needed ]

After The New Leave It to Beaver ended its run in 1989, Billingsley appeared in guest roles on Parker Lewis Can't Lose , Empty Nest , and Murphy Brown . She also reprised her role as June Cleaver in various television shows, including Elvira's Movie Macabre , Amazing Stories , Baby Boom , Hi Honey, I'm Home! , and Roseanne . In 1998, she appeared on Candid Camera , with June Lockhart and Isabel Sanford, as audience members in a spoof seminar on motherhood. Billingsley's final film role was as Aunt Martha in the 1997 film version of Leave It to Beaver . She made her final onscreen appearance in the 2003 television movie Secret Santa.[ citation needed ]

After the show's cancellation in 1963, Mathers remained her close friend. They were reunited on The New Leave It to Beaver. Billingsley, Mathers, Dow, Frank Bank, and Ken Osmond celebrated the show's 50th anniversary together on Good Morning America .[ citation needed ]

Personal life

Billingsley was married three times and had two children. She married Glenn Billingsley, Sr. in 1941, a restaurateur and a nephew of Sherman Billingsley, owner of the Stork Club. His businesses included Billingsley's Golden Bull, Billingsley's Bocage, the Outrigger Polynesian restaurants in Los Angeles, and a Stork Club in Key West, Florida, where they lived briefly after their wedding. [16] They had two sons and divorced in 1947. [17]

In 1953 she married British-born movie director Roy Kellino. Their marriage lasted three years, when in 1956 he died of a heart attack at age 44. [18] [19] It was about six months later that she was handed the pilot for what would become Leave It To Beaver (then titled It's a Small World). [20] Billingsley's third and final marriage was to William S. Mortensen in 1959; they remained together until his death in 1981. [19] [21]


Billingsley died of polymyalgia rheumatica at her home in Santa Monica, California, on October 16, 2010, at the age of 94. [21] She is interred at Woodlawn Memorial Cemetery, Santa Monica. [22]


1945 So You Think You're Allergic Blonde with HivesShort subject
1945 Adventure Dame #2Uncredited
1946 Up Goes Maisie Barb's Friend at Maisie's Engagement PartyUncredited
1946 Two Sisters from Boston Party GuestUncredited
1946 Faithful in My Fashion Mary - Department Store ClerkUncredited
1946 Three Wise Fools Sister Mary LeonardUncredited
1946 Undercurrent Party GuestUncredited
1946 The Secret Heart SaleswomanUncredited
1947 The Arnelo Affair WeilUncredited
1947 The Sea of Grass BridesmaidUncredited
1947 Living in a Big Way G.I. Bill's WifeUncredited
1947 The Romance of Rosy Ridge WifeUncredited
1947 The Unfinished Dance Miss MorganUncredited
1948 The Argyle Secrets Elizabeth Court
1948 Souvenirs of Death Johnny's MomUncredited
1948 The Saxon Charm Mrs. MaddoxUncredited
1948 The Valiant Hombre Linda Mason
1948 Act of Violence Voice roleUncredited
1949 The Sun Comes Up NurseUncredited
1949 Caught Store Customer in Flowered HatUncredited
1949 I Cheated the Law Ruth Campbell
1949 Any Number Can Play GamblerUncredited
1949 Air Hostess Madeline Moore
1949 Prejudice Doris Green
1949 A Kiss for Corliss Miss Hibbs, Harry's SecretaryUncredited
1950 Shadow on the Wall Olga
1950 Trial Without Jury Rheta Mulford
1950 Pretty Baby Edna the Receptionist
1950 Dial 1119 Dorothy, Editor's SecretaryUncredited
1951 Three Guys Named Mike Ann White
1951 Inside Straight Miss Meadson
1951 Oh! Susanna Mrs. LarkUncredited
1951 The Tall Target Young MotherUncredited
1951 Angels in the Outfield Hat Check Girl in RestaurantUncredited
1951 Two-Dollar Bettor Miss PiersonCredited as Barbara Billinsley
1952 Invitation Miss Alvy - Simon's SecretaryUncredited
1952 Young Man with Ideas Aggie - Party GuestUncredited
1952 Woman in the Dark Evelyn Courtney
1952 The Bad and the Beautiful Evelyn Lucien, Costume DesignerUncredited
1953 The Lady Wants Mink PhyllisUncredited
1953 Invaders from Mars Kelston's SecretaryUncredited
1954 Day of Triumph Claudia - Wife of PilateUncredited
1957 The Careless Years Helen Meredith
1980 Airplane! Jive LadyAlternative title: Flying High!
1987 Back to the Beach Announcer
1988 Going to the Chapel Unidentified role
1997 Leave It to Beaver Aunt Martha

Television appearances

1952 Rebound Pat2 episodes
1953 The Abbott and Costello Show Becky the CashierEpisode: "Television"
1953 Crown Theatre with Gloria Swanson Episode: "Half the Action"
1953 The Pepsi-Cola Playhouse Segment: "When a Lovely Woman"
1953–1954 City Detective Lita
Barbara Fuller
2 episodes
1953–1955 Four Star Playhouse Various roles3 episodes
1953–1955 Schlitz Playhouse of Stars Various roles6 episodes
1953–1957 Cavalcade of America Dorothea Meadows
Harriet Kohler
2 episodes
1954The Pride of the FamilyEpisode: "Albie's Old Flame"
1954 The Lone Wolf Jean ArnoldEpisode: "The Long Beach Story (a.k.a. The Smuggling Story)"
1954 Fireside Theater Episode: "The Whole Truth"
1955 Professional Father Helen Wilson18 episodes
1955 You Are There Catherine GreenEpisode: "Eli Whitney Invents the Cotton Gin (May 27, 1793)"
1956 Matinee Theater Episode: "Summer Cannot Last"
1956 The Loretta Young Show ConnieEpisode: "Tightwad Millionaire"
1956 General Electric Summer Originals Episode: "Jungle Trap"
1956 The Ford Television Theatre Mrs. SloanEpisode: "Catch at Straws"
1956–1957 The Brothers Barbara5 episodes
1957 Panic! Mrs. MasonEpisode: "The Subway"
1957 Mr. Adams and Eve Liz BlakeEpisode: "That Magazine"
1957 Studio 57 June CleaverEpisode: "It's a Small World"
1957–1963 Leave It to Beaver June Cleaver234 episodes
1971 The F.B.I. Joan Connor
Mrs. Rankin
2 episodes
1982 Mork & Mindy Louise BaileyEpisode: "Cheerleader in Chains"
1983 Still the Beaver June CleaverTelevision movie
1983 High School U.S.A. Mrs. McCarthyTelevision movie
1983 Match Game-Hollywood Squares Hour HerselfGame Show Participant / Celebrity Guest Star
1983, 1987 The Love Boat Phyllis Cowens (1983)
June Cleaver (1987)
2 episodes:
"He Ain't Heavy" (1983)
"Who Killed Maxwell Thorn?" (1987)
1983–1989 The New Leave It to Beaver June Cleaver101 episodes
1984 Elvira's Movie Macabre June CleaverEpisode: "The Human Duplicators"
1984 Silver Spoons Miss BugdenEpisode: "I Won't Dance"
1984–1991 Muppet Babies Nanny (Voice)107 episodes
1985 Amazing Stories June CleaverEpisode: "Remote Control Man"
1987 The New Mike Hammer Sister Superior PaulaEpisode: "Who Killed Sister Lorna?"
1987Bay CovenBeatrice GowerTelevision movie
1988 Baby Boom June CleaverEpisode: "Guilt"
1989 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Mirahda (Voice)Episode: "Invasion of the Turtle Snatchers"
1989 Monsters Episode: "Reaper"
1991 Parker Lewis Can't Lose Ms. Musso's MotherEpisode: "Jerry: Portrait of a Video Junkie"
1991 Hi Honey, I'm Home! June CleaverEpisode: "Make My Bed"
1991 Empty Nest Winifred McConnellEpisode: "My Nurse Is Back and There's Gonna Be Trouble..."
1993–1994 The Mommies Caryl's mother
Jeanne - Marilyn's Mom
2 episodes
1994 Murphy Brown Mrs. StritchEpisode: "Crime Story"
1995 Roseanne Herself - June Cleaver, TV Mom #1Episode: "All About Rosey Part 2"
2000 Mysterious Ways Abby WestmoreEpisode: "Handshake"
2003Secret SantaMiss RuthieTelevision movie

Related Research Articles

<i>Leave It to Beaver</i> American sitcom from the 1950s and 1960s

Leave It to Beaver is an American television situation comedy that follows the misadventures of a suburban boy, his family and his friends. It stars Barbara Billingsley, Hugh Beaumont, Tony Dow and Jerry Mathers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">June Cleaver</span> Fictional character

June Evelyn Bronson Cleaver is a principal character in the American television sitcom Leave It to Beaver. June and her husband, Ward, are often invoked as the archetypal suburban parents of the 1950s. The couple are the parents of two sons, Wally and "Beaver". Wally is twelve years old and in the seventh grade when the series opens; Beaver is seven years old and in the second grade. Episodes followed the escapades of Wally and Beaver and usually ended with a moral lesson delivered to the boys, but also often included reminders of childhood and minor lessons for the parents through the adventures of their boys. She was included in Yahoo!'s Top 10 TV Moms from Six Decades of Television for the time period 1957–1963.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jerry Mathers</span> American actor (born 1948)

Gerald Patrick Mathers is an American actor best known for his role in the television sitcom Leave It to Beaver, originally broadcast from 1957 to 1963. He played the protagonist Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver, the younger son of the suburban couple June and Ward Cleaver and the younger brother of Wally Cleaver.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cheryl Holdridge</span> American actress

Cheryl Lynn Holdridge was an American actress, best known as an original cast member of The Mickey Mouse Club.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hugh Beaumont</span> American actor

Eugene Hugh Beaumont was an American actor. He was best known for his portrayal of Ward Cleaver on the television series Leave It to Beaver, originally broadcast from 1957 to 1963; and as private detective Michael Shayne in a series of low-budget crime films in 1946 and 1947.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ken Osmond</span> American actor and police officer (1943–2020)

Kenneth Charles Osmond was an American actor and police officer. Beginning a career as a child actor at the age of four, Osmond played the role of Eddie Haskell on the late 1950s to early 1960s television situation comedy Leave It to Beaver and reprised it on the 1980s revival series The New Leave It to Beaver. Typecast by the role, he found it hard to get other acting work and became a Los Angeles police officer. After retiring from police work, he resumed his acting career.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tony Dow</span> American actor, film director and film producer (1945–2022)

Anthony Lee Dow was an American actor, film producer, director and sculptor. He portrayed Wally Cleaver in the iconic television sitcom Leave It to Beaver from 1957 to 1963. From 1983 to 1989, Dow reprised his role as Wally in a television movie and in The New Leave It to Beaver.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wally Cleaver</span> Fictional character

Wallace "Wally" Cleaver is a fictional character in the iconic American television sitcom Leave It to Beaver. Wally is the thirteen-year-old son of archetypal 1950s suburban parents, Ward and June Cleaver and the older brother of the seven-year-old title character, Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver. The characters grew older along with the actors.

<i>The New Leave It to Beaver</i> American television series

The New Leave It to Beaver is an American sitcom sequel to the original 1957–1963 sitcom Leave It to Beaver. The series began with the 1983 reunion television movie Still the Beaver that aired on CBS in March 1983. The success of the television movie prompted the creation of a revival series, also titled Still the Beaver, that aired on The Disney Channel from 1984 to 1985. In 1986, the series was picked up by TBS, where it aired until June 1989. The show also concurrently ran in first-run syndication for the 1988-89 season.

<i>Leave It to Beaver</i> (film) 1997 film by Andy Cadiff

Leave It to Beaver is a 1997 American comedy film based on the television series of the same name. Many in-jokes and sub-plots relating to the series are adapted for the film. It features many of the original regular characters, most played by new actors, with some cameos by the original TV cast. Universal Pictures released the film on August 22, 1997.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beaver Cleaver</span> Fictional character

Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver is the fictional title character in the American television series Leave It to Beaver. Originally played by Jerry Mathers, Beaver is the son of June and Ward Cleaver and the brother of Wally Cleaver.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dawn Lyn</span> American former child actress (born 1963)

Dawn Lyn Nervik is an American former child actress who acted from age 4 to 15. She is best known for her role as Dodie Douglas during the last three seasons of the sitcom My Three Sons. Her brother, Leif Garrett, is a singer and actor.

Jeri Warner Weil is an American former child actress, best known for her role as Judy Hensler in the classic television series Leave It to Beaver.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rusty Stevens</span> American actor

Robert "Rusty" Stevens is an American former child actor best remembered for his role as Larry Mondello, Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver's young friend, in the original Leave It to Beaver television series. Stevens appeared in 67 of the show's 234 episodes, between 1957 and 1960.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Larry Mondello</span> Fictional character

Larry Mondello is a fictional character from the iconic American television series Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963). He is portrayed by child actor Robert "Rusty" Stevens. Larry Mondello appears in 68 of the show's 234 episodes over the first few seasons. Although Larry is mentioned in the premiere episode, "Beaver Gets 'Spelled", it is not until the eighth episode, "Beaver's Crush", that he actually makes an appearance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Family Scrapbook</span> 39th episode of the 6th season of Leave It to Beaver

"Family Scrapbook" is the final episode of the American television series Leave It to Beaver. It last aired on ABC on June 20, 1963. It was the 39th episode in the show's sixth and final season, and the 234th episode in the complete series.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beaver Gets 'Spelled</span> 1st episode of the 1st season of Leave It to Beaver

"Beaver Gets 'Spelled" is the premiere episode of the iconic American television series Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963). The episode aired on CBS on October 4, 1957. The episode is the first episode in the first season, and the first episode in the complete series. "Beaver Gets 'Spelled" is available on DVD.

Its a Small World (<i>Leave It to Beaver</i>) Episode of Leave It to Beaver

"It's a Small World" is the pilot episode from the iconic American television series Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963). The pilot was first televised April 23, 1957, on the syndicated anthology series, Studio 57, without a laugh track nor the series' well known theme song, "The Toy Parade". It never aired as an episode within the series. Following its April 1957 telecast, the episode was subsequently misplaced and was feared lost until a copy was found in a film vault in Illinois. After rediscovery, it was aired as the third-season premiere for the 1980s TBS revival series The New Leave It to Beaver on October 4, 1987, exactly 30 years after the original series officially premiered on CBS. It was televised again in October 2007 as part of TV Land's 50th anniversary celebration of Leave It to Beaver. It was released to DVD in 2005. The series made its CBS debut several months later on October 4, 1957, with the episode, "Beaver Gets 'Spelled".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Judy Hensler</span> Fictional character

Judy Hensler is a fictional character in the American television sitcom Leave It to Beaver. The show aired from October 4, 1957 to June 20, 1963. Judy is a recurring character portrayed by Jeri Weil. She appeared in 31 of the show's 234 episodes, between October 1957 and October 1960.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Martha Bronson</span> Fictional character

Martha Bronson is a fictional recurring character in the American television sitcom Leave It to Beaver. "Aunt Martha," as she is known in the series, appears in five of the show's 234 episodes and is mentioned occasionally but not seen. The character is portrayed by Madge Kennedy.


  1. McLellan, Dennis (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, Mother on 'Leave It to Beaver', Dies at 94". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Bernstein, Adam (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, 94, Dies; Actress Was Model Mom on 'Leave It To Beaver'". The Washington Post .
  3. Combes's status as a patrolman with the Los Angeles Police Department is stated on his 1917 draft registration, accessed on on October 17, 2010. The website indicates that Combes was then married with two children. According to U.S. Federal Census information, Combes, like his first wife, was the child of an American father and an English mother. He was a native of Sea Cliff Village, Oyster Bay, New York; his father, Henry P. Combes (1860–1920), was a carpenter, and his mother, the former Helen Merritt (1864–1949), was a reporter. Information cited on 1900 U.S. Federal Census, accessed on on October 17, 2010.
  4. Only one sibling, Elizabeth, is cited on 1920 and 1930 U.S. Federal Censuses, accessed on on October 17, 2010. The birth and death dates for Elizabeth Combes (later known as Elizabeth "Betty" McLaughlin) are cited on
  5. The 1920 U.S. Federal Census for Los Angeles, California, documents the entire Combes household, including Lillian Combes as head of household, divorced, and with two daughters, Elizabeth, age eight, and Barbara, age four. The same census states that Robert Collyer Combes, a 28-year-old divorced police officer, was living as a lodger elsewhere in the city. Ten years later the next federal census shows that Robert Collyer Combes, by then a captain in the Los Angeles police force, was living with his new wife Maria S. Combes (1903–1999) and that the couple had been married since 1925. Maria Combes's birth and death dates are listed on the Social Security Death Index, accessed on on October 17, 2010.
  6. Mother's occupation stated in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, accessed on on October 17, 2010.
  7. "Billingsley's". Billingsley's. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  8. Good Morning America , ABC, October 2007.
  9. 1 2 Billingsley, Barbara. "Archive of American Television" (video) (Interview). 11:05-12:05. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  10. Mathers, Jerry; Fagen, Herb (1998). ...And Jerry Mathers as "The Beaver". Berkley Boulevard. ISBN   978-0425163702.
  11. Arnold, Lawrence (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, Iconic TV Mom June Cleaver, Dead at 94". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  12. Roush, Matt (October 22, 2010). "Matt's TV Week in Review". TV Guide . Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  13. Liebman, Nina C. (July 22, 2010). Living Room Lectures: The Fifties Family in Film and Television. University of Texas Press. p. 70. ISBN   978-0292786356.
  14. "TV Moms Tell Their Real Stories". CNN . July 5, 2000. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  15. Billingsley, Barbara (interview) (May 27, 2010). Barbara Billingsley on speaking "jive" in "Airplane". YouTube.
  16. Blumenthal, Ralph (2000). Stork Club: America's Most Famous Nightspot and the Lost World of Cafe Society. Brown, Little. p. 13. ISBN   978-0316105316.
  17. Silverman, Stephen M. (October 16, 2010). "Leave It to Beaver's Barbara Billingsley Loved Being America's Mom". People . Retrieved June 7, 2014.
  18. Barbara Billingsley, Beaver's TV Mom, Dies At 94, NPR News (October 16, 2010)
  19. 1 2 Bygre, Duane (October 16, 2010). "'Leave It to Beaver' Mom Barbara Billingsley Dies". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved June 7, 2014.
  20. Barbara Billingsley on the genesis of "Leave it to Beaver", interview with Karen Herman on July 14, 2000 in Santa Monica, CA (
  21. 1 2 Pollack, Michael (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, TV's June Cleaver, Dies at 94". The New York Times . Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  22. "Santa Monica Consolidates Cemetery Prices". Santa Monica Mirror . July 17, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2014.

Further reading