Barbary pirates

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A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs by Laureys a Castro, c. 1681 Laureys a Castro - A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs.jpg
A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs by Laureys a Castro, c. 1681
British sailors boarding an Algerine pirate ship British sailors boarding an Algerine pirate ship.jpg
British sailors boarding an Algerine pirate ship
A man from the Barbary states Costumes de Differents Pays, 'Homme des Etats Barbaresques' LACMA M.83.190.274.jpg
A man from the Barbary states
A Barbary pirate, Pier Francesco Mola 1650 Mola Pirata.jpg
A Barbary pirate, Pier Francesco Mola 1650

The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman and Berber pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its ethnically Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing merchant ships, they engaged in Razzias , raids on European coastal towns and villages, mainly in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but also in the British Isles, [1] the Netherlands, and Iceland. [2] The main purpose of their attacks was slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Arab slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East.

Contents

While such raids had occurred since soon after the Muslim conquest of Iberia in the 8th century, the terms "Barbary pirates" and "Barbary corsairs" are normally applied to the raiders active from the 16th century onwards, when the frequency and range of the slavers' attacks increased. In that period Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, either as directly administered provinces or as autonomous dependencies known as the Barbary States. Similar raids were undertaken from Salé and other ports in Morocco.

Barbary corsairs captured thousands of merchant ships and repeatedly raided coastal towns. As a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. Between 100,000 and 250,000 Iberians were enslaved by these raids.[ citation needed ]

The raids were such a problem coastal settlements were seldom undertaken until the 19th century. Between 1580 and 1680 corsairs were said to have captured about 850,000 people as slaves and from 1530 to 1780 as many as 1,250,000 people were enslaved. [1] However, these numbers have been questioned by the historian David Earle. [3] Some of these corsairs were European outcasts and converts (renegade) such as John Ward and Zymen Danseker. [2] Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were also notorious corsairs. The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean. [2] [ unreliable source? ] The effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century.

Long after Europeans had abandoned oar-driven vessels in favor of sailing ships carrying tons of powerful cannon, many Barbary warships were galleys carrying a hundred or more fighting men armed with cutlasses and small arms. The Barbary navies were not battle fleets. When they sighted a European frigate, they fled. [4]

The scope of corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century, [5] as the more powerful European navies started to compel the Barbary States to make peace and cease attacking their shipping. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs entirely and the threat was largely subdued. Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until finally terminated by the French conquest of Algeria in 1830.

History

In 1198 the problem of Berber piracy and slave-taking was so great that the Trinitarians, a religious order, was founded to collect ransoms and even to exchange themselves as a ransom for those captured and pressed into slavery in North Africa. In the 14th century, Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390, also known as the "Barbary Crusade". Morisco exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian nations. [6]

British captain witnessing the miseries of Christian slaves in Algiers, 1815 Captain walter croker horror stricken at algiers 1815.jpg
British captain witnessing the miseries of Christian slaves in Algiers, 1815

During the American Revolution the pirates attacked American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean. But, on December 20, 1777, Sultan Mohammed III of Morocco issued a declaration recognizing America as an independent country, and that American merchant ships could enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast. [7] [8] The relations were formalized with the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship signed in 1786, which stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty [9] [10] with a foreign power.

As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians, and more than 900 inhabitants were taken away as slaves. [11]

16th century

Battle of Preveza, 1538 Battle of Preveza (1538).jpg
Battle of Preveza, 1538

From 1659, these African cities, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, were in fact military republics that chose their own rulers and lived by war booty captured from the Spanish and Portuguese. There are several cases of Sephardic Jews, including Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache, who upon fleeing Iberia turned to attacking the Spanish Empire's shipping under the Ottoman flag, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisition's religious persecution. [12] [13]

During the first period (1518–1587), the beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and conducting war operations for political ends. They were slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious. After 1587, the sole object of their successors became plunder, on land and sea. The maritime operations were conducted by the captains, or reises, who formed a class or even a corporation. Cruisers were fitted out by investors and commanded by the reises. Ten percent of the value of the prizes was paid to the pasha or his successors, who bore the titles of agha or dey or bey. [14]

The Barbary pirates frequently attacked Corsica, resulting in many Genoese towers being erected. Genoise tower in corsica.jpg
The Barbary pirates frequently attacked Corsica, resulting in many Genoese towers being erected.

In 1544 Hayreddin captured the island of Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners, and enslaved some 2,000–7,000 inhabitants of Lipari. [15] [16] In 1551 Turgut Reis enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Ottoman Tripolitania. In 1554 corsairs under Turgut Reis sacked Vieste, beheaded 5,000 of its inhabitants, and abducted another 6,000. [17]

17th century

A French Ship and Barbary Pirates by Aert Anthonisz, c. 1615 A French Ship and Barbary Pirates (c 1615) by Aert Anthoniszoon.jpg
A French Ship and Barbary Pirates by Aert Anthonisz, c. 1615

A notable counter action occurred in 1607 when the Knights of Saint Stephen (under Jacopo Inghirami) sacked Bona in Algeria, killing 470 and taking 1,464 captives. [18] This victory is commemorated by a series of frescoes painted by Bernardino Poccetti in the "Sala di Bona" of Palazzo Pitti, Florence. [19] [20] In 1611 Spanish galleys from Naples, accompanied by the galleys of the Knights of Malta, raided the Kerkennah Islands off the coast of Tunisia and took away almost 500 Muslim captives. [21] Between 1568 and 1634 the Knights of Saint Stephen may have captured about 14,000 Muslims, with perhaps one-third taken in land raids and two-thirds taken on captured ships. [21]

Battle of a French ship of the line and two galleys of the Barbary corsairs Theodore Gudin-Combat d'un vaisseau francais et de deux galeres barbaresques mg 5061.jpg
Battle of a French ship of the line and two galleys of the Barbary corsairs
The work of the Mercedarians was in ransoming Christian slaves held in Muslim hands, Histoire de Barbarie et de ses Corsaires, 1637 Fathers of the Redemption.jpg
The work of the Mercedarians was in ransoming Christian slaves held in Muslim hands, Histoire de Barbarie et de ses Corsaires, 1637

Ireland was subject to a similar attack. In June 1631 Murat Reis, with corsairs from Algiers and armed troops of the Ottoman Empire, stormed ashore at the little harbor village of Baltimore, County Cork. They captured almost all the villagers and took them away to a life of slavery in North Africa. [14] The prisoners were destined for a variety of fates – some lived out their days chained to the oars as galley slaves, while women spent long years as concubines in harems or within the walls of the sultan's palace. Only two of these captives ever returned to Ireland. [22] [ page needed ]

More than 20,000 captives were said to be imprisoned in Algiers alone. The rich were often able to secure release through ransom, but the poor were condemned to slavery. Their masters would on occasion allow them to secure freedom by professing Islam. A long list might be given of people of good social position, not only Italians or Spaniards but German or English travelers in the south, who were captives for a time. [14]

An action between an English ship and vessels of the Barbary Corsairs Willem van de Velde de Jonge - Een actie van een Engels schip en schepen van de Barbarijse zeerovers.jpg
An action between an English ship and vessels of the Barbary Corsairs
Lieve Pietersz Verschuier, Dutch ships bomb Tripoli in a punitive expedition against the Barbary pirates, c. 1670 The Dutch in Tripoli.jpg
Lieve Pietersz Verschuier, Dutch ships bomb Tripoli in a punitive expedition against the Barbary pirates, c. 1670

In 1675 a Royal Navy squadron led by Sir John Narborough negotiated a lasting peace with Tunis and, after bombarding the city to induce compliance, with Tripoli. [23]

18th–19th centuries

Captain William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey of Algiers, circa 1800 BainbridgeTribute.jpg
Captain William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey of Algiers, circa 1800

Piracy was enough of a problem that some states entered into the redemption business. In Denmark, "At the beginning of the 18th century money was collected systematically in all churches, and a so called 'slave fund' (slavekasse) was established by the state in 1715. Funds were brought in through a compulsory insurance sum for seafarers. 165 slaves were ransomed by this institution between 1716 and 1736." [24] "Between 1716 and 1754 19 ships from Denmark-Norway were captured with 208 men; piracy was thus a serious problem for the Danish merchant fleet." [24]

Until the American Declaration of Independence in 1776, British treaties with the North African states protected American ships from the Barbary corsairs. Morocco, which in 1777 was the first independent nation to publicly recognize the United States, in 1784 became the first Barbary power to seize an American vessel after the nation achieved independence[ citation needed ]. The Barbary threat led directly to the United States founding the United States Navy in March 1794. While the United States did secure peace treaties with the Barbary states, it was obliged to pay tribute for protection from attack. The burden was substantial: in 1800 payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States federal government's annual expenditures. [25]

Bombardment of Algiers by Lord Exmouth in August 1816, Thomas Luny Sm Bombardment of Algiers, August 1816-Luny.jpg
Bombardment of Algiers by Lord Exmouth in August 1816, Thomas Luny

The Barbary states had difficulty securing uniform compliance with a total prohibition of slave-raiding, as this had been traditionally of central importance to the North African economy. Slavers continued to take captives by preying on less well-protected peoples. Algiers subsequently renewed its slave-raiding, though on a smaller scale. Europeans at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 discussed possible retaliation. In 1820 a British fleet under Admiral Sir Harry Neal bombarded Algiers. Corsair activity based in Algiers did not entirely cease until France conquered the state in 1830. [14]

Slaves

Barbary slaves

According to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries. [26] [27] However, to extrapolate his numbers, Davis assumes the number of European slaves captured by Barbary pirates were constant for a 250-year period, stating:

There are no records of how many men, women, and children were enslaved, but it is possible to calculate roughly the number of fresh captives that would have been needed to keep populations steady and replace those slaves who died, escaped, were ransomed, or converted to Islam. On this basis, it is thought that around 8,500 new slaves were needed annually to replenish numbers – about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. By extension, for the 250 years between 1530 and 1780, the figure could easily have been as high as 1,250,000. [3]

Slave market in Algiers, 1684 Marche aux esclaves d alger gravure.jpg
Slave market in Algiers, 1684

Davis' numbers have been questioned by the historian David Earle, who said of Davis' numbers "His figures sound a bit dodgy and I think he may be exaggerating" and cautioned that the true picture of European slaves is clouded by the fact that the corsairs also seized non-Christian whites from eastern Europe and black people from west Africa. [3]

In addition, the number of slaves traded was hyperactive, with exaggerated estimates relying on peak years to calculate averages for entire centuries or millennia. Hence, there were wide fluctuations year-to-year, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, given slave imports, and given the fact that, prior to the 1840s, there are no consistent records. Middle East expert, John Wright, cautions that modern estimates are based on back-calculations from human observation. [28]

Such observations, across the late 1500s and early 1600s observers, account for around 35,000 European Christian slaves held throughout this period on the Barbary Coast, across Tripoli, Tunis, but mostly in Algiers. The majority were sailors (particularly those who were English), taken with their ships, but others were fishermen and poor coastal villagers. However, most of these captives were people from lands close to Africa, particularly Spain and Italy. [29]

From bases on the Barbary Coast, North Africa, the Barbary pirates raided ships traveling through the Mediterranean and along the northern and western coasts of Africa, plundering their cargo and enslaving the people they captured. From at least 1500, the pirates also conducted raids along seaside towns of Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, England, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland, capturing men, women, and children. On some occasions, settlements such as Baltimore, Ireland were abandoned following the raid, only being resettled many years later. Between 1609 and 1616, England alone had 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates. [30]

Christian slaves in Algiers, early 19th century Christians in Slavery.png
Christian slaves in Algiers, early 19th century

Captives often suffered from privation on voyages to North Africa if taken at a distance. Those who survived the journeys were often forced to walk through town as they were taken to slave auctions. The slaves typically had to stand from eight in the morning until two in the afternoon while buyers viewed them. Next came the auction, where the townspeople would bid on the captives they wanted to purchase and once that was over, the governor of Algiers (the Dey) had the chance to purchase any slave he wanted for the price they were sold at the auction. During the auctions, the slaves would be forced to run and jump around to show their strength and stamina. After purchase, the captives would either be held for ransom or be put to work. Slaves were used for a wide variety of jobs, from hard manual labor to housework (the job assigned to most women slaves). At night the slaves were put into prisons called ' bagnios ' (derived from the Italian word "bagno" for public bath, inspired by the Turks' use of Roman baths at Constantinople as prisons), [31] which were often hot and overcrowded. However, these bagnios began improving by the 18th century. Some bagnios had chapels, hospitals, shops, and bars run by captives, though such amenities remained uncommon.[ citation needed ]

Galley slaves

Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535 Frans Hogenberg battle of Tunis.jpg
Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535

Although the conditions in bagnios were harsh, they were better than those endured by galley slaves. Most Barbary galleys were at sea for around eighty to a hundred days a year, but when the slaves assigned to them were on land, they were forced to do hard manual labor. There were exceptions: "galley slaves of the Ottoman Sultan in Constantinople would be permanently confined to their galleys, and often served extremely long terms, averaging around nineteen years in the late seventeenth-century and early eighteenth-century periods. These slaves rarely got off the galley but lived there for years." [32] During this time, rowers were shackled and chained where they sat, and never allowed to leave. Sleeping (which was limited), eating, defecation, and urination took place at the seat to which they were shackled. There were usually five or six rowers on each oar. Overseers would walk back and forth and whip slaves considered not to be working hard enough.

French bombardment of Algiers by Admiral Duppere, 13 June 1830 Bombardementd alger-1830.jpg
French bombardment of Algiers by Admiral Dupperé, 13 June 1830
Almunecar's coat of arms, which shows the turbaned heads of three Barbary pirates floating in the sea, was granted to the town by King Charles V in 1526 Escudo de Almunecar (Granada) 2.svg
Almuñécar's coat of arms, which shows the turbaned heads of three Barbary pirates floating in the sea, was granted to the town by King Charles V in 1526

Famous Barbary corsairs

According to historian Adrian Tinniswood, the most notorious corsairs were English and European renegades who had learned their trade as privateers, and who moved to the Barbary Coast during peacetime to pursue their trade. These outcasts brought up-to-date naval expertise to the piracy business, and enabled the corsairs to make long-distance slave-catching raids as far away as Iceland and Newfoundland. [2] The English corsair Henry Mainwaring later returned to England after gaining a royal pardon. He was knighted, elected to Parliament, and appointed a vice-admiral of the Royal Navy. [2]

Barbarossa brothers

Oruç Barbarossa

The most famous of the corsairs in North Africa were Albanian/Greek [33] [34] brothers Oruç and Hızır Hayreddin. They, and two less well-known brothers all became Barbary corsairs in the service of the Ottoman Empire; they were called the Barbarossas (Italian for Redbeards) after the red beard of Oruç, the eldest. Oruç captured the island of Djerba for the Ottoman Empire in 1502 or 1503. He often attacked Spanish territories on the coast of North Africa; during one failed attempt in 1512, he lost his left arm to a cannonball. The eldest Barbarossa also went on a rampage through Algiers in 1516 and captured the town with the help of the Ottoman Empire. He executed the ruler of Algiers and everybody he suspected would oppose him, including local rulers. He was finally captured and killed by the Spanish in 1518 and put on display.

Hızır Hayreddin Barbarossa

Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa Barbaros minyatur.jpg
Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa

Oruç, based mainly on land, was not the best-known of the Barbarossas. His youngest brother Hızır (later called Hayreddin or Kheir ed-Din) was a more traditional corsair. He was a capable engineer and spoke at least six languages. He dyed the hair of his head and beard with henna to redden it like Oruç's. After capturing many crucial coastal areas, Hayreddin was appointed admiral-in-chief of the Ottoman sultan's fleet. Under his command, the Ottoman Empire was able to gain and keep control of the eastern Mediterranean for over thirty years. Barbaros Hızır Hayreddin Pasha died in 1546 of a fever, possibly the plague.

Captain Jack Ward

English corsair Jack, or John, Ward was once called "beyond doubt the greatest scoundrel that ever sailed from England" by the English ambassador to Venice. Ward was a privateer for Queen Elizabeth during her war with Spain; after the end of the war, he became a corsair. With some associates he captured a ship in about 1603 and sailed it to Tunis; he and his crew converted to Islam. He was successful and became rich. He introduced heavily armed square-rigged ships, used instead of galleys, to the North African area, a major reason for the Barbary's future dominance of the Mediterranean. He died of the plague in 1622.

Sayyida al-Hurra

Sayyida al-Hurra was a female Muslim cleric, merchant, governor of Tétouan, and later the wife of the sultan of Morocco. [35] [36] She was born around 1485 in the Emirate of Granada, but was forced to flee to Morocco when she was very young to escape the Reconquista. In Morocco, she gathered a crew largely of exiled Moors, and launched pirate expeditions against Spain and Portugal to avenge the Reconquista, protect Morocco from Christian pirates, and seek riches and glory. She co-founded the Barbary Corsairs with her allies the Barbarossa brothers, who divided the Mediterranean between them—the Barbarossas and their Ottoman fleet operating in the east, and Sayyida al-Hurra and her Moorish and North-African pirates operating in the west. Sayyida al-Hurra became wealthy and renowned enough for the Sultan of Morocco, Ahmad al-Wattasi to make her his queen. Notably, however, she refused to marry in his capital of Fez, and would not get married but in Tétouan, of which she was governor. This was the first and only time in history that a Moroccan monarch had married away from his capital.

Other famous Barbary corsairs

Mulai Ahmed er Raisunis Headquarter in Tangier, Morocco. Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli.jpg
Mulai Ahmed er Raisunis Headquarter in Tangier, Morocco.
Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni, the last of the Barbary Pirates. Raisuli.JPG
Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni, the last of the Barbary Pirates.

In fiction

The Quattro Mori ("Four Moors") by Pietro Tacca; Livorno, Italy Livorno, Monumento dei quattro mori a Ferdinando II (1626) - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 13-4-2006 12.jpg
The Quattro Mori ("Four Moors") by Pietro Tacca; Livorno, Italy

Barbary corsairs are protagonists in Le pantere di Algeri (the panthers of Algiers) by Emilio Salgari. They were featured in a number of other noted novels, including Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, père, The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, The Sea Hawk and the Sword of Islam by Rafael Sabatini, The Algerine Captive by Royall Tyler, Master and Commander by Patrick O'Brian, the Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson, The Walking Drum by Louis Lamour, Doctor Dolittle by Hugh Lofting, Corsair by Clive Cussler and Angélique in Barbary by Anne Golon. Miguel de Cervantes, the Spanish author, was captive for five years as a slave in the bagnio of Algiers, and reflected his experience in some of his fictional (but not directly autobiographical) writings, including the Captive's tale in Don Quixote , his two plays set in Algiers, El Trato de Argel (The Treaty of Algiers) and Los Baños de Argel (The Baths of Algiers), and episodes in a number of other works. In Mozart's opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail (a Singspiel), two European ladies are discovered in a Turkish harem, presumably captured by Barbary corsairs. Rossini's opera L'Italiana in Algeri is based on the capture of several slaves by Barbary corsairs led by the bey of Algiers.

One of the stereotypical features of a pirate as portrayed in popular culture, the eye patch, may have been partially derived from the Arab corsair Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah, who wore a patch after losing an eye in battle in the 18th century. [37]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Robert Davis (2011-02-17). "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Review of Pirates of Barbary by Ian W. Toll, New York Times, 12 Dec. 2010
  3. 1 2 3 Carroll, Rory; correspondent, Africa (2004-03-11). "New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  4. Conlin, Joseph R. The American Past: A Survey of American History, Volume I: To 1877. p. 206.
  5. Chaney, Eric (2015-10-01). "Measuring the military decline of the Western Islamic World: Evidence from Barbary ransoms". Explorations in Economic History. 58: 107–124. doi:10.1016/j.eeh.2015.03.002.
  6. Pryor (1988), p. 192
  7. Tucker, Spencer C. (2014-06-11). The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812: A Political, Social, and Military History [3 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ISBN   9781598841572.
  8. Tucker, Spencer C. (2014-06-11). The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812: A Political, Social, and Military History [3 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ISBN   9781598841572.
  9. Roberts, Priscilla H. and Richard S. Roberts, Thomas Barclay (1728–1793: Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary, Lehigh University Press, 2008, pp. 206–223.
  10. "Milestones of American Diplomacy, Interesting Historical Notes, and Department of State History". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
  11. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800 . Robert Davis (2004). p.45. ISBN   1-4039-4551-9.
  12. Kritzler, Edward (November 3, 2009). Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean. Anchor. pp. 59–60. ISBN   978-0-7679-1952-4 . Retrieved 2010-05-02.
  13. Plaut, Steven (October 15, 2008). "Putting the Oy Back into 'Ahoy'" . Retrieved 2010-04-27. Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback Machine
  14. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barbary Pirates"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  15. Syed, Muzaffar Husain; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (2011-09-14). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN   9789382573470.
  16. Her Majesty's Commission, State Papers (1849). King Henry the Eighth Volume 10 Part V Foreign Correspondence 1544-45. London.
  17. Mercati, Angelo (1982). Saggi di storia e letteratura, vol. II. Rome.
  18. John B. Hattendorf and Richard W. Unger (2003). War at Sea in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Boydell Press.
  19. "Curator's comments on a draft study by Bernardino Poccetti". The British Museum.
  20. "Palazzo Pitti".
  21. 1 2 Jamieson, Alan (2012). Lords of the Sea: A History of the Barbary Corsairs. London.
  22. Ekin, Des (2006). The Stolen Village – Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates. OBrien. ISBN   978-0-86278-955-8.
  23. "Articles of peace & commerce between ... Charles II ... and the ... Lords the Bashaw, Dey, Aga, Divan, and governours of the ... kingdom of Tripoli concluded by Sir John Narbrough ... the first day of May 1676". University of Michigan.
  24. 1 2 Peter Madsen, "Danish slaves in Barbary", Islam in European Literature Conference, Denmark Archived November 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  25. Oren, Michael B. (2005-11-03). "The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815" . Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  26. Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800.
  27. "When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed" Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine , Research News, Ohio State University
  28. Wright, John (2007). "Trans-Saharan Slave Trade". Routledge.
  29. Davis, Robert (17 Feb 2011). "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". BBC.
  30. Rees Davies, "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast", BBC, 1 July 2003
  31. Definition of "bagnio" from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Accessed 23 February 2015
  32. Ekin, Des (2006). The Stolen Village – Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates. OBrien. p. 187. ISBN   978-0-86278-955-8.
  33. Between Venice and Istanbul : colonial landscapes in early modern Greece . Davies, Siriol., Davis, Jack L. [Princeton]: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 2007. ISBN   9780876615409. OCLC   126229997.CS1 maint: others (link)
  34. Capponi, Niccolò. (2007). Victory of the West : the great Christian-Muslim clash at the Battle of Lepanto (1st Da Capo Press ed.). Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN   0306815443. OCLC   86222610.
  35. Mernissi, Fatima (July 30, 1997). The Forgotten Queens of Islam. Univ of Minnesota Press. pp. 18–19, 115, 193. ISBN   978-0-8166-2439-3.
  36. Park, Thomas Kerlin; Boum, Aomar (2006). Historical dictionary of Morocco. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 317. ISBN   978-0-8108-5341-6.
  37. Charles Belgrave (1966), The Pirate Coast, p. 122, George Bell & Sons

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The Barbary Wars were a series of conflicts culminating in two main wars fought between the United States, Sweden, and the Barbary states of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Swedes had been at war with the Tripolitans since 1800; they were eventually joined by the Americans.

Second Barbary War 1815 war between Algiers and the USA

The Second Barbary War (1815) or the U.S.–Algerian war was fought between the United States and the North African Barbary Coast states of Tripoli, Tunis, and Ottoman Algeria. The war ended when the United States Senate ratified Commodore Stephen Decatur’s Algerian treaty on December 5, 1815. However, Dey Omar Agha of Algeria repudiated the US treaty, refused to accept the terms of peace that had been ratified by the Congress of Vienna, and threatened the lives of all Christian inhabitants of Algiers. William Shaler was the US commissioner in Algiers who had negotiated alongside Decatur, but he had to flee aboard British vessels and watch rockets and cannon shot fly over his house "like hail" during the Bombardment of Algiers (1816). He negotiated a new treaty in 1816 which was not ratified by the Senate until February 11, 1822, because of an oversight.

Barbary Coast Coastal region of North Africa inhabited by Berber people

The term Barbary Coast was used by Europeans from the 16th century to the early 19th to refer to the coastal regions of North Africa, which were inhabited by Berber people. Today this land is part of the modern nations of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya.

Murat Reis the Elder was an Ottoman privateer and admiral, who served in the Ottoman Navy. He is regarded as one of the most important Barbary corsairs.

Occhiali Ottoman commander

Occhiali was an Italian farmer, then Ottoman privateer and admiral, who later became beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers, and finally Grand Admiral of the Ottoman fleet in the 16th century.

Ottoman Algeria Ottoman province

The regency of Algiers, was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. Situated between the regency of Tunis in the east and the Sultanate of Morocco in the west, the Regency originally extended its borders from La Calle to the east to Trara in the west and from Algiers to Biskra, and after spread to the present eastern and western borders of Algeria.

Oruç Reis Native of Mitylene; turned corsair; became sovereign of Algiers

Oruç Reis; Arabic: عروج ريس‎; Spanish: Aruj; c. 1474–1518) an Ottoman seaman of Albanian origin, became bey (governor) of Algiers, beylerbey of the West Mediterranean, and admiral of the Ottoman Empire. The elder brother of the famous Albanian Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa, he was born on the Ottoman island of Midilli and died in battle against the Spanish at Tlemcen in the Ottoman Eyalet of Algeria.

White slavery Enslavement of people of European descent

White slavery, white slave trade, and white slave traffic refer to the chattel slavery of White Europeans by non-Europeans, as well as by Europeans themselves, such as the Viking thralls or European Galley slaves. From Antiquity, European slaves were common during the reign of Ancient Rome and were prominent during the Ottoman Empire into the early modern period. In Feudalism, there were various forms of status below the Freeman that is known as Serfdom which could be bought and sold as property and were subject to labor and branding by their owners or demense. Under Muslim rule, the Arab slave trades that included Caucasian captives were often fueled by raids into European territories or were taken as children in the form of a blood tax from the families of citizens of conquered territories to serve the empire for a variety of functions. In the mid-19th century, the term 'white slavery' was used to describe the Christian slaves that were sold into the Barbary slave trade.

Hayreddin Barbarossa Ottoman admiral

Hayreddin Barbarossa, or Barbaros Kheireddin Pasha, born Khizr or Khidr, was an Ottoman corsair and later admiral of the Ottoman Navy. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century.

Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, commonly known as Murat Reis the Younger, was a Dutch fighter in the Ottoman Navy who converted to Islam after being captured by a Moorish state in 1618. He began serving as a Navy fighter, one of the most famous of the 17th-century "Salé Rovers". Together with other corsairs, he helped establish the independent Republic of Salé at the city of that name, serving as the first President and Grand Admiral. He also served as Governor of Oualidia.

Salah Rais was an Ottoman privateer and admiral. He is alternatively referred to as Sala Reis, Salih Rais, Salek Rais and Cale Arraez in several European sources, particularly in Spain, France and Italy.

Turkish Abductions Barbary slave raids against Iceland

The Turkish Abductions were a series of slave raids by Ottoman pirates that took place in Iceland between 20 June and 19 July 1627. Pirates from Morocco and Algeria, under the command of Dutch pirate Murat Reis, raided the village of Grindavík on the southwestern coast, Berufjörður and Breiðdalur in the Eastern Region, and Vestmannaeyjar ; they captured an estimated 400–800 prisoners to sell into slavery.

Barbary slave trade

The Barbary slave trade refers to slave markets on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century. The Ottoman provinces in North Africa were nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in reality they were mostly autonomous. The North African slave markets were part of the Arab slave trade.

Siemen Danziger, better known by his anglicized names Zymen Danseker and Simon de Danser, was a 17th-century Dutch privateer and corsair. His name is also written Danziker, Dansker, or Danser.

Anglo-Turkish piracy

Anglo-Turkish piracy or the Anglo-Barbary piracy refers to the collaboration between Barbary pirates and English pirates against Catholic shipping during the 17th century.

Slavery on the Barbary Coast

Slavery on the Barbary Coast was a form of unfree labour which existed between the 16th and 18th centuries in the Barbary Coast area of North Africa.

Expedition to Mostaganem (1558)

The Expedition of Mostaganem occurred in 1558, when Spanish forces attempted to capture the city of Mostaganem, in modern Algeria, from the Ottomans. The expedition was supposed to be a decisive step in the conquest of the Ottoman base of Algiers, but it ended in failure, and has been called a "disaster".

Aydın Reis was an Ottoman admiral, known to the Spanish as "Cachidiablo" and to the Italians as "Cacciadiavolo."

Ottoman Tunisia 16th-18th Century Ottoman Territory

Ottoman Tunis refers to the episode of the Turkish presence in Ifriqiya during the course of three centuries from the 16th century until the 18th century, when Tunis was officially integrated into the Ottoman Empire as the Eyalet of Tunis (province). Eventually including all of the Maghrib except Morocco, the Ottoman Empire began with the takeover of Algiers in 1516 by the Ottoman Turkish corsair and beylerbey Oruç Reis. The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. However, it wasn't until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Turks permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the French occupation of Tunisia in 1881.

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