Barcelona, Venezuela

Last updated
Barcelona
City
Nueva Barcelona del Cerro Santo
Lecheria, Estado Anzoategui, Venezuela 252.JPG
Lecheria, Estado Anzoategui, Venezuela 253.JPG
Lecheria, Estado Anzoategui, Venezuela 43.JPG
Vista desde Cerro el Morro.jpg
BANDERA MUNICIPAL.JPG
Flag
Escudo De Nueva Barcelona Del Cerro Santo.jpg
Coat of arms
Venezuela location map (+claimed).svg
Red pog.svg
Barcelona
South America laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Barcelona
Coordinates: 10°07′N64°43′W / 10.117°N 64.717°W / 10.117; -64.717 Coordinates: 10°07′N64°43′W / 10.117°N 64.717°W / 10.117; -64.717
Country Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela
State Anzoátegui
Municipality Simón Bolívar, Anzoátegui
Founded1671
Area
  Total76.5 km2 (29.5 sq mi)
Elevation
13 m (43 ft)
Population
 (2010)
  Total620,555
  Density8,100/km2 (21,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Barcelonés/a
Time zone UTC-4:00 (VET)
Postal Code
6001
Area code(s) 0281
Climate BSh

Barcelona is the capital of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela and was founded in 1671. Together with Puerto La Cruz, Lecheria and Guanta, Barcelona forms one of the most important urban areas of Venezuela with a population of approximately 950,000.

Venezuela Republic in northern South America

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. The Venezuelan government maintains a claim against Guyana to Guayana Esequiba, an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, Venezuela exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

Guanta Place in Anzoátegui, Venezuela

Guanta is the capital and largest city of Guanta Municipality. Together with Barcelona, Puerto La Cruz and Lechería it forms a conurbation of around 1.2m inhabitants.

Contents

History

The old Province of Barcelona before it ceased to exist in 1864 Provincia Barcelona.jpg
The old Province of Barcelona before it ceased to exist in 1864

Unlike Puerto La Cruz, which was mostly built in the 20th century, Barcelona has a mish-mash of historical and modern architecture from its several years of growth and development. [1] The settlement of Nueva Barcelona del Cerro Santo (English: New Barcelona of the Holy Mountain), was originally established by the Spanish conquistador Joan Orpí (a native of Piera, Catalonia in Spain). It was later re-founded and populated by governor Sancho Fernández de Angulo two kilometres from the original settlement, and by a small community of Catalan colonists around 1671. [1] Barcelona was one of the provinces under the governmental authority of the New Andalusia Province (Nueva Andalusía, or New Andalusia), and referred to commonly as New Barcelona. One of the remaining buildings of this period is the Museo de Anzoátegui, considered the oldest building in the city.

Joan Orpí Spanish conquistador

Joan Orpí i del Pou, also Juan Orpín or Juan Urpín was a Spanish conquistador, known for founding New Barcelona in Venezuela, and for founding the short-lived Province of New Catalonia (1633–1654).

Piera Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Piera is a municipality that covers a large portion of the southeastern corner of the comarca of Anoia in Catalonia, Spain, on the left bank of the Anoia river. The agricultural land, mostly non-irrigated, is used for the cultivation of cereals, grapes, olives and almonds. The town itself hosts a number of light industries: textiles, plastics and construction materials. Tourism during the summer months is also relatively important for the local economy.

Catalonia Autonomous area of northeastern Spain

Catalonia is an autonomous community on the northeastern corner of Spain, self-designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.

Many of the historical areas of Barcelona centre its main plazas: Bolivar, Miranda and Boyacá. The Plaza Boyacá was the main settlement in Barcelona, and is fronted by the Iglesia El Carmen (English: Carmelite Church) and the city's cathedral, the Catedral de San Cristobal (English: Cathedral of Saint Christopher), built between 1748 and 1773. [2] Today, the cathedral houses the embalmed remains of San Celestino in a glass reliquary in a chapel off the main nave, which dates back to 1744. [1]

By 1761, the territory had been delineated by the population of Pozuelos (to the north), west to the headlands of the River Unare, east to the Guanipa plateau and south to the Orinoco River.

Venezuelan Independence

After forced abdications of the King by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Spanish territories in the Americas began to agitate for autonomy. In Venezuela a series of Junta governments took authority in the name of the deposed King Ferdinand after 19 April 1810, that led to the formation of local juntas. A meeting was convened in the city of Barcelona to proclaim the independence of the province of Barcelona (which included both the district of Barcelona and the province of Cumana), on the 27 April. On 11 July 1810, the Supreme Junta of Caracas included Barcelona Province as one of the provinces that did not recognize the authority of the Spanish government. This led to a civil conflict between those who wanted independence from the Spanish crown and many who still recognized the authority of Spain.

Barcelona Province (Venezuela) Former province in Venezuela

Barcelona Province (1811-1864) was one of the provinces of Venezuela which signed the 1811 Venezuelan Declaration of Independence from the Spanish Empire. It became one of the provinces of Gran Colombia after Venezuela's independence from Gran Colombia in 1830. During the times of Gran Colombia, it was part of the Orinoco Department.

The return of Francisco de Miranda to Venezuela ultimately led to the Declaration of Independence on 5 July 1811, which was quickly followed by a Civil War between those provinces who remained loyal to Spain, and the Cadiz Cortes, and those that sought complete independence. In 1811, during the Venezuelan Independence War, La Casa Fuerte (English: The House-Fort), a building near the centre of town, located on the Avenida 5 de Julio set the scene for the period. Built on the ruins of the old Convento de San Francisco, to house the administrative government of the area, but turned into a fortification by Republican defenders to protect the city from the attacks of the Spanish authorities. On 17 April 1817, the house was taken and destroyed by royalist forces, who killed all 1600 people barricaded inside. [3]

Francisco de Miranda Venezuelan revolutionary

Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza, commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated much of South America. He was known as "The First Universal Venezuelan" and "The Great Universal American". In the National Archive of Venezuela can be found the statute of the blood purity of the father of Francisco de Miranda.

After the fall of the First Republic, the royalist authorities continued to maintain the limits and structures of the province of Barcelona. But in 1821, it was integrated into the province of Guyana, and along with Cumana and Margarita, it began to function as part of the Department of the Orinoco.

Barcelona's autonomy was re-established in 1830, and became a center during a second round of Independence battles, where important men like General José Antonio Páez headquartered, or after Independence when Antonio Guzmán Blanco spent time. [1]

Geography

Barcelona is located in the state of Anzoátegui along the northern coast of Venezuela, near the foothills of the western cordillera region. Its northern ocean boundary is peppered with many beaches, including Isla de Plata, Conoma, Arapito, Cangrejo, Lecherias and Playa Mansa, which cater to the tourist industry or local populations. Barcelona is the gateway to the Mochima National Park, an area of islands and islets that extends across the northern coast, and was designated a protected national monument.

Its hydrography is dominated by the River Neverí, which crosses the centre of town, and has been known for seasons of floodings caused excess volume. In 1972, the governor Francisco Arreaza Arreaza granted authority for the construction of cities canals to reduce these seasonal fluctuations. Similarly, the River Aragua, which also circle the settlement has been prone to flooding, most recently in 1999 in the area known as El Viñedo.

Climate

Owing to its location in the dry belt of the southern Caribbean Sea, Barcelona has a hot semi-arid climate with a wet season from June to September and a dry season from December to April. A strong rain shadow and jets parallel to the coast from the westerly monsoon winds during summer serves to restrict rainfall.

Climate data for Barcelona, Venezuela
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.5
(95.9)
37.0
(98.6)
37.9
(100.2)
37.8
(100.0)
37.7
(99.9)
37.5
(99.5)
36.0
(96.8)
39.0
(102.2)
39.3
(102.7)
39.0
(102.2)
38.6
(101.5)
35.0
(95.0)
39.3
(102.7)
Average high °C (°F)31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
32.4
(90.3)
32.7
(90.9)
32.8
(91.0)
32.1
(89.8)
31.8
(89.2)
32.1
(89.8)
32.7
(90.9)
32.9
(91.2)
32.4
(90.3)
31.8
(89.2)
32.2
(90.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.0
(78.8)
26.3
(79.3)
27.2
(81.0)
27.9
(82.2)
28.2
(82.8)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
27.9
(82.2)
27.4
(81.3)
26.6
(79.9)
27.3
(81.1)
Average low °C (°F)20.5
(68.9)
20.9
(69.6)
21.9
(71.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.6
(74.5)
23.3
(73.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
22.4
(72.3)
21.3
(70.3)
22.4
(72.3)
Record low °C (°F)12.8
(55.0)
15.2
(59.4)
12.5
(54.5)
16.9
(62.4)
18.5
(65.3)
20.3
(68.5)
19.5
(67.1)
19.3
(66.7)
18.7
(65.7)
19.7
(67.5)
18.1
(64.6)
15.6
(60.1)
12.5
(54.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches)7
(0.3)
3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
8
(0.3)
48
(1.9)
105
(4.1)
119
(4.7)
121
(4.8)
84
(3.3)
59
(2.3)
44
(1.7)
24
(0.9)
624
(24.6)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)1.30.50.51.24.710.812.712.79.47.45.83.670.6
Average relative humidity (%)72.071.070.572.072.575.076.076.074.574.575.073.073.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 288.3274.4297.6261.0254.2213.0232.5235.6243.0263.5255.0269.73,087.8
Source #1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (INAMEH) [4] [5]
Source #2: NOAA (extremes, precipitation and sun) [6]

City

Over time Barcelona reached the status of town and municipal seat within this territory, growing into a historical centre of industry and commerce, causing sprawl that has started to meld the other metro-poles in the region: principally the tourist-oriented community of Puerto La Cruz.

Tourism

Between Barcelona and Puerto La Cruz there is Lecheria, Urbaneja Municipality, where the El Morro tourism complex is located. An immense network of canals built to house thousands of local and international tourists in houses, condominiums, apartments and hotels. The complex is home to many marinas and boatyards and is a popular cruising destination for yachtsmen and sport fishing. The canals criss-cross the complex, affording virtually every dwelling access to the sea. One of the most ambitious developments within El Morro is the Maremares Resort and Spa, originally built by Daniel Camejo. Close to El Morro is the modern shopping center Centro Comercial Plaza Mayor, built in the colorful Dutch colonial style, similar to those found in Curaçao.

Transport

Generál José Antonio Anzoátegui International Airport is the principal aerodrome in this region, with connections to other states and National Capital (Caracas). In addition to bus services throughout the State of Anzoátegui, there are also maritime connections to the neighboring islands/islets (such as Las Chimanas, Cachicamo and Borracha) and a ferry to Margarita Island.

Places of interest

Oriental Heroine Monument Tributo reunido a la heroina oriental.jpg
Oriental Heroine Monument
Ermita del Carmen Church Ermita Nuestra Senora del Carmen. Barcelona, Edo. Anzoategui (1).jpg
Ermita del Carmen Church
Intercomunal Avenue Urbanizacion Las Garzas, Barcelona, Venezuela - panoramio (6).jpg
Intercomunal Avenue
Beach in Barcelona La torre en la playa.JPG
Beach in Barcelona

The Barcelona Metropolitan Area has a variety of historic sites that tell how was the place at that time. The city of Barcelona is full of historic sites, this is because it has been featured in various battles between the Spanish and Natives for its colonization. Likewise, this city has been characterized as religious and venerates various saints.

Economic activity is also history in Barcelona. There was great economic exchange through sea ports between the city and the rest of the country.

Each of these sites are intact at the time its various monuments, museums and cathedrals, which offers its visitors the most complete information about the history of the place.

Perhaps most important feature of this church is that under the main altar is a reliquary buried with a bone of each of the seven saints: St. Severino, St. Eustatius, St. Facundo, St. Pedro Alcantara, St. Pacific and St. Athanasius St. Pascual Bailon.

Gardens of the Casa Fuerte Jardines frontales de la Casa Fuerte.jpg
Gardens of the Casa Fuerte

Later in 1777, the Bishop of Puerto Rico, Manuel Jiménez Pérez, brought him from Rome to the church the remains of the martyr St. Celestino, who was one of the main actors of the Crusades. His remains were placed in a shrine located in Baroque and a small chapel on the left wing of the church.

The martyr St. Celestino has been revered since then by the inhabitants of Barcelona and in 1960 was proclaimed Third patron saint of Barcelona. Their celebrations are held on 3 and 4 May of each year.

Also known as "El Cristo de los Viajeros', where the faithful come daily that travel to be entrusted to him to protect them in their journey. This Basilica was built by Dr. Mariano Adrián de la Rosa with personal assets in gratitude for favors received.

The Casa Fuerte provided shelter to the people of this area before the invasion in 1817 by royalist Aldana.

The ruins of this building were seen as a reminder of the slaughter of April 7 of 1817, where old men, women and children were murdered by royalist forces.

To reach this historic site has to cross the Neverí river by the Boyacá bridge, and turn on the small plaza at the end of the bridge. After crossing Neverí river again, follow straight on Miranda Avenue, four blocks ahead. Visitors come to the 5 de Julio Avenue where it will turn to the left, there you will see the Plaza Bolivar and Plaza Miranda. The Casa Fuerte is opposite the Plaza Bolivar.

This plaza was the largest in Barcelona Colonial and little has changed since its construction in 1671. the Government House and the Iglesia de San Cristóbal are still facing each other on both sides of the plaza.

To get to the Plaza Boyacá, follow by 5 de Julio Avenue, and walk five blocks, turn left on the run 11, walk three blocks and cross over to the left on 3rd Street, one block and cross move left to follow the run 12 to the plaza.

This theater is small and charming, has a capacity for 300 people. Here are several plays and concerts.

It is located in the run 15 Carabobo against Plaza Rolando, Barcelona, Anzoategui state.

In the past this house had access to the Neverí River, which served as a dock for boats arriving from the neighboring islands. The Museo de la Tradición consists of more than 400 items, among them the indigenous crafts, sculpture and works of Spanish colonial religious art dating from the 16th century, as well as other historical objects from the city of Barcelona.

Currently there are only memories of the intense activity that took Barcelona port at that time and now only occupy extensive mangrove forests all over the place of what was once a customs house in the country.

The 1812 earthquake destroyed the church, but soon built a grotto to the Virgin, known as the Gruta de San Felipe and leaving only what is now known as the Ruinas de San Felipe Neri.

Neoclassical Line History: The origins of this beautiful Eastern Church dating from the late 18th century a fervent Christian group of locals founded the Confraternity of Our Lady of Carmen. The purpose of the devotees of Carmen was devoted to the task of expanding the faith of the Virgin Mary and seek alms to build a shrine which was subsequently lifted slowly on land that donated Doña Felipa Chirinos.

The Shrine of Our Lady of Carmen had many setbacks during construction. The effects of the war of independence, the conflict between conservatives and liberals, the federal war and continuous revolutions of the 19th century led to the guild did not have enough money to finish quickly the temple which was stopped on several occasions.

Entrance to the Basilica de San Jose. Entrance of the Basilica of Jose, Anzoategui, Venezuela.jpg
Entrance to the Basílica de San José.

After nearly two centuries of construction work the Shrine of Our Lady of Carmen was officially opened in 1896. The governor of Great State of Bermúdez (current Anzoátegui, Sucre and Monagas), General Nicolás Rolando, hired the architect Ramón Irigoyen to complete the work. Previously the bishop of the Diocese of Guiana and Eastern highest ecclesiastical authority, Bishop Manuel Felipe Rodríguez allowed the priest Federico Mendoza officiated the first Mass of the shrine, on July 31 of 1887, but concluded there were still part of the main facade of neoclassical lines, the two towers, the installation of fine black and white marble floor brought the famous Italian quarry of Carrara and finally the valuable stained glass of Italian origin, which are among the most striking of Venezuela.

The waters have a high content of iron and soda, its color is whitish due to large portions of silt in suspension. The temperature ranges between 40 and 50 °C.

In this beautiful place, the water comes from a rock and form a pool of 15 meters in diameter.

It is located about 45 minutes from Port Pamata Cualito. In this place is the island Chimana holiday resorts, which offers restaurant services, among others, to make visitors' stay as pleasant as possible.

Here tourists can enjoy service kiosks, restrooms, tennis Boccia, food, among others.

This heavenly place is situated in the town of Bergantín some 64 kilometers southeast of Puerto La Cruz.

Its course: Take westbound from above leads to populations El Rincón, San Diego and Aragüita from there defines its bottom. From River receives water Macuaral Naricual and The Old Man and the streams Avocados, the still, Coricual, El Chamo, Chuponal, Higuerote, La Palma, Beijing, Peña Blanca, vicar, Seca, El Tigre, and so on.

It empties into the Caribbean Sea at the geographical coordinates 10° 10 '30 "North Latitude and 64° 43' 30" West Longitude. Its approximate distance is 103 kilometers.

International relations

Barcelona is twinned with the following cities:

Notable people

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References

Notes
  1. 1 2 3 4 Krzysztof Dydynski, Charlotte Beech (1972), p.244
  2. The cathedral suffered damages during its construction period, caused by a local earthquake; its several decades of construction reflect the original building project and repairs after this earthquake
  3. The discovered bodies included women, children and wounded; its ruins stand now as a reminder of the great suffering that characterized Venezuela's War of Independence. The ruins are framed by statues of the martyred heroes Eulalia Buroz and Pedro María Freites.
  4. "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Máximas y Mínimas Medias" (PDF). INAMEH (in Spanish). Archived from the original (pdf) on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  5. "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Medias" (PDF). INAMEH (in Spanish). Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-06-15. Retrieved October 2012.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. "Barcelona Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved August 12, 2015.
Sources