|Purpose||screen for developmental dysplasia of hip|
The Barlow maneuver is a physical examination performed on infants to screen for developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is named for Dr. Thomas Geoffrey Barlow (September 25, 1915 – May 25, 1975), an English orthopedic surgeon, who devised this test. It was clinically tested during 1957–1962 at Hope Hospital, Salford, Lancashire.
An infant is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human. The term may also be used to refer to juveniles of other organisms.
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.
The maneuver is easily performed by adducting the hip (bringing the thigh towards the midline) while applying pressure on the knee, directing the force posteriorly.
If the hip is dislocatable — that is, if the hip can be popped out of socket with this maneuver — the test is considered positive. The Ortolani maneuver is then used, to confirm the positive finding (i.e., that the hip actually dislocated).
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), is a rare congenital malformation syndrome featuring underdevelopment of the optic nerve, pituitary gland dysfunction, and absence of the septum pellucidum. Two of these features need to be present for a clinical diagnosis — only 30% of patients have all three. De Mosier first recognized the relation of a rudimentary or absent septum pellucidum with hypoplasia of the optic nerves and chiasm in 1956.
In dogs, hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints. It is a genetic (polygenic) trait that is affected by environmental factors. It is common in many dog breeds, particularly the larger breeds, and is the most common single cause of arthritis of the hips.
A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation. Dislocations are often caused by sudden trauma on the joint like an impact or fall. A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Dislocations can occur in any joint major or minor. The most common joint dislocation is a shoulder dislocation.
Barlow may refer to:
The gluteal sulcus is an area of the body of humans and great apes, described by a horizontal crease formed by the inferior aspect of the buttocks and the posterior upper thigh. The gluteal sulcus is formed by the posterior horizontal skin crease of the hip joint and overlying fat, and is not formed by the lower border of the gluteus maximus muscle, which crosses the fold obliquely. It is one of the major defining features of the buttocks. Children with developmental dysplasia of the hips are born with uneven gluteal folds and can be diagnosed with physical examination and sonogram.
Romberg's test, Romberg's sign, or the Romberg maneuver is a test used in an exam of neurological function for balance, and also as a test for driving under the influence of an intoxicant. The exam is based on the premise that a person requires at least two of the three following senses to maintain balance while standing: proprioception ; vestibular function ; and vision.
A hip dislocation a disruption of the joint between the femur and pelvis. Specifically it is when the ball–shaped head of the femur comes out of the cup–shaped acetabulum of the pelvis. Symptoms typically include pain and an inability move the hip. Complications may include avascular necrosis of the hip, injury to the sciatic nerve, or arthritis.
Gaenslen's test, also known as Gaenslen's maneuver, is a medical test used to detect musculoskeletal abnormalities and primary-chronic inflammation of the lumbar vertebrae and sacroiliac joint. This test is often used to test for spondyloarthritis, sciatica, or other forms of rheumatism, and is often performed during checkup visits in patients who have been diagnosed with one of the former disorders. It is named after Frederick Julius Gaenslen, the orthopedic surgeon who invented the test. This test is often performed alongside Patrick's test and Yeoman's test.
In medicine, physiotherapy, chiropractic, and osteopathy the hip examination, or hip exam, is undertaken when a patient has a complaint of hip pain and/or signs and/or symptoms suggestive of hip joint pathology. It is a physical examination maneuver.
The Dix–Hallpike test — or Nylen–Barany test — is a diagnostic maneuver used to identify benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
The Ortolani test is part of the physical examination for developmental dysplasia of the hip, along with the Barlow maneuver. Specifically, the Ortolani test is positive when a posterior dislocation of the hip is reducible with this maneuver. This is part of the standard infant exam performed preferably in early infancy.
Ortolani may refer to:
Hip dysplasia is an abnormality of the hip joint where the socket portion does not fully cover the ball portion, resulting in an increased risk for joint dislocation. congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) Hip dysplasia may occur at birth or develop in early life. Regardless, it does not typically produce symptoms in babies less than a year old. Occasionally one leg may be shorter than the other. The left hip is more often affected than the right. Complications without treatment can include arthritis, limping, and low back pain.
The Galeazzi test, also known as the Allis sign, is used to assess for hip dislocation, primarily in order to test for developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is performed by flexing an infant's knees when they are lying down so that the feet touch the surface and the ankles touch the buttocks. If the knees are not level then the test is positive, indicating a potential congenital hip malformation.
Trevor disease, also known as Fairbank's disease and Trevor's disease, is a congenital bone developmental disorder. There is 1 case per million population. The condition is three times more common in males than in females.
The Thomas test is a physical examination test, named after Dr. Hugh Owen Thomas (1834–1891), a British orthopaedic surgeon, used to rule out hip flexion contracture and psoas syndrome. Often associated with runners, dancers, and gymnasts who complain of hip "stiffness" and reported "snapping" feeling when flexing at the waist.
Sacroiliac joint dysfunction generally refers to pain in the sacroiliac joint region that is caused by abnormal motion in the sacroiliac joint, either too much motion or too little motion. It typically results in inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, and can be debilitating.
Orthopedic surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal injuries, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, bone tumours, and congenital limb deformities. Trauma surgery and traumatology is a sub-specialty dealing with the operative management of fractures, major trauma and the multiply-injured patient.
Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN), is a very rare genetic disorder. This disorder is one that affects bone growth and is characterized by skeletal, brain, and skin abnormalities. Those affected by the disorder are severely short in height and commonly possess shorter arms and legs. In addition, the bones of the legs are often bowed and the affected have smaller chests with shorter rib bones, along with curved collarbones. Other symptoms of the disorder include broad fingers and extra folds of skin on the arms and legs. Developmentally, many individuals who suffer from the disorder show a higher level in delays and disability. Seizures are also common due to structural abnormalities of the brain. Those affected may also suffer with apnea, the slowing or loss of breath for short periods of time.
Projectional radiography ("X-ray") is one of the two main modalities of medical imaging to diagnose hip dysplasia, the other one being medical ultrasonography.. Ultrasound imaging yields better results defining the anatomy until the cartilage is ossified. When the infant is around 3 months old a clear roentgenographic image can be achieved. Unfortunately the time the joint gives a good x-ray image is also the point at which nonsurgical treatment methods cease to give good results.
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