Barony (Ireland)

Last updated

Map of the Baronies of Ireland in 1899 IrelandBaronies1899Map.png
Map of the Baronies of Ireland in 1899

In Ireland, a barony (Irish : barúntacht, plural barúntachtaí [1] ) is a historical subdivision of a county, analogous to the hundreds into which the counties of England were divided. Baronies were created during the Tudor reconquest of Ireland, replacing the earlier cantreds formed after the original Norman invasion. [2] Some early baronies were later subdivided into half baronies with the same standing as full baronies.

Contents

Baronies were mainly cadastral rather than administrative units. They acquired modest local taxation and spending functions in the 19th century before being superseded by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898. Subsequent adjustments of county boundaries mean that some baronies now straddle two counties. [3]

The final catalogue of baronies numbered 331, with an average area of 255 km2 (98 sq mi; 63,000 acres); therefore, each county was divided, on average, into 10 or 11 baronies.

Creation

The island of Ireland was "shired" into counties in two distinct periods: the east and south during the Anglo-Norman period (from the 1169 invasion to the early fourteenth century) and the rest in the Tudor conquest of the sixteenth century. "Barony" was used in three overlapping but distinct senses in the early period:

Over the centuries, these senses diverged, and many administrative baronies have never been associated with feudal or noble titles. [4] Spurious "barony" titles have been sold by using the names of administrative baronies for which there is no corresponding hereditary or prescriptive barony. [4] [5] In counties Louth and Meath, the administrative subdivisions were called "baronies" from the beginning, [4] originally as portions given by Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath to his vassals. Further south the name "cantred" was used till the fifteenth century. [4] The cantreds declined with the rest of the English colony as its influence retreated to the Pale in the fourteenth century, and when the Tudors and Stuarts revived and extended county government, the baronies which they delimited often bore little relation to the earlier cantreds. [2] [4]

Most cantreds corresponded to the túath ('country') or trícha cét ('thirty hundred [men]') of a Gaelic chief. However, sometimes baronies combined small territories, or split a large one, or were created without regard for the earlier boundaries. [4] In the Norman period most Gaelic chiefs were killed, expelled, or subordinated by the new Norman lord; in the Tudor period, many Gaelic and Hibernicized lords retained their land by pledging allegiance to the Crown under surrender and regrant.

Sir John Perrot's commissioners reported 184 "cantreds, otherwise called hundreds or baronies" in 1589; [6] William Petty reported 252 baronies in 1672. [7]

Baronies were sometimes subdivided, and occasionally combined. The parts of a subdivided barony were called half-baronies, but had the same legal standing. Some subdivisions came about when new counties were formed, and the new boundary split a pre-existing barony. In three cases, there are adjacent half-baronies in neighbouring counties with the same name: Rathdown (DublinWicklow), Fore (MeathWestmeath), and Ballymoe (GalwayRoscommon). Subdivision happened especially in the 19th century, when qualifiers "Upper"/"Lower"(/"Middle"), "North"/"South", or "East/"West" were used for the half-baronies. [4] The main basis for this subdivision was the Grand Jury (Ireland) Act, 1836, which empowered a county's grand jury to divide baronies of at least 45,000 acres (18,000 ha) and unite baronies totalling at most 40,000 acres (16,000 ha). [8] An 1837 act relaxed these restrictions for County Fermanagh, where many baronies were split by Lough Erne. [9] The baronies of Iveagh, Muskerry, and Connello were each subdivided twice: Upper and Lower Iveagh each have Upper and Lower Halves; East and West Muskerry each have East and West Divisions; the western divisions split from Upper and Lower Connello were named Shanid and Glenquin respectively. [10] [11] When County Tipperary was split into North and South Ridings in 1838, the barony of Kilnamanagh was split into Upper and Lower half-baronies. [12]

At the Reformation the parishes for civil purposes were the ecclesiastical parishes of the established Church of Ireland. Originally each parish was usually within a single barony, but less so over time. A townland might be an exclave of a parish, and potentially of its barony; under the Valuation of Lands (Ireland) Act 1836, detached parts of baronies were annexed to an adjacent barony, but not so for parishes. [13] The rationalisation of small ecclesiastical parishes into larger benefices sometimes entailed merging the corresponding civil parishes, which might thus cross barony (and county) boundaries.

Peculiar districts

Many towns had a specific royal charter granting them borough status similar to English law. These were originally independent of the baronies, which were rural divisions of the "county at large". By the time of Beaufort's 1792 Memoir of Ireland, this was true of fewer towns. Beaufort distinguishes between baronies and "peculiar districts"; the latter encompassing counties corporate and liberties in the environs of some of the older or larger towns and cities.

Liberties

The liberties listed by Beaufort separately from baronies are those of Kinsale, Mallow and Youghal in County Cork; [14] Callan in County Kilkenny; [15] Kilmallock in County Limerick; [16] Derry and Coleraine in County Londonderry; [17] and Wexford in County Wexford. [18] Of these, those of Wexford, Mallow, and Youghal are no longer counted as separate from the adjacent baronies. Those of Kinsale, Callen, and Kilmallock are now counted as baronies. A 1791 act dealt with the two in County Londonderry; it made the North West Liberties of Londonderry, together with the city, into a barony, while the liberties on the east bank of the River Foyle were attached to the half barony of Tirkeeran. [19] Similarly, the North East Liberties of Coleraine formed a barony together with the town, while the liberties on the west bank of the River Bann were attached to the separate half-barony of Coleraine. [19] The lands of the Lordship of Newry, originating with the Cistercians of Newry Abbey and passing to the Earl of Kilmorey, were similarly regularised into a barony of County Down and a civil parish of County Armagh. [20]

Counties corporate

There were eight counties corporate: the "County of the City" of each of Cork, Dublin, Limerick, Kilkenny, and Waterford, and the "County of the Town" of each of Carrickfergus, Drogheda and Galway. [21] [22] These were excluded from the enclosing "county-at-large" and exercised at a single level the functions which elsewhere were split between county and barony level. [22] Thus, they had "baronial presentment sessions" although they were not strictly speaking baronies. [23] [24] Each such city or town also had a municipal corporation which had parallel authority with the grand jury; however, each county corporate except Carrickfergus included rural "liberties" outside the municipal boundary. The Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 abolished the corporations of Carrickfergus and Galway, while the Counties and Boroughs (Ireland) Act 1840, passed simultaneously, transferred the liberties of the other six counties corporate to the adjoining county-at-large. The transferred area was sometimes assigned to one or more existing county baronies, but sometimes made a barony in its own right. The reduced-size counties corporate continued till the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, at which point each of those of Kilkenny and the three towns was merged with a neighbouring county to form a new administrative county, while the other four counties of cities each became a county borough. Both before and after 1898, where a statute presupposed that a county was divided into baronies, judges sometimes construed it by assuming that each county corporate constituted a single barony. [23] [25]

Historical functions

The various Plantations of Ireland were organised largely by barony. Different categories of English and Scottish settlers were planted in particular baronies in the midlands and Munster. Likewise the "precincts" into which the plantation of Ulster was organised were mostly coterminous with baronies, though some were split or combined. [26] In certain counties after the Cromwellian reconquest, Adventurers got lands in half the baronies, with soldiers in the other half. [27] The Irish who had forfeited their lands in those regions were resettled in Connacht and Clare, with each county of origin assigned to particular destination baronies. [28] William Petty's Down Survey of 1655–6 collected statistics and produced maps at barony level to assist the reorganisation.

Acts of 1787 and 1792 allowed the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to appoint a constable for each barony, and the county grand jury to appoint up to 16 sub-constables. These powers were seldom used and the constables had few powers; they were usually older men nicknamed "old Barnys", with the archetypal "old Barny McKeown". [29] They were superseded by the Royal Irish Constabulary. [29]

The cess to pay for roads, bridges, and other public works was set per barony. "Presentment sessions", where petitioners applied for funding for such works, were originally held as part of the county assizes, though the costs were paid from the barony cess if the work was of local benefit only. The county grand jury was supposed to have included jurors from each barony, though this did not always happen. [30] From 1819, [31] significantly modified in 1836, [32] baronial presentment sessions were held for these purposes, with a local jury picked by the county grand jury from among the barony's highest rate-payers, according to a complicated formula. [33] The baronial presentment sessions were a convoluted process, lacking public confidence and marred by allegations of corruption and favouritism. [33] Special emergency sessions were held during the Famine of the 1840s for the make-work schemes. [33]

Several parallel local administrative divisions were formed in the nineteenth century, which were not based on the barony. [4] The Poor Law Unions were established in 1838, each centred on an eponymous town; most new or altered responsibilities were given to them in subsequent decades. [34] These Unions which were divided into district electoral divisions (DEDs) for funding purposes. [35] Petty sessions courts for civil cases and quarter sessions for criminal cases used still another set of land divisions.

For each two-seat county constituency in the Irish House of Commons, the election was held in the county town, with a separate polling booth for electors resident in each barony or half-baroiny. The single-seat divisions into which the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 split most Irish county constituencies were defined largely or exclusively in terms of the baronies which they comprised; however, in some cases a barony was split parish by parish between two divisions. The 1891 census was the last for which returns were aggregated by barony as well as by Union and DED; the 1901 census used only the latter classification, though it and the 1911 census included the barony in the detailed returns.

The 1898 Act replaced the county assizes with an elected county council; at a lower level, the county was divided into urban districts and rural districts, each with an elected council. These councils had power to levy rates and build public works, and the baronial presentment sessions were abolished.

Modern existence

While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". [36]

Baronies continue to be used in land registration, and specification such as in planning permissions. For example, the form for registration of a freehold property includes a schedule "To contain description of the property, giving area, townland, barony and county, or, if in a city or urban district, the street or road and city or urban district". [37]

Barony boundaries have remained essentially unchanged since 1898. An exception occurs when land is reclaimed from the sea, whereupon the maritime boundary of the coastal land units will be extended accordingly. For example, a 1994 statutory instrument extended the boundary of the Barony of Arklow, along with the boundaries of the county (Wicklow), the district electoral division (Arklow Rural), the civil parish (Arklow), and the townlands (Rock Big, Rock Little, and Money Big). [38]

The Local Government (Ireland) Act also caused a number of county boundaries to be modified, with the result that a number of baronies now cross county boundaries. This can cause confusion to genealogy researchers, who may be unable to find an area referred to as being in a particular county in 19th century sources in the modern county. Most markedly, the entire territory of the small barony of Kilculliheen was moved from County Waterford to County Kilkenny. Likewise in 1976, when suburbs of Drogheda were transferred from County Meath to County Louth, barony boundaries were not adjusted. [39]

The marginal relevance of baronies means many people have no idea which barony they live in. [4] However, some remain a focus for local patriotism. Some public houses and older provincial hotels bear the name of the barony in which they are located; likewise some clubs of the Gaelic Athletic Association, for example Carbury (County Kildare), Castlerahan, and Kilmurry Ibrickane. Four of the six regional divisions of Cork GAA are named after baronies corresponding to major parts of their respective areas: Carbery, Duhallow, Imokilly, and Muskerry.

List of baronies

The final catalogue of baronies numbered 331. A figure of 273 is also quoted, by combining those divided into half-baronies, as by East/West, North/South, or Upper/Middle/Lower divisions. Every point in Ireland is in precisely one of the listed divisions. However, the municipal area of the four cities with barony status in 1898 has extended since then into the surrounding baronies. Prior to 1898, the baronies around Dublin City were shrunk according as they ceded land to the expanding city; but there is now land which is both within the current city boundaries and within one of the pre-1898 county baronies. Notably, the Barony of Dublin, created in 1842, is almost entirely within the city, although still separate from the Barony of Dublin City.

See also

Related Research Articles

Counties of Ireland Administrative division of Ireland, historically 32 in number

The counties of Ireland are historic administrative divisions of the island, now used in various contexts. They began as Norman structures, and as the powers exercised by the Cambro-Norman barons and the Old English nobility waned over time, new offices of political control came to be established at a county level.

A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district, particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries.

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County in the Republic of Ireland

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Dublin Region in the province of Leinster. It is named after the former borough of Dún Laoghaire and the barony of Rathdown. Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 218,018 at the time of the 2016 census.

Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 United Kingdom legislation

The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that established a system of local government in Ireland similar to that already created for England, Wales and Scotland by legislation in 1888 and 1889. The Act effectively ended landlord control of local government in Ireland.

A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries.

A county corporate or corporate county was a type of subnational division used for local government in England, Wales, and Ireland.

An electoral division is the smallest legally defined administrative areas in Ireland for which small area population statistics are published from the Census. There are a total of 3,440 electoral divisions in Ireland. They are used to define local electoral areas for elections to county and city councils and to define constituencies in elections to Dáil Éireann. Until 1994, they were known as district electoral divisions (DED) in the county council areas and wards in the five county boroughs which were then in existence. Electoral divisions are local administrative units within the NUTS system of the European Union.

Counties of Northern Ireland Former principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is divided into six counties, namely: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone. Six largely rural administrative counties based on these were among the eight primary local government areas of Northern Ireland from its 1921 creation until 1973. The other two local government areas were the urban county boroughs of Derry and Belfast.

Carrickfergus (barony) Place in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Carrickfergus is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is bounded on the south-east by Belfast Lough, and otherwise surrounded by the barony of Belfast Lower. It is coextensive with the civil parish of Carrickfergus or St Nicholas and corresponds to the former county of the town of Carrickfergus, a county corporate encompassing Carrickfergus town.

Kilculliheen Barony in Leinster, Ireland

Kilculliheen is a civil parish, electoral division and barony in Ireland, on the north bank of the River Suir across from the centre of Waterford City. Historically, it has been transferred several times between the county of the city of Waterford and the counties of Kilkenny and Waterford. It now contains the only part of Waterford city on the left bank of the River Suir. The Parliamentary Gazetteer of 1846 states "as it lies on the left bank of the Suir, which, for the most part, divides co. Waterford from co. Kilkenny, most topographists mistakingly assign it to the barony of Ida, co. Kilkenny". It is now partly in County Kilkenny and partly in Waterford City. Of the barony's eleven townlands, five are entirely in Kilkenny and six are split between Kilkenny and Waterford. The city portion contains the former village of Ferrybank, which gives its name to a wider suburb which has spread across the county boundary.

Civil parishes in Ireland Administrative division of Ireland

Civil parishes are units of territory in the island of Ireland that have their origins in old Gaelic territorial divisions. They were adopted by the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland and then by the Elizabethan Kingdom of Ireland, and were formalised as land divisions at the time of the Plantations of Ireland. They no longer correspond to the boundaries of Roman Catholic or Church of Ireland parishes, which are generally larger. Their use as administrative units was gradually replaced by Poor Law Divisions in the 19th century, although they were not formally abolished. Today they are still sometimes used for legal purposes.

Dublin is one of the baronies of Ireland, an historical geographical unit of land. Its chief town is Donnybrook. It was created by the 1840 Acts from lands that were previously liberties in the county of the City of Dublin. Its name and area were confirmed by the Dublin Baronies Act 1842.

Nethercross is a feudal title of one of the baronies of Ireland. Originally part of the Lordship of Meath, it was then constituted as part of the old county of Dublin. Today, it lies in the modern county of Fingal.

Rathdown (County Dublin barony) Barony in Dublin, Republic of Ireland

Rathdown is the south-easternmost barony in County Dublin, Ireland. It gives its name to the administrative county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown. Before County Wicklow was shired in 1606, Rathdown extended further south: it was named after a medieval settlement which grew up around Rathdown Castle, at a site subsequently deserted and now in County Wicklow in the townland of Rathdown Upper, north of Greystones. The Wicklow barony of Rathdown corresponds to the portion transferred to the new county; although both divisions were originally classed as "half baronies", in the nineteenth century the distinction between a barony and a half barony was obsolete.

A cantred was a subdivision of a county in the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, analogous to the cantref of Wales or the hundred of England. In County Dublin the equivalent unit was termed a serjeanty, while in County Meath and environs it was a barony. The area of a cantred usually corresponded to that of an earlier trícha cét of Gaelic Ireland, and sometimes to that of a rural deanery in the medieval Irish church. Paul Mac Cotter has "demonstrated the existence of 151 certain cantreds and indicated the probable existence of a further 34." Cantreds were replaced by baronies from the sixteenth century.

Galway is a barony in Ireland, comprising the city of Galway and parts of the surrounding county of Galway. It is coterminous with the former County of the Town of Galway, a county corporate created by the town's 1610 charter and abolished by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.

Callan (barony) Barony in Leinster, Ireland

The barony of Callan is a barony in the west of County Kilkenny, Ireland. The barony is 22.9 square kilometres (8.8 sq mi) in size. It is one of 12 baronies in County Kilkenny. Unusually for a barony, it contains only two civil parishes which together comprise 65 townlands. The chief town is Callan. The barony is bordered by the baronies of Shillelogher to the north and by Kells to the south. The N76 road bisects the barony. Notable features include Callan Motte and Callan Augustinian Friary.

Coolock is one of the baronies of Ireland. It was constituted as part of the old county of Dublin. Today, it covers much of the northern parts of the city of Dublin and the south-eastern part of the modern county of Fingal. At the heart of the barony is the civil parish of the same name - Coolock - which is one of twenty civil parishes in the barony.

Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act 1543 Irish Act dividing County Meath into Meath and Westmeath

An Act for the division of Meath into two shires was an Act of the Parliament of Ireland passed in 1542 which resulted in the division of County Meath, shired in 1297, into the counties of Meath and Westmeath. The Act commenced on Saint Catherine's Day in 1542 and remains in effect.

References

  1. "barony". Focal . Retrieved 8 December 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  2. 1 2 Mac Cotter 2005, pp.327–330
  3. General Register Office of Ireland (1904). "Alphabetical index to the baronies of Ireland". Census of Ireland 1901: General topographical index. Command papers. Cd. 2071. HMSO. pp. 966–978.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Nicholls 1996
  5. Burns, John (24 July 2005). "Experts attack sale of "bogus" Barony of Clare for €90,000". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  6. History of the political connection between England and Ireland p.121,fn by William Barron, 1780
  7. Petty, The Political Anatomy of Ireland, Chapter VI [ permanent dead link ]
  8. "Grand Jury (Ireland) Act, 1836". Irish Statute Book . pp. 175: Baronies, &c. may be divided, or may be united. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  9. County Fermanagh Baronies Act, 1837 1 Vict. c.82
  10. lewis, Samuel (1837). "Limerick". A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland.
  11. Westropp, Thomas Johnson (1907). "The Ancient Castles of the County of Limerick (Western Baronies)". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C. Royal Irish Academy. 26: 201–472. JSTOR   25502743.
  12. Murphy, Donal A. (1994). The two Tipperarys: the national and local politics —devolution and self-determination— of the unique 1838 division into two ridings, and the aftermath. Regional studies in political and administrative history. 1. Relay. p.  71. ISBN   0-946327-14-9.
  13. "c.84 §§51–53". Valuation of Lands (Ireland) Act 1836. Public General Statutes. 6 & 7 William IV. G. W. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen. 1836. pp. 742–3. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  14. Beaufort 1792 p.94
  15. Beaufort 1792 p.52
  16. Beaufort 1792 p.86
  17. Beaufort 1792 p.25
  18. Beaufort 1792 p.49
  19. 1 2 Richard Nun, ed. (1801). "40 Geo iii c.80: An Act to explain and amend an Act passed in the Thirty-fifth Year of his present Majesty's Reign, entitled An Act for regulating the Election of Members to serve in Parliament, and for repealing the several Acts therein mentioned, and to explain and amend an Act passed in the Thirty-Seventh Year of said Reign, entitled An Act for the further Regulation of the Election of Members to serve in Parliament.". From the Thirty-ninth Year of George III. A. D. 1799, to the Fortieth Year of George III. A. D. 1800, inclusive. Statutes passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland ...: from the third year of Edward the second, A.D. 1310 to the fortieth year of George III A.D. 1800, inclusive. 12. George Grierson. pp. 300–303.
  20. Parliamentary gazetteer of Ireland, Vol.III pp.23–4
  21. Clarkson et al, Notes on Baronies of Ireland
  22. 1 2 Hancock 1876
  23. 1 2 "Cases in the Queen's Bench: In re Miller and Dowell. In re Meade". Irish Law Reports. Dublin: Hodges and Smith. 2: 307. 1840. There are other acts which have been held not to extend to the county of the city of Dublin on account of this word "barony" occurring in them
  24. County Works (Ireland) Act 1846 [9 & 10 Vict. c. 2] s.23
  25. "Reports; Murphy v Cork County Council" . New Irish Jurist and Local Government Review. 2 (49): 289. 17 October 1902. JSTOR   44606341 via HeinOnline.
  26. Hill, George (1877). "6: Results and Arrangements; II.". An Historical Account of the Plantation in Ulster at the Commencement of the Seventeenth Century, 1608–1620. Belfast: M'Caw, Stevenson & Orr. pp. 201–4. ISBN   9785876338280 . Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  27. Prendergast 1868, pp. 79–80
  28. Prendergast 1868, pp. 208–210
  29. 1 2 Curtis, Robert H. (1871). "1: Position of matters previous to the formation of the Constabulary". The History of the Royal Irish Constabulary (2nd ed.). Dublin: McGlashan & Gill. pp. 2–3.
  30. Roche, Desmond; John Collins (1982). "Origins of Irish Local Government". Local government in Ireland (3rd ed.). Institute of Public Administration. pp. 27–31. ISBN   0-906980-06-2.
  31. 59 Geo.III c.84
  32. 3 & 4 Will.IV c.116
  33. 1 2 3 Hancock 1876, pp.186–91
  34. Hancock 1876, p.177
  35. Hancock 1876, pp.173–4
  36. Irish Statute Book, Statutory Instruments: 2003 Nos 520, 521, 522, 523, 525; 2004 No 872; 2005 No 847
  37. "S.I. No. 349/2009 – Land Registration Rules 2009". Irish Statute Book. Government of Ireland. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  38. "S.I. No. 333/1994 – Maritime Boundaries (County of Wicklow) Order, 1994". Irish Statute Book. Government of Ireland. 25 October 1994. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  39. "Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation Act, 1976". Irish Statute Book. Government of Ireland. 20 December 1976. Retrieved 20 March 2010.

Bibliography