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Barra da Tijuca
Panoramic view of Barra da Tijuca
|State||Rio de Janeiro (RJ)|
|Municipality/City||Rio de Janeiro|
Barra da Tijuca (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈbaʁɐ dɐ tʃiˈʒukɐ] ) (usually known as Barra) is a neighborhood or bairro in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, located in the western portion of the city on the Atlantic Ocean. Barra is well known for its beaches, its many lakes and rivers, and its lifestyle. This neighbourhood represents 4.7% of the city population and 13% of the total area of Rio de Janeiro.
Barra da Tijuca is classified as one of the most developed places in Brazil, with one of the highest Human Development Indexes (HDI) in the country, as measured in the 2000 Brazil Census.[ citation needed ] Unlike the South Zone and Rio's Downtown, Barra da Tijuca, built only 30 years ago, follows the Modernist standards, with large boulevards creating the major transit axis. The area's masterplan was designed by Lúcio Costa, known for his work on Brasília, and creates a region filled with many gardens, shopping malls, apartment buildings and large mansions. In recent years, because of the development of the Brazilian economy, Barra has received more than 100,000 new residents and many companies' headquarters looking for a more modern address. Demographic data indicates that the region is the fastest growing county in Rio: 98,851 in 1991, 174,353 in 2000, and 300,823 in 2010.
Those born in Barra da Tijuca, or those who live there, are called Barristas, or Barrenses. The neighborhood is a cultural, economic, and administrative hub of the city, and is believed to be the safest of Rio's upper-class neighbourhoods because of its lack of favelas and plentiful private and public security. It is the home of several celebrities and football players. In August 2016, Barra hosted most of the venues of the 2016 Summer Olympics, the first held in South America.
The name Barra da Tijuca can be roughly translated as "clay sandbank". Barra means port entrance or sandbank, and Tijuca is a word originally from the Tupi ty-yúc and means putrid water, mud, swamp, puddle, clay or clay-pit. Tijuca (Portuguese pronunciation: [tʃiˈʒukɐ] ) (meaning marsh or swamp) from ty ("water") and îuká ("to kill").
The region of Barra da Tijuca was originally a large beach, with typical undergrowth sandbanks. The area, full of swamps and unsuitable for planting, remained unoccupied until the middle of the twentieth century, even though occasional groups of fishermen frequented the region. In 1667, the region was given to religious Benedictines, who settled only in the neighborhoods of Camorim, Vargem Pequena, and Vargem Grande. In 1900, the lands of Barra da Tijuca and Baixada Jacarepaguá were sold to the company Remedial Territorial Agricultural and SA, ESTA, which remains a large land owner in the area. The concentration of large tracts of land in the hands of a few was one of the causes of its late growth. Additionally it is separated from the rest of the municipality by large, difficult-to-cross mountain ranges with peaks ranging from 800–1200 meters.
Development of the area took place initially on its two ends, in current Jardim Oceânico and in Recreio dos Bandeirantes. A bridge was then built by private initiative over the Tijuca Lagoon to serve the area's new inhabitants. Significant early development of Barra da Tijuca occurred during the administration of Governor Negrão de Lima, the former governor of the state of Guanabara, who commissioned Lúcio Costa, one of the region's urban designers. The plan for Barra in 1969 was similar to the earlier one for Brasília. It was inspired by American urban planning style with wide boulevards and large open spaces.
In the 1970s the Lagoa–Barra Highway was built, which allowed a greater development since it reduced the time to go to the South Zone of the city of Rio. At the same time, large planned condominiums were developed in Barra, such as the condominiums Nova Ipanema and Novo Leblon. In the 1990s, another large urban development that enabled better connection with the North Zone of Rio was the creation of the Yellow Line, an expressway linking Barra da Tijuca to the Galeão International Airport. Since then, the growth of Barra da Tijuca has been characterized by large inflows of people from all parts of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro.
During the 1980s, Barra da Tijuca experienced a population explosion, with virtually all the land along its boulevards occupied by large residential condominiums, parks, supermarkets, shopping malls, schools and hospitals. The avenues were widened and received traffic lights. At this time there was a movement for the declaration of Barra as a separate city; While there was a referendum to this effect, and a majority of voters voted to make it a separate city, turnout was too low for it to succeed. [ citation needed ]
There is still a bill in progress in the Legislative Assembly of Rio de Janeiro for the formation of a new Barra da Tijuca council from the region's districts (Barra, Recreio, Grumari, Vargem Pequena, Vargem Grande, Itanhangá, Joá e Camorim). The project, however, depends on the approval of the Federal Congressional bill PEC 13/03, which transfers to the states the power to legislate on this matter, as it was until 1996.
As the most recent region, built only about thirty years ago, Barra introduced a way of living characterized by large luxury condominiums with leisure infrastructure (sports courts, pools, private groves and lakes, spas, gyms) inside of the condominium for the use of its residents and guests. The "neighborhood-condos", as they were named, have the idea of creating an exclusive neighborhood for its residents, making it possible for them to live a complete life without the need to leave the condominium. The condos also have a high security system to ensure the privacy and safety of its residents. The residential areas of Barra are also known as being environmentally friendly.[ citation needed ]
The region is characterized by a car culture, and is crossed by three main routes: the Avenue of the America - "Avenida das Américas" (the main road in the region, approximately 21 km long), "Avenida Ayrton Senna" (which connects the district of Barra and the Yellow Line, or 'Linha Amarela' highway) and "Avenida Lúcio Costa", formerly Sernambetiba Avenue, which follows the coastline.
Jardim Oceânico (Portuguese: Ocean Garden) is a subdistrict of Barra da Tijuca. Predominantly formed by three-story buildings It is an area similar to the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. As part of the preparations for the Rio 2016 Olympics, a subway station was opened in the neighborhood. The mainly residential area is also home to several bars and restaurants on the Olegario Maciel and Erico Verissimo streets.
Península was designed by a real estate company, the original project being the creation of a new environmentally friendly neighborhood called Península Barra. However, the project evolved from being a neighborhood to a massive private urban development complex, making the Península (which has the same size of Leblon's neighborhood) the newest and first eco-friendly urban development complex in Rio de Janeiro. Located in the heart of Barra, right behind the Barra Shopping in an area surrounded by its own private lake (Península Bay) and extensive leisure infrastructure, Península won the prize of the best urban development complex in Brazil. The complex, which still has some towers under construction, will consist at its completion of 62 residential towers, two business towers, a mini mall, five theme gardens and two large parks. The real estate boom in Rio after the city was chosen for the 2016 Summer Olympics affected the prices in Península; researches show that the prices have increased up to 300%, making the square meter in Península one of the most expensive in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The complex, considered one of the best family urban developments in the city,[ citation needed ] is now one of the favorite places of the celebrities of Rede Globo.[ citation needed ]
Several universities have a campus in the district, including Universidade Estácio de Sá, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Universidade Gama Filho, Universidade Veiga de Almeida, Centro Universitário IBMR-Laureate and Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais. Schools in the district include the Escola Suíço-Brasileira Rio de Janeiro.
The neighborhood of Barra is home to many large modern malls, including Barra Shopping on Avenue of the Americas.
There are three main avenues in Barra: Avenida das Américas (which connects almost the whole area of Barra), Avenida Ayrton Senna (formerly Avenida Alvorada, which connects Barra to Jacarepaguá neighbourhood) and Avenida Lúcio costa (formerly Avenida Sernambetiba, which passes alongside the beach). The connection works of Barra with the rest of the urban network are among the most expensive works already carried out in Rio. Barra has many bus routes and in 2009, Barra's subway line started to be built for the 2016 Rio Summer Olympics. Jacarepaguá Airport, an airport specialized in general aviation, is also located in the neighborhood.
The 18 km long beach is the largest of Rio de Janeiro's beaches. Barra's beach starts at Morro do Joá and ends at the Recreio dos Bandeirantes neighborhood, in Pontal de Sernambetiba, beyond Avenida Lúcio Costa. Most of its waters are clear and green, and have an uncommon wave formation.[ clarification needed ] Barra da Tijuca beach is one of the most sought after beaches by surfers, windsurfers, bodyboarders, kitesurfers and fishing enthusiasts. There is also a cycling lane along the beach. Pepê beach, closer do Morro do Joá, has kite surf schools, food kiosks, and surf schools.
The Teatro dos Grandes Atores (Great Actors Theater) is located in the Shopping Barra Square mall. It has a small 35 square metres (380 sq ft) foyer, and two auditoriums, each with 396 seats, the Blue Room and the Red Room. Both have good acoustics, and balconies that give good views of the stage. The theater opened in 1995 with Aparecida Margarida, with Marília Pêra, in the Blue Room and A Era do Rádio directed by Sérgio Britto in the Red Room.Ricardo Torres was staged here in 1996. Since 2009 the theater has partnered with Agência do Bem, and since 2011 has let the agency's Orquestra Nova Sinfonia, a youth orchestra, use its stage for rehearsals.
The influence from different countries is criticized by many citizens from the older areas of Rio de Janeiro, especially concerning the 26.8 meters (88 feet) high replica of the Statue of Liberty in the New York City Center.[ citation needed ] Barra also has replicas of many international architectural icons like the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Tower Bridge of London, and the Eiffel Tower of Paris (all found in the Barra World Shopping Center).
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state, after São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.
Florianópolis is the capital and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil. The city encompasses Santa Catarina Island and surrounding small islands, as well as part of the mainland. It has a population of 477,798, according to the 2016 IBGE population estimate, the second most populous city in the state, and the 47th in Brazil. The metropolitan area has an estimated population of 1,111,702, the 21st largest in the country. The city is known for having the country's third highest Human Development Index score among all Brazilian cities (0.847).
The Tijuca Forest is a tropical rainforest in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is claimed to be the world's largest urban forest, covering some 32 km² (12.4 mi²), although there are sources assigning this title to the urban forest of Johannesburg, South Africa, where between 6 and 9.5 million trees were planted.
Recreio dos Bandeirantes is both the name of a beach and neighborhood in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is a recent development, with no skyscrapers, and the area also contains jungles atop rocky cliffs and hills. High waves permit surfing at Recreio Beach and the white sand beach is used by beach volleyball players. It is about 35 km from the Rio de Janeiro city centre, and most of the people living there are middle-class and high middle-class families, who moved in trying to escape the growing violence of both the North and South Zones.
Jacarepaguá, with a land area of 29.27 square miles (75.8 km2), is a neighborhood situated in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In 2010, it had a population of 157,326. The name comes from the indigenous name of the location, "shallow pond of caymans", yakaré + upá (pond) + guá (shallow), by the time of the Portuguese colonization.
Santa Catarina Island is an island in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, located off the southern coast. It is home to the state capital, Florianópolis.
Barra Shopping is a Brazilian shopping center located in the Barra da Tijuca neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. The center was opened in 1981.
Jacarepaguá–Roberto Marinho Airport is an airport in the neighborhood of Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil dedicated to general aviation. Following extensive renovation in 2008 the airport was renamed after Roberto Pisani Marinho (1904–2003), a journalist and former president of Globo Network. It is a major helibase for offshore support.
Aldeia Campista was a neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, close to contemporary Vila Isabel, Tijuca, Maracanã and Andaraí.
Barra de Guaratiba is a neighborhood in the Western Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Vila Valqueire is a neighborhood in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This neighborhood is located in the borders of North and Western zones, and has a good quality of life with many squares, green places and services.
Praia do Abricó is a nude beach located in Grumari, a sub district of Barra da Tijuca neighborhood, in the western part of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is currently the only beach that permits the practice of naturism in the city. It is officially affiliated to the Brazilian Federation of Naturism (FBrN).
Nova América/Del Castilho Station is a station on the Rio de Janeiro Metro that services the neighbourhood of Del Castilho in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro. It is located near Shopping Nova América, a large shopping mall.
Península is a sub-district located at Barra da Tijuca, in Rio de Janeiro, which occupies an area of 8,395,850 square feet (780,000 m2). It has an estimated population of 28,000 people with low ground occupancy rate – 8% of built area.
Pontal is a small peninsula and beach area in the Recreio dos Bandeirantes neighborhood, located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and was a temporary venue in the Barra Olympic venues cluster for the Athletics and Cycling competitions of the 2016 Summer Olympics.
The Marapendi Natural Reserve is a coastal nature preserve of approximately 665.62 hectares, located in the Barra da Tijuca and Recreio neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established for the preservation of native plants and animals such as the Paraná and jacarandas pines, restinga, mangroves and the Channel-billed toucan.
The Marapendi Natural Municipal Park is a municipal nature park, a public recreation facility of approximately 155 hectares within the Marapendi Natural Reserve, located in the Barra da Tijuca and Recreio neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and part of a protected area for the preservation of native plants and animals.
Clube Atlético da Barra da Tijuca, commonly known as Barra da Tijuca, is a Brazilian football club based in Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro state, adopting similar colors and team kits as Fluminense
The Pedra Branca State Park is a state park in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is one of the largest urban nature parks in the world. It protects an area of Atlantic Forest in the west of the city of Rio de Janeiro that includes the highest point in the city, the Pico da Pedra Branca.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Rio de Janeiro: