Barremian

Last updated
System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.072.1
Campanian 72.183.6
Santonian 83.686.3
Coniacian 86.389.8
Turonian 89.893.9
Cenomanian 93.9100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5~113.0
Aptian ~113.0~125.0
Barremian ~125.0~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017. [1]

The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale (or a chronostratigraphic stage) between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago) and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch (or Lower Cretaceous series). It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage. [2]

A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage.

Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time.

In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition. A given stage of rock and the corresponding age of time will by convention have the same name, and the same boundaries.

Contents

Stratigraphic definitions

Barremian sedimentary rock layers, France StratotypeBarremienA.JPG
Barremian sedimentary rock layers, France

The original type locality for the Barremian stage is in the vicinity of the village of Barrême, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France. Henri Coquand defined the stage and named it in 1873.

Type locality, also called type area, or type section, is the locality where a particular rock type, stratigraphic unit or mineral species is first identified. If the stratigraphic unit in a locality is layered, it is called a stratotype, whereas the standard of reference for unlayered rocks is the type locality.

Barrême Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Barrême is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of south-eastern France.

Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Department of France

Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. Formerly part of the province of Provence, it had a population of 161,916 in 2013. Its main cities are Digne-les-Bains (prefecture), Manosque, Sisteron, Barcelonnette, Castellane and Forcalquier. Inhabitants of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes which was the former name of the department until 1970.

The base of the Barremian is determined by the first appearance of the ammonites Spitidiscus hugii and Spitidiscus vandeckii. The end of the Barremian is determined by the geomagnetic reversal at the start of the M0r chronozone, which is biologically near the first appearance of the ammonite Paradeshayesites oglanlensis .

<i>Spitidiscus</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Spitidiscus is a genus of ammonites placed in the family Holcodiscidae.

A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged. The Earth's field has alternated between periods of normal polarity, in which the predominant direction of the field was the same as the present direction, and reverse polarity, in which it was the opposite. These periods are called chrons.

Chronozone or chron is a term used for a time interval in chronostratigraphy, defined by events such as geomagnetic reversals (magnetozones), or based on the presence of specific fossils . According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the term "chronozone" refers to the rocks formed during a particular time period, while "chron" refers to that time period.

Regional equivalents

The Barremian falls in the Gallic epoch, a subdivision of the Cretaceous that is no longer used by the ICS. It overlaps the lower part of the Urgonian stage, which is sometimes used in western European stratigraphy. In North America, the late Coahulian and the early Comanchean correspond to the Barremian. In New Zealand, it falls within the Mokoiwian, and in Japan it corresponds to the late Aritan. [2]

The Gallic epoch is an obsolete epoch of the Mesozoic Era's Cretaceous, the latter being a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. The Gallic epoch encompasses the Barremian, Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian and Turonian faunal stages.

The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide.

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.

Subdivision

The Barremian is often subdivided into two substages or subages, Lower/Early and Upper/Late Barremian.

In the Tethys domain, the Barremian stage contains eleven ammonite biozones:

Tethys Ocean Mesozoic ocean between Gondwana and Laurasia

The Tethys Ocean, also called the Tethys Sea or the Neotethys, was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

Biozone

Biostratigraphic unit or biozones are intervals of geological strata that are defined on the basis of their characteristic fossil taxa.

<i>Pseudocrioceras</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Pseudocrioceras is an extinct genus of ammonites. The species Pseudocrioceras anthulai has been found in strata from the Barremian - Aptian age of Chipatá, Santander, Colombia and is known from Georgia and Dagestan. The species Pseudocrioceras duvalianum and Pseudocrioceras fasciculare are found in the Barremian of France.

<i>Hemihoplites</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Hemihoplites is an extinct genus of ammonoid cephalopods belonging to the family Hemihoplitidae. These fast-moving nektonic carnivores lived in the Cretaceous period, from Hauterivian age to Barremian age.

Gerhardtia is a genus of fungi in the family Lyophyllaceae. It was circumscribed in 1994 by French mycologist Marcel Bon, with Gerhardtia incarnatobrunnea as the type species. It is distinguished from similar genera by having spores with an irregular outline. Some authorities place Gerhardtia in synonymy with Lyophyllum. The New Zealand species Gerhardtia pseudosaponacea, described as new to science in 2014, is similar in appearance to Tricholoma saponaceum, including its weakly soap-like odor.

Palaeontology

Much knowledge about the Barremian fauna—especially regarding birds, mammals and pterosaurs—derived from the famous Yixian Formation of China, part of which dates from this stage.

Cephalopods

Ammonoidea

Annuloceras Annuloceras summersi.JPG
Annuloceras

Neocoleoids

Neocoleoids of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Maioteuthis

Neololigosepia

Oxyteuthis

†Belemnites

Belemnites of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Curtohibolites

Belemnites BelemniteDB2.jpg
Belemnites

Neohibolites

Oxyteuthis

Nautiloidea

Nautiloids of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Eucymatoceras

An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids. Cameroceras trentonese.jpg
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Palelialia

Pseudaturoidea

Chondrichthyes

Squamata

Dinosaurs (including birds)

Cerapoda

Cerapoda of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Cedrorestes

Utah, USA
Dollodon bampingi Steveoc86.jpg
Hypsilophodon.jpg
Jinzhousaurus yangi.JPG
Psittacosaurus sibiricus whole BW.jpg

Fukuisaurus

Japan

Hypsilophodon

England

Iguanodon

Europe

Jeholosaurus

China

Jinzhousaurus

China

Mantellisaurus

Europe

Planicoxa

Poison Stirp Sandstone Member, Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA

Proplanicoxa

Wessex Formation, Isle of Wight

Psittacosaurus

China, Mongolia, Russia, possibly Thailand

Siluosaurus

Gansu, China

Stenopelix

Obernkirchen Sandstein Formation, Germany

Valdosaurus

Europe

Sauropoda

Sauropods of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Amargasaurus

Neuquén, Argentina
Amargasaurus Amargasaurus BW.jpg
Amargasaurus

Amargatitanis

Neuquén, Argentina

Aragosaurus

Aragón, Spain

Cedarosaurus

Utah, USA

Chondrosteosaurus

Wessex Formation, Isle of Wight, England

Eucamerotus

Isle of Wight, England

Histriasaurus

Croatia

Ornithopsis

Oplosaurus

Isle of Wight, England

Phuwiangosaurus

Sao Khua Formation

Theropoda

Theropods of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Aristosuchus

Wessex Formation, Isle of Wight England
Baryonyx Baryonyx BW.jpg
Baryonyx
Caudipteryx Caudipteryx2mmartyniuk.png
Caudipteryx
Changchengornis Changchengornis 550 CER.JPG
Changchengornis
Falcarius F. utahensis reconstruction (flipped).jpg
Falcarius
Longipteryx Longipteryx restoration.jpg
Longipteryx
Harpymimus Harpymimus steveoc.jpg
Harpymimus
Incisivosaurus Incisivosaurus (pencil 2013).png
Incisivosaurus
Microraptor Microraptor Restoration.png
Microraptor
Neovenator Neovenator.png
Neovenator
Shenzhousaurus Shenzhousaurus.jpg
Shenzhousaurus
Siamosaurus Siamosaurus.jpg
Siamosaurus
Sinornithosaurus Sinornithosaurus.jpg
Sinornithosaurus
Utahraptor Utahraptor Restoration.png
Utahraptor

Baryonyx

England, Spain, Portugal

Calamosaurus

Isle of Wight, England

Caudipteryx

Liaoning, China

Changchengornis

Liaoning, China

Concavenator

SpainA sail-backed carcharodontosaurid

Concornis

Cuenca, Spain

Eoalulavis

Calizas de La Huérgina Formation Spain

Falcarius

Utah, USAA therizinosaur that is one of the few North American varieties of its clade.

Fukuiraptor

Japan

Harpymimus

Gobi Desert, Mongolia

Huaxiagnathus

Liaoning, China

Iberomesornis

Cuenca, Spain

Incisivosaurus

Liaoning, China

Longipteryx

Liaoning, China

Microraptor

Liaoning, China

"Nanshiungosaurus" bohlini

Neovenator

Isle of Wight, England

Pelecanimimus

Cuenca, Spain

Prodeinodon

China, Mongolia

Sapeornis

Liaoning, China

Shenzhousaurus

Liaoning, China

Siamosaurus

Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

Sinornithosaurus

Liaoning, China

Sinovenator

Liaoning, China

Utahraptor

Utah, USA

Yaverlandia

Isle of Wight, England

Yixianosaurus

Liaoning, China

Thyreophora

Thyreophora of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Craterosaurus

England
Fossil of Gastonia Gastonia fossil.jpg
Fossil of Gastonia
Polacanthus Polacanthus foxii.jpg
Polacanthus

Gastonia

Utah, USA

Liaoningosaurus

Liaoning, China

Polacanthus

England

Sauroplites

Gansu, China

Mammals

Mammals of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Crusafontia

EL Castellar Formation and La Huéguina Formation, Spain
Skeleton of the primitive mammal Eomaia Eomaia amnh cast.jpg
Skeleton of the primitive mammal Eomaia
Repenomamus Repenomamus BW.jpg
Repenomamus

Eobaatar

several species from Hauterivian to Albian Spain, Mongolia

Eomaia

Jeholodens

Yixian Formation

Repenomamus

Sinobaatar

Yixian Formation

Zhangheotherium

Yixian Formation

Plesiosaurians

Plesiosaurs of the Barremian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages

Stenorhynchosaurus

S. munozi Paja Formation, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, ColombiaA brachaucheniin pliosaurid, described by María Páramo

Pterosaurs

Liaoningopterus LiaoningopterusDB.jpg
Liaoningopterus

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References

Notes

  1. http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  2. 1 2 See Gradstein et al. (2004) or the online geowhen database (link below)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Earliest occurrence: Upper Barremian
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Earliest occurrence: Lower Barremian
  5. Only known from this stage

Literature