Basalt

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Basalt
Igneous rock
BasaltUSGOV.jpg
Composition
Primary Mafic: plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene
SecondarySometimes feldspathoids or olivine

Basalt ( UK: /ˈbæs.ɔːlt,-əlt/ ; [1] [2] US: /bəˈsɔːlt,ˈbˌsɔːlt/ ) [3] [4] is an aphanitic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron (mafic lava) exposed at or very near the surface of a rocky planet or moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Rapid-cooling, fine-grained basalt is chemically equivalent to slow-cooling, coarse-grained gabbro. The eruption of basalt lava is observed by geologists at about 20 volcanoes per year. Basalt is also an important rock type on other planetary bodies in the Solar System. For example, the bulk of the plains of Venus, which cover ∼80% of the surface, are basaltic; the lunar maria are plains of flood-basaltic lava flows; and basalt is a common rock on the surface of Mars.

Contents

Molten basalt lava has a low viscosity due to its relatively low silica content (between 45% and 52%), resulting in rapidly moving lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidifying. Flood basalts are thick sequences of many such flows that can cover hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and constitute the most voluminous of all volcanic formations.

Basaltic magmas within Earth are thought to originate from the upper mantle. The chemistry of basalts thus provides clues to conditions deep in Earth's interior.

Definition and characteristics

QAPF diagram with basalt/andesite field highlighted in yellow. Basalt is distinguished from andesite by SiO2 < 52%. Basalt qapf.jpg
QAPF diagram with basalt/andesite field highlighted in yellow. Basalt is distinguished from andesite by SiO2 < 52%.
Basalt is field B in the TAS classification. TAS-Diagramm-basalt.png
Basalt is field B in the TAS classification.
Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater, Arizona. US quarter (24mm) for scale. VesicularBasalt1.jpg
Vesicular basalt at Sunset Crater, Arizona. US quarter (24mm) for scale.
Columnar basalt flows in Yellowstone National Park, USA Basalt columns in yellowstone 2.jpg
Columnar basalt flows in Yellowstone National Park, USA

Geologists classify igneous rock by its mineral content whenever possible, with the relative volume percentages of quartz, alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and feldspathoid (QAPF) being particularly important. An aphanitic (fine-grained) igneous rock is classified as basalt when its QAPF fraction is composed of less than 10% feldspathoid and less than 20% quartz, with plagioclase making up at least 65% of its feldspar content. This places basalt in the basalt/andesite field of the QAPF diagram. Basalt is further distinguished from andesite by its silica content of less than 52%. [5] [6] [7] [8]

It is often not practical to determine the mineral composition of volcanic rocks, due to their very fine grain size, and geologists then classify the rocks chemically, with the total content of alkali metal oxides and silica (TAS) being particularly important. Basalt is then defined as volcanic rock with a content of 45% to 52% silica and not more than 5% alkali metal oxides. This places basalt in the B field of the TAS diagram. [5] [6] [8] Such a composition is described as mafic. [9]

Basalt is usually dark grey to black in colour, due to its high content of augite or other dark-coloured pyroxene minerals, [10] [11] [12] but can exhibit a wide range of shading. Some basalts are quite light-coloured due to a high content of plagioclase, and these are sometimes described as leucobasalts. [13] [14] Lighter basalt can be difficult to distinguish from andesite, but a common rule of thumb, used in field research, is that basalt has a color index of 35 or greater. [15]

The physical properties of basalt reflect its relatively low silica content and typically high iron and magnesium content. [16] The average density of basalt is 2.9 g/cm3, compared with a typical density for granite of 2.7 g/cm3. [17] The viscosity of basaltic magma is relatively low, around 104 to 105 cP, although this is still many orders of magnitude higher than water (which has a viscosity of about 1 cP). The viscosity of basaltic magma is similar to that of ketchup. [18]

Basalt is often porphyritic, containing larger crystals (phenocrysts) formed prior to the extrusion that brought the magma to the surface, embedded in a finer-grained matrix. These phenocrysts usually are of augite, olivine, or a calcium-rich plagioclase, [11] which have the highest melting temperatures of the typical minerals that can crystallize from the melt and are therefore the first to form solid crystals. [19] [20]

Basalt often contains vesicles, formed when dissolved gases bubble out of the magma as it decompresses during its approach to the surface, and the erupted lava then solidifies before the gases can escape. When vesicles make up a substantial fraction of the volume of the rock, the rock is described as scoria. [21] [22]

The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt, but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic (coarser) groundmass are more properly referred to as diabase (also called dolerite) or, when more coarse-grained (crystals over 2 mm across), as gabbro. Diabase and gabbro are thus the hypabyssal and plutonic equivalents of basalt. [6] [23]

Columnar basalt at Szent Gyorgy Hill, Hungary Szentgyorgyhegy03.jpg
Columnar basalt at Szent György Hill, Hungary

In the Hadean, Archean, and early Proterozoic eons of Earth's history, the chemistry of erupted magmas was significantly different from today's, due to immature crustal and asthenosphere differentiation. These ultramafic volcanic rocks, with silica (SiO2) contents below 45% are usually classified as komatiites. [24] [25]

Etymology

The word "basalt" is ultimately derived from Late Latin basaltes, a misspelling of Latin basanites "very hard stone", which was imported from Ancient Greek βασανίτης (basanites), from βάσανος (basanos, "touchstone"). [26] The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock, originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1546 in his work De Natura Fossilium . Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock beneath the Bishop of Meissen's Stolpen castle, believing it to be the same as the "basaniten" described by Pliny the Elder in AD 77 in Naturalis Historiae. [27]

Types

Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern, as here at the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland Causeway23.jpg
Large masses must cool slowly to form a polygonal joint pattern, as here at the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
Columns of basalt near Bazaltove, Ukraine Bazal'tove.jpg
Columns of basalt near Bazaltove, Ukraine

On Earth, most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. [28] The high pressure in the upper mantle (due to the weight of the overlying rock) raises the melting point of mantle rock, so that almost all of the upper mantle is solid. However, mantle rock is ductile (the solid rock slowly deforms under high stress). Where tectonic forces cause hot mantle rock to creep upwards, the decrease of the pressure on the ascending rock can cause its melting point to drop enough for the rock to partially melt. This produces basaltic magma. [29]

Decompression melting can occur in a variety of tectonic settings. These include continental rifts zones, at mid-ocean ridges, above hotspots, [30] [31] and in back-arc basins. [32] Basalt is also produced in subduction zones, where mantle rock rises into a mantle wedge above the descending slab. Decompression melting in this setting is enhanced by further lowering of the melting point by water vapor and other volatiles released from the slab. [33] Each such setting produces basalt with distinctive characteristics. [34]

Petrology

Photomicrograph of a thin section of basalt from Bazaltove, Ukraine Mikrofotografiia shlifa bazal'tu iz zapovidnika Bazal'tovi stovpi v poliarizovanomu svitli.jpg
Photomicrograph of a thin section of basalt from Bazaltove, Ukraine

The mineralogy of basalt is characterized by a preponderance of calcic plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Olivine can also be a significant constituent. [48] Accessory minerals present in relatively minor amounts include iron oxides and iron-titanium oxides, such as magnetite, ulvöspinel, and ilmenite. [43] Because of the presence of such oxide minerals, basalt can acquire strong magnetic signatures as it cools, and paleomagnetic studies have made extensive use of basalt. [49]

In tholeiitic basalt, pyroxene (augite and orthopyroxene or pigeonite) and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may also be a phenocryst, and when present, may have rims of pigeonite. The groundmass contains interstitial quartz or tridymite or cristobalite. Olivine tholeiitic basalt has augite and orthopyroxene or pigeonite with abundant olivine, but olivine may have rims of pyroxene and is unlikely to be present in the groundmass. [43]

Alkali basalts typically have mineral assemblages that lack orthopyroxene but contain olivine. Feldspar phenocrysts typically are labradorite to andesine in composition. Augite is rich in titanium compared to augite in tholeiitic basalt. Minerals such as alkali feldspar, leucite, nepheline, sodalite, phlogopite mica, and apatite may be present in the groundmass. [43]

Basalt has high liquidus and solidus temperatures—values at the Earth's surface are near or above 1200 °C (liquidus) [50] and near or below 1000 °C (solidus); these values are higher than those of other common igneous rocks. [51]

The majority of tholeiitic basalts are formed at approximately 50–100 km depth within the mantle. Many alkali basalts may be formed at greater depths, perhaps as deep as 150–200 km. [52] [53] The origin of high-alumina basalt continues to be controversial, with disagreement over whether it is a primary melt or derived from other basalt types by fractionation. [54] :65

Geochemistry

Relative to most common igneous rocks, basalt compositions are rich in MgO and CaO and low in SiO2 and the alkali oxides, i.e., Na2O + K2O, consistent with their TAS classification. Basalt contains more silica than picrobasalt and most basanites and tephrites but less than basaltic andesite. Basalt has a lower total content of alkali oxides than trachybasalt and most basanites and tephrites. [8]

Basalt generally has a composition of 45–52 wt% SiO2, 2–5 wt% total alkalis, [8] 0.5–2.0 wt% TiO2, 5–14 wt% FeO and 14 wt% or more Al2O3. Contents of CaO are commonly near 10 wt%, those of MgO commonly in the range 5 to 12 wt%. [55]

High-alumina basalts have aluminium contents of 17–19 wt% Al2O3; boninites have magnesium (MgO) contents of up to 15 percent. Rare feldspathoid-rich mafic rocks, akin to alkali basalts, may have Na2O + K2O contents of 12% or more. [56]

The abundances of the lanthanide or rare-earth elements (REE) can be a useful diagnostic tool to help explain the history of mineral crystallisation as the melt cooled. In particular, the relative abundance of europium compared to the other REE is often markedly higher or lower, and called the europium anomaly. It arises because Eu2+ can substitute for Ca2+ in plagioclase feldspar, unlike any of the other lanthanides, which tend to only form 3+ cations. [57]

Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and their intrusive equivalents, gabbros, are the characteristic igneous rocks formed at mid-ocean ridges. They are tholeiitic basalts particularly low in total alkalis and in incompatible trace elements, and they have relatively flat REE patterns normalized to mantle or chondrite values. In contrast, alkali basalts have normalized patterns highly enriched in the light REE, and with greater abundances of the REE and of other incompatible elements. Because MORB basalt is considered a key to understanding plate tectonics, its compositions have been much studied. Although MORB compositions are distinctive relative to average compositions of basalts erupted in other environments, they are not uniform. For instance, compositions change with position along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the compositions also define different ranges in different ocean basins. [58] Mid-ocean ridge basalts have been subdivided into varieties such as normal (NMORB) and those slightly more enriched in incompatible elements (EMORB). [59]

Isotope ratios of elements such as strontium, neodymium, lead, hafnium, and osmium in basalts have been much studied to learn about the evolution of the Earth's mantle. [60] Isotopic ratios of noble gases, such as 3 He/4He, are also of great value: for instance, ratios for basalts range from 6 to 10 for mid-ocean ridge tholeiitic basalt (normalized to atmospheric values), but to 15–24 and more for ocean-island basalts thought to be derived from mantle plumes. [61]

Source rocks for the partial melts that produce basaltic magma probably include both peridotite and pyroxenite. [62]

Morphology and textures

An active basalt lava flow 20011005-0039 DAS large.jpg
An active basalt lava flow

The shape, structure and texture of a basalt is diagnostic of how and where it erupted—for example, whether into the sea, in an explosive cinder eruption or as creeping pāhoehoe lava flows, the classic image of Hawaiian basalt eruptions. [63]

Subaerial eruptions

Basalt that erupts under open air (that is, subaerially) forms three distinct types of lava or volcanic deposits: scoria; ash or cinder (breccia); [64] and lava flows. [65]

Basalt in the tops of subaerial lava flows and cinder cones will often be highly vesiculated, imparting a lightweight "frothy" texture to the rock. [66] Basaltic cinders are often red, coloured by oxidized iron from weathered iron-rich minerals such as pyroxene. [67]

ʻAʻā types of blocky, cinder and breccia flows of thick, viscous basaltic lava are common in Hawaiʻi. Pāhoehoe is a highly fluid, hot form of basalt which tends to form thin aprons of molten lava which fill up hollows and sometimes forms lava lakes. Lava tubes are common features of pāhoehoe eruptions. [65]

Basaltic tuff or pyroclastic rocks are less common than basaltic lava flows. Usually basalt is too hot and fluid to build up sufficient pressure to form explosive lava eruptions but occasionally this will happen by trapping of the lava within the volcanic throat and buildup of volcanic gases. Hawaiʻi's Mauna Loa volcano erupted in this way in the 19th century, as did Mount Tarawera, New Zealand in its violent 1886 eruption. Maar volcanoes are typical of small basalt tuffs, formed by explosive eruption of basalt through the crust, forming an apron of mixed basalt and wall rock breccia and a fan of basalt tuff further out from the volcano. [68]

Amygdaloidal structure is common in relict vesicles and beautifully crystallized species of zeolites, quartz or calcite are frequently found. [69]

Columnar basalt
The Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland Causeway-code poet-4.jpg
The Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
Columnar jointed basalt in Turkey Boyabat.jpg
Columnar jointed basalt in Turkey
Columnar basalt at Cape Stolbchaty, Russia Mys Stolbchatyi. Posle zakata.jpg
Columnar basalt at Cape Stolbchaty, Russia

During the cooling of a thick lava flow, contractional joints or fractures form. [70] If a flow cools relatively rapidly, significant contraction forces build up. While a flow can shrink in the vertical dimension without fracturing, it cannot easily accommodate shrinking in the horizontal direction unless cracks form; the extensive fracture network that develops results in the formation of columns. These structures are predominantly hexagonal in cross-section, but polygons with three to twelve or more sides can be observed. [71] The size of the columns depends loosely on the rate of cooling; very rapid cooling may result in very small (<1 cm diameter) columns, while slow cooling is more likely to produce large columns. [72]

Submarine eruptions

Pillow basalts on the south Pacific seafloor Pillow basalt crop l.jpg
Pillow basalts on the south Pacific seafloor

The character of submarine basalt eruptions is largely determined by depth of water, since increased pressure restricts the release of volatile gases and results in effusive eruptions. [73] It has been estimated that at depths greater than 500 metres (1,600 ft), explosive activity associated with basaltic magma is suppressed. [74] Above this depth, submarine eruptions are often explosive, tending to produce pyroclastic rock rather than basalt flows. [75] These eruptions, described as Surtseyan, are characterised by large quantities of steam and gas and the creation of large amounts of pumice. [76]

Pillow basalts

When basalt erupts underwater or flows into the sea, contact with the water quenches the surface and the lava forms a distinctive pillow shape, through which the hot lava breaks to form another pillow. This "pillow" texture is very common in underwater basaltic flows and is diagnostic of an underwater eruption environment when found in ancient rocks. Pillows typically consist of a fine-grained core with a glassy crust and have radial jointing. The size of individual pillows varies from 10 cm up to several metres. [77]

When pāhoehoe lava enters the sea it usually forms pillow basalts. However, when ʻaʻā enters the ocean it forms a littoral cone, a small cone-shaped accumulation of tuffaceous debris formed when the blocky ʻaʻā lava enters the water and explodes from built-up steam. [78]

The island of Surtsey in the Atlantic Ocean is a basalt volcano which breached the ocean surface in 1963. The initial phase of Surtsey's eruption was highly explosive, as the magma was quite fluid, causing the rock to be blown apart by the boiling steam to form a tuff and cinder cone. This has subsequently moved to a typical pāhoehoe-type behaviour. [79] [80]

Volcanic glass may be present, particularly as rinds on rapidly chilled surfaces of lava flows, and is commonly (but not exclusively) associated with underwater eruptions. [81]

Pillow basalt is also produced by some subglacial volcanic eruptions. [81]

Distribution

Earth

Basalt is the most common volcanic rock type on Earth, making up over 90% of all volcanic rock on the planet. [82] The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt, produced from upwelling mantle below the ocean ridges. [83] Basalt is also the principal volcanic rock in many oceanic islands, including the islands of Hawaiʻi, [36] the Faroe Islands, [84] and Réunion. [85] The eruption of basalt lava is observed by geologists at about 20 volcanoes per year. [86]

Parana Traps, Brazil Parana traps.JPG
Paraná Traps, Brazil

Basalt is the rock most typical of large igneous provinces. These include continental flood basalts, the most voluminous basalts found on land. [37] Examples of continental flood basalts included the Deccan Traps in India, [87] the Chilcotin Group in British Columbia, [88] Canada, the Paraná Traps in Brazil, [89] the Siberian Traps in Russia, [90] the Karoo flood basalt province in South Africa, [91] and the Columbia River Plateau of Washington and Oregon. [92]

Basalt also is common around volcanic arcs, specially those on thin crust. [93]

Ancient Precambrian basalts are usually only found in fold and thrust belts, and are often heavily metamorphosed. These are known as greenstone belts, [94] [95] because low-grade metamorphism of basalt produces chlorite, actinolite, epidote and other green minerals. [96]

Other bodies in the Solar System

As well as forming large parts of the Earth's crust, basalt also occurs in other parts of the Solar System. Basalt commonly erupts on Io (the third largest moon of Jupiter), [97] and has also formed on the Moon, Mars, Venus, and the asteroid Vesta.

The Moon

Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15 astronauts Lunar Olivine Basalt 15555 from Apollo 15 in National Museum of Natural History.jpg
Lunar olivine basalt collected by Apollo 15 astronauts

The dark areas visible on Earth's moon, the lunar maria, are plains of flood basaltic lava flows. These rocks were sampled by the manned American Apollo program, the robotic Russian Luna program, and are represented among the lunar meteorites. [98]

Lunar basalts differ from their Earth counterparts principally in their high iron contents, which typically range from about 17 to 22 wt% FeO. They also possess a wide range of titanium concentrations (present in the mineral ilmenite), [99] [100] ranging from less than 1 wt% TiO2, to about 13 wt.%. Traditionally, lunar basalts have been classified according to their titanium content, with classes being named high-Ti, low-Ti, and very-low-Ti. Nevertheless, global geochemical maps of titanium obtained from the Clementine mission demonstrate that the lunar maria possess a continuum of titanium concentrations, and that the highest concentrations are the least abundant. [101]

Lunar basalts show exotic textures and mineralogy, particularly shock metamorphism, lack of the oxidation typical of terrestrial basalts, and a complete lack of hydration. [102] Most of the Moon's basalts erupted between about 3 and 3.5 billion years ago, but the oldest samples are 4.2 billion years old, and the youngest flows, based on the age dating method of crater counting, are estimated to have erupted only 1.2 billion years ago. [103]

Venus

From 1972 to 1985, five Venera and two VEGA landers successfully reached the surface of Venus and carried out geochemical measurements using X-ray fluorescence and gamma-ray analysis. These returned results consistent with the rock at the landing sites being basalts, including both tholeiitic and highly alkaline basalts. The landers are thought to have landed on plains whose radar signature is that of basaltic lava flows. These constitute about 80% of the surface of Venus. Some locations show high reflectivity consistent with unweathered basalt, indicating basaltic volcanism within the last 2.5 million years. [104]

Mars

Basalt is also a common rock on the surface of Mars, as determined by data sent back from the planet's surface, [105] and by Martian meteorites. [106] [107]

Vesta

Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images of Vesta suggests this asteroid has a basaltic crust covered with a brecciated regolith derived from the crust. [108] Evidence from Earth-based telescopes and the Dawn mission suggest that Vesta is the source of the HED meteorites, which have basaltic characteristics. [109] Vesta is the main contributor to the inventory of basaltic asteroids of the main Asteroid Belt. [110]

Io

Lava flows represent a major volcanic terrain on Io. [111] Analysis of the Voyager images led scientists to believe that these flows were composed mostly of various compounds of molten sulfur. However, subsequent Earth-based infrared studies and measurements from the Galileo spacecraft indicate that these flows are composed of basaltic lava with mafic to ultramafic compositions. [112] This conclusion is based on temperature measurements of Io's "hotspots", or thermal-emission locations, which suggest temperatures of at least 1,300 K and some as high as 1,600 K. [113] Initial estimates suggesting eruption temperatures approaching 2,000 K [114] have since proven to be overestimates because the wrong thermal models were used to model the temperatures. [113] [115]

Alteration of basalt

Weathering

Kaolinized basalt near Hungen, Vogelsberg, Germany Absolute iron accumulation in kaolinized basalt. C 015.jpg
Kaolinized basalt near Hungen, Vogelsberg, Germany

Compared to granitic rocks exposed at the Earth's surface, basalt outcrops weather relatively rapidly. This reflects their content of minerals that crystallized at higher temperatures and in an environment poorer in water vapor than granite. These minerals are less stable in the colder, wetter environment at the Earth's surface. The finer grain size of basalt and the volcanic glass sometimes found between the grains also hasten weathering. The high iron content of basalt causes weathered surfaces in humid climates to accumulate a thick crust of hematite or other iron oxides and hydroxides, staining the rock a brown to rust-red colour. [116] [117] [118] [119] Because of the low potassium content of most basalts, weathering converts the basalt to calcium-rich clay (montmorillonite) rather than potassium-rich clay (illite). Further weathering, particularly in tropical climates, converts the montmorillonite to kaolinite or gibbsite. This produces the distinctive tropical soil known as laterite. [116] The ultimate weathering product is bauxite, the principal ore of aluminium. [120]

Chemical weathering also releases readily water-soluble cations such as calcium, sodium and magnesium, which give basaltic areas a strong buffer capacity against acidification. [121] Calcium released by basalts binds CO2 from the atmosphere forming CaCO3 acting thus as a CO2 trap. [122]

Metamorphism

Metamorphosed basalt from an Archean greenstone belt in Michigan, US. The minerals that gave the original basalt its black colour have been metamorphosed into green minerals. Archean Greenstone Pillow Lava in Michigan USA 3.jpg
Metamorphosed basalt from an Archean greenstone belt in Michigan, US. The minerals that gave the original basalt its black colour have been metamorphosed into green minerals.

Intense heat or great pressure transforms basalt into its metamorphic rock equivalents. Depending on the temperature and pressure of metamoprhism, these may include greenschist, amphibolite, or eclogite. Basalts are important rocks within metamorphic regions because they can provide vital information on the conditions of metamorphism that have affected the region. [123]

Metamorphosed basalts are important hosts for a variety of hydrothermal ores, including deposits of gold, copper and volcanogenic massive sulfides. [124]

Life on basaltic rocks

The common corrosion features of underwater volcanic basalt suggest that microbial activity may play a significant role in the chemical exchange between basaltic rocks and seawater. The significant amounts of reduced iron, Fe(II), and manganese, Mn(II), present in basaltic rocks provide potential energy sources for bacteria. Some Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria cultured from iron-sulfide surfaces are also able to grow with basaltic rock as a source of Fe(II). [125] Fe- and Mn- oxidizing bacteria have been cultured from weathered submarine basalts of Loihi Seamount. [126] The impact of bacteria on altering the chemical composition of basaltic glass (and thus, the oceanic crust) and seawater suggest that these interactions may lead to an application of hydrothermal vents to the origin of life. [127]

Uses

The Code of Hammurabi was engraved on a
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2.25 m (7 ft 4+1/2 in) tall basalt stele in around 1750 BC. P1050763 Louvre code Hammurabi face rwk.JPG
The Code of Hammurabi was engraved on a 2.25 m (7 ft 4+12 in) tall basalt stele in around 1750 BC.

Basalt is used in construction (e.g. as building blocks or in the groundwork), [128] making cobblestones (from columnar basalt) [129] and in making statues. [130] [131] Heating and extruding basalt yields stone wool, which has potential to be an excellent thermal insulator. [132] [133] [134] [135]

Carbon sequestration in basalt has been studied as a means of removing carbon dioxide, produced by human industrialization, from the atmosphere. Underwater basalt deposits, scattered in seas around the globe, have the added benefit of the water serving as a barrier to the re-release of CO2 into the atmosphere. [136] [137]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Granite is a coarse-grained (phaneritic) intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cools and solidifies underground. It is common in the continental crust of Earth, where it is found in igneous intrusions. These range in size from dikes only a few centimeters across to batholiths exposed over hundreds of square kilometers.

Volcano Rupture in the crust of a planet that allows lava, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface

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Magma Hot semifluid material found beneath the surface of Earth

Magma is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rocks are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and evidence of magmatism has also been discovered on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and gas bubbles.

Rhyolite Igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition

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Dacite Volcanic rock intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite

Dacite is a volcanic rock formed by rapid solidification of lava that is high in silica and low in alkali metal oxides. It has a fine-grained (aphanitic) to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite. It is composed predominantly of plagioclase feldspar and quartz.

Trachyte Extrusive igneous rock

Trachyte is an extrusive igneous rock composed mostly of alkali feldspar. It is usually light-colored and aphanitic (fine-grained), with minor amounts of mafic minerals, and is formed by the rapid cooling of lava enriched with silica and alkali metals. It is the volcanic equivalent of syenite.

Andesite Intermediate volcanic rock

Andesite is an extrusive volcanic rock of intermediate composition. In a general sense, it is the intermediate type between basalt and rhyolite. It is fine-grained (aphanitic) to porphyritic in texture, and is composed predominantly of sodium-rich plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende.

Basanite A silica-undersaturated basalt

Basanite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. It is composed mostly of feldspathoids, pyroxenes, olivine, and plagioclase and forms from magma low in silica and enriched in alkali metal oxides that solidifies rapidly close to the Earth's surface.

Volcanic rock Rock formed from lava erupted from a volcano

Volcanic rock is a rock formed from lava erupted from a volcano. In other words, it differs from other igneous rock by being of volcanic origin. Like all rock types, the concept of volcanic rock is artificial, and in nature volcanic rocks grade into hypabyssal and metamorphic rocks and constitute an important element of some sediments and sedimentary rocks. For these reasons, in geology, volcanics and shallow hypabyssal rocks are not always treated as distinct. In the context of Precambrian shield geology, the term "volcanic" is often applied to what are strictly metavolcanic rocks. Volcanic rocks and sediment that form from magma erupted into the air are called "volcaniclastics," and these are technically sedimentary rocks.

Xenolith

A xenolith is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification. In geology, the term xenolith is almost exclusively used to describe inclusions in igneous rock entrained during magma ascent, emplacement and eruption. Xenoliths may be engulfed along the margins of a magma chamber, torn loose from the walls of an erupting lava conduit or explosive diatreme or picked up along the base of a flowing body of lava on the Earth's surface. A xenocryst is an individual foreign crystal included within an igneous body. Examples of xenocrysts are quartz crystals in a silica-deficient lava and diamonds within kimberlite diatremes. Xenoliths can be non-uniform within individual locations, even in areas which are spatially limited, e.g. rhyolite-dominated lava of Niijima volcano (Japan) contains two types of gabbroic xenoliths which are of different origin - they were formed in different temperature and pressure conditions.

A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava. Many flood basalts have been attributed to the onset of a hotspot reaching the surface of the earth via a mantle plume. Flood basalt provinces such as the Deccan Traps of India are often called traps, after the Swedish word trappa, due to the characteristic stairstep geomorphology of many associated landscapes. Michael R. Rampino and Richard Stothers (1988) cited eleven distinct flood basalt episodes occurring in the past 250 million years, creating large volcanic provinces, lava plateaus, and mountain ranges. However, more have been recognized such as the large Ontong Java Plateau, and the Chilcotin Group, though the latter may be linked to the Columbia River Basalt Group. Large igneous provinces have been connected to five mass extinction events, and may be associated with bolide impacts.

Intrusive rock Magmatic rock formed below the surface

Intrusive rock is formed when magma penetrates existing rock, crystallizes, and solidifies underground to form intrusions, such as batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.

Trachyandesite

Trachyandesite is an extrusive igneous rock with a composition between trachyte and andesite. It has little or no free quartz, but is dominated by sodic plagioclase and alkali feldspar. It is formed from the cooling of lava enriched in alkali metals and with an intermediate content of silica.

The tholeiitic magma series is one of two main magma series in subalkaline igneous rocks, the other being the calc-alkaline series. A magma series is a chemically distinct range of magma compositions that describes the evolution of a mafic magma into a more evolved, silica rich end member. Rock types of the tholeiitic magma series include tholeiitic basalt, ferro-basalt, tholeiitic basaltic andesite, tholeiitic andesite, dacite and rhyolite. The variety of basalt in the series was originally called tholeiite but the International Union of Geological Sciences recommends that tholeiitic basalt be used in preference to that term.

Fractional crystallization (geology) One of the main processes of magmatic differentiation

Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within crust and mantle of a rocky planetary body, such as the Earth. It is important in the formation of igneous rocks because it is one of the main processes of magmatic differentiation. Fractional crystallization is also important in the formation of sedimentary evaporite rocks.

The calc-alkaline magma series is one of two main subdivisions of the subalkaline magma series, the other subalkaline magma series being the tholeiitic series. A magma series is a series of compositions that describes the evolution of a mafic magma, which is high in magnesium and iron and produces basalt or gabbro, as it fractionally crystallizes to become a felsic magma, which is low in magnesium and iron and produces rhyolite or granite. Calc-alkaline rocks are rich in alkaline earths and alkali metals and make up a major part of the crust of the continents.

Igneous intrusion Body of intrusive igneous rocks

In geology, an igneous intrusion is a body of intrusive igneous rock that forms by crystallization of magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth. Intrusions have a wide variety of forms and compositions, illustrated by examples like the Palisades Sill of New York and New Jersey; the Henry Mountains of Utah; the Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa; Shiprock in New Mexico; the Ardnamurchan intrusion in Scotland; and the Sierra Nevada Batholith of California.

Hawaiite is an olivine basalt with a composition between alkali basalt and mugearite. It was first used as a name for some lavas found on the island of Hawaii.

Lava Molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption

Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet or a moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or undersea, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1,200 °C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

Igneous rock Rock formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava

Igneous rock, or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

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