Bashmur

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Bashmur (Coptic : ⲡⲓϣⲁⲙⲏⲣBishamir, Arabic: آلباشمر Al Bashmur) was an area in Egypt in which the Coptic Christians revolted against Arab rule in the 8th and 9th century.

Coptic language Latest stage of the Egyptian language

Coptic, or Coptic Egyptian, is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century as an official language. Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet, an adaptation of the Greek alphabet with the addition of six or seven signs from Demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have, in the 1st century AD.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Copts An ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa

The Copts are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to Northeast Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country. Copts are also the largest Christian denomination in Sudan and Libya. Historically, they spoke the Coptic language, a direct descendant of the Demotic Egyptian that was spoken in late antiquity.

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Name

The name of the region most likely comes from Demotic pꜣ-šʿ-mr which literally means "the sand bank" where "sand" refers to Lake Burullus which has this name in both Coptic (ϣⲱ Sho:) and Arabic (الرمل ar-Raml).

Lake Burullus lake in Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt

Lake Burullus is a brackish water lake in the Nile Delta in Egypt, the name coming from Burullus town. It is located in Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate east of Rosetta, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the north and agricultural land to the south.

The Coptic name in attested in it's Bashmuric (or Dialect G) variant – ⲡⲥⲁⲙⲏⲣ (rendering Egyptian sounds like š with exclusively Greek letters (e.g. "ⲥ" instead of "ϣ") is a feature of the dialect). The Bohairic Coptic form of the name is ⲡⲓϣⲁⲙⲏⲣ.

Location

The boundaries of El Bashmur have not been constant throughout the centuries. Perhaps from the mid-eighth to the mid-ninth century, El Bashmur encompassed the entire marsh region northeast of Fuwa (Coptic : Ⲙⲉⲗⲉϫ, Melej) extending as far to the east as just north of Dekernes. Later it may have been limited to the eastern part of this area. The name El Bashmur survives in this region as the name of a Nile canal that breaks off about 4.5 miles (7 km) east of Mansoura, Egypt by El Salamun and runs through the area between the Damietta arm of the Nile and Dekernes before emptying into the El Sirw canal some 3.5 miles (5.5 km) south of Dakahlia.

Dekernes town in Dakahlia, Egypt

Dekernes is a town in the center of the Dakahlia Governorate of Egypt. It is situated about 20 km east of Mansoura, the capital of Dakahlia.

Nile River in Africa and the longest river in the world

The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest. The Nile, which is about 6,650 km (4,130 mi) long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.

Mansoura, Egypt Place in Dakahlia, Egypt

El-Mansoura is a city in Egypt, with a population of 439,348. It is the capital of the Dakahlia Governorate.

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