|Alternative names||Basra, pastra|
|Card rank (highest first)||A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2|
Basra is a popular fishing card game, similar to cassino, and very popular in Cyprus. The game is also popular in Egypt, Lebanon, and other Middle Eastern countries. The name is Greek borrowing from the Arabic word Basra. In Turkey, the game is known as pişti or pişpirik.
The game originated in Greece and is known in different variations such as diloti and kseri. The game has been exported by both the Cypriot and Turkish diasporas, and it is played in Cypriot communities in Australia, Canada, England, and the United States, usually passed on by the first generation of immigrants to their children and grandchildren. Despite this, the game is virtually unknown in these countries outside of the Cypriot and Greek communities. In Turkey, the game is still very popular.[ citation needed ]
The game is played with a 52 card deck and can involve two, three, or four players, although the game is most interesting in the two or four player versions. In the four player version, the players can play for themselves or in two player teams. The first team or player to score 100 points is the winner.
The dealer starts by dealing 1 card to each player, starting with the player on the dealer's left, until each player has 4 cards. The dealer then places 4 cards in the middle of the table, called the board. If 1 or more of the 4 cards is a jack, the dealer returns the jack(s) to the bottom of the deck and replaces it or them with the next card(s) from the top of the deck. The play begins with the player to the dealer's left, until all cards are played out. The players either collect (fish) cards from the board or add a card to the board, if they cannot fish any cards. After the cards are exhausted, the dealer then deals each player 4 more cards from the remaining deck. The dealer, however, does not deal 4 cards onto the board as done for the opening hand. The hands are played out until there are no remaining cards to be dealt.
In the two player version, each round has six hands. In the three player version, each round has four hands. In the four player version, each round consists of three hands.
The scoring is as follows:
The object of the game is to collect total cards and cards that are worth various points. Cards are collected as follows:
On the last hand, there are often uncollected cards left on the board. These cards are awarded to the last player or team to collect a card.
The jack is the most powerful card because it can collect all the cards on the board. However, if a jack is played onto an empty board, it is lost and remains in play until one of the players can collect it, usually with another jack.
The basra is the most important scoring play of the game since it is worth 10 points. A basra occurs when a player succeeds in clearing the board without benefit of a jack. For example, if the board shows just a 7 and a player collects it with another 7, that player or team receives 10 points. In another scenario, if the board shows 3 and 2 and a player collects them with a 5, that player or team also receives 10 points. In the rare event that a jack takes a solitary jack, no basra is awarded
The players place the collected cards close to their position at the table. To record bastras, the player places the bastra card face up, sticking out of the player's pile of collected cards. The dealer should be careful to place his or her collected cards away from the deck, so as to avoid confusion. Players are not allowed to look at their collected cards until the end of the hand. At the end of the hand, the players count their total cards and points.
The game ends when one player or team reaches 100 points. In the rare event of a tie (2 players or teams finish even beyond the 100 point mark) there are various tie-breaking options, determined by the players by mutual consent. The game can be declared a draw, or an extra hand or hands can be played until the tie is broken. Or the players can extend the game to a fixed number of points (20, 30 or 50).
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Egyptian fishing game, basra, has the same rules of bastra with the following differences:
Yemeni basra has the same rules of the Egyptian basra with the following differences:
Ethiopian basra has the same rules as Egyptian basra with the following differences:
Lebanese basra has two variants. It has the same rules of bastra with the following differences:
Lebanese basra variant A
Lebanese Basra variant B
This variant is called "ashush".
A version of basra is played in Palestine and Jordan. It has the same rules of bastra with these differences:
There are only 44 cards in the card deck. Kings and Queens cards are usually thrown out. 4 cards are usually dealt to each player although there is a variation where 5 cards are dealt
If there is a tie, each team having 26 cards, no one gets 3 points.
In this version of Basra, the score for a Basra is twice the face value of the card used to make the capture. For example, a Basra with a 7 scores 14 points in the case of capturing a 7 Spades with a 7 Diamonds. If a player captures a Jack with a lone Jack, there is no Basra.
(4) End of game
The game ends when one player or team reaches 101 or 151 depending on agreement between players.
In Jordan, there are two variants of Basra.
Jordanian Basra variant (A)
This Basra variant is the same as Palestinian Basra. It should be born in mind that the Palestinian Basra is the most dominant Basra variant in Jordan.
Jordanian Basra variant (B)
This version of Basra card game is reported by Muthana Haddad. This variant of Jordanian Basra is the same as Palestinian Basra except that the picture cards, Queens and Kings, are used and the value of these cards differs as well. If the picture cards, Queens and Kings are used, they count as 10 for this purpose, so if a Queen captures a lone Queen from the table the score will be 20 points.
This section uses second-person ("you") inappropriately. (April 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In Syria, there is more than one variant of Basra.
Syrian Basra variant (A)
This Basra variant is similar to the Palestinian Basra with the following differences:
There are only 52 cards in the card deck. Kings and Queens cards are not thrown out. 4 or 6 cards are usually dealt to each player.
The value of a Queen is 3 points, so if you capture a queen with another queen, you acquire the double point, that is 6 points. The value of a King is 4 points, so if you capture a king with another king, you acquire the double point, that is 8 points. Capturing a Jack with a Jack is as scored follows:- The value of a Jack is 12.5, so if you capture a Jack with another Jack, you acquire 25 points.
Syrian Basra variant (B)
This Basra variant is called Homsi Basra. It is similar to the Palestinian Basra with the following difference:-
The value of a Jack is 12.5, so if you capture a Jack with another Jack, you acquire 25 points.
Pinochle, also called pinocle or penuchle, is a trick-taking, Ace-Ten card game typically for two to four players and played with a 48-card deck. It is derived from the card game bezique; players score points by trick-taking and also by forming combinations of cards into melds. It is thus considered part of a "trick-and-meld" category which also includes the game belote. Each hand is played in three phases: bidding, melds, and tricks. The standard game today is called "partnership auction pinochle".
Sheepshead or Sheephead is an American trick-taking card game derived from Bavaria's national card game, Schafkopf. Sheepshead is most commonly played by five players, but variants exist to allow for two to eight players. There are also many other variants to the game rules, and many slang terms used with the game.
All Fours is a traditional English card game, once popular in pubs and taverns as well as among the gentry, that flourished as a gambling game until the end of the 19th century. It is a trick-taking card game that was originally designed for two players, but developed variants for more players. According to Cotton, the game originated in Kent, but spread to the whole of England and eventually abroad. It is the eponymous and earliest recorded game of a family that flourished most in 19th century North America and whose progeny include Pitch, Pedro and Cinch, games that even competed with Poker and Euchre. Nowadays the original game is especially popular in Trinidad and Tobago, but regional variants have also survived in England. The game's "great mark of distinction" is that it gave the name 'Jack' to the card previously known as the Knave.
Euchre or eucre is a trick-taking card game commonly played in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Great Britain, and the United States. It is played with a deck of 24, 28, or 32 standard playing cards. Normally there are four players, two on each team, although there are variations that range from two to nine players.
Trex, pronounced Tricks or Trix, and also known as Ticks, is a four-player Middle Eastern card game mainly played in the Levant region. Similar to European games like Barbu, Herzeln, Kein Stich or Quodlibet, Trex is a compendium game in which there are four rounds with each round consisting of five games. Each cycle is called a "kingdom" in reference to the fact that in each cycle one player determines which contract to play in each of the five games.
Cuarenta is the national card game of Ecuador. It is a fishing game played with the standard 52 card pack of Anglo-American playing cards, but all 10s, 9s and 8s are omitted.
Escoba is a variant of the Italian fishing card game Scopa, which means "broom", a name that refers to the situation in the game where all of the cards from the board are "swept" in one turn. The game is usually played with a deck of traditional Spanish playing cards, called naipes.
Scopa is an Italian card game, and one of the two major national card games in Italy, the other being Briscola. It is also popular in Argentina and Brazil, brought in by Italian immigrants, mostly in the Scopa di Quindici variation. Scopa is also played in former Italian colonies such as Libya and Somalia or some other countries like Tunisia with changed appearance in the cards. It is played with a standard Italian 40-card deck, mostly between two players or four in two partnerships, but it can also be played by 3 or 6 players.
Cassino (US) or Casino (Europe), is a fishing card game, often said without substantiation to be of Italian origin, for two, three, four, or even theoretically five players. It is the only fishing game to have penetrated the English-speaking world. It is mostly played by two with a standard deck of playing cards, the object of the game being to score 21 points by fishing up cards displayed on the table. It is very similar to the later Italian game Scopa.
Pedreaux is an American trick-taking card game of the All Fours family based on Auction Pitch. Its most popular variant is known as Cinch, Double Pedro or High Five. Developed in Denver, Colorado, in the 1880s, it was soon regarded as the most important member of the All Fours family. Although it went out of fashion with the rise of Auction Bridge, it is still widely played on the western coast of the United States and in its southern states, being the dominant game in some locations in Louisiana. Forms of the game have been reported from Nicaragua, the Azores, Italy and Finland. The game is primarily played by four players in fixed partnerships, but can also be played by 2–6 individual players.
Pitch is an American trick-taking card game derived from the English game of All Fours. Historically, Pitch started as "Blind All Fours", a very simple All Fours variant that is still played in England as a pub game. The modern game involving a bidding phase and setting back a party's score if the bid is not reached came up in the middle of the 19th century and is more precisely known as Auction Pitch or Setback. Whereas All Fours started as a two-player game, Pitch is most popular for three to five players. Four can play individually or in fixed partnerships, depending in part on regional preferences. Auction Pitch is played in numerous variations that vary the deck used, provide methods for improving players hands, or expand the scoring system. Some of these variants gave rise to a new game known as Pedro or Cinch.
Jass is a trick taking, Ace-Ten card game and a distinctive branch of the Marriage family. It is popular throughout the Alemannic German-speaking area of Europe (German-speaking Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Alsace part of France, Vorarlberg province of Austria, southwestern Germany, as well as in Romansh-speaking Graubünden and the French-speaking area of Switzerland, German-speaking South Tyrol in Italy, and in a couple of places in Wisconsin, USA.
Doppelkopf, sometimes abbreviated to Doko, is a trick-taking card game for four players. The origins of this game are not well known; it is assumed that it originated from the game Schafkopf.
Sueca is a 4 player-partnership point trick-taking card game of the Ace-Ten family, and a popular variant of the Bisca card game. The game is played in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and other Portuguese communities. Its closest relative is the very similar German game Einwerfen.
Pasur is a fishing card game of Persian origin. Played widely in Iran, it is played similarly to the Italian games of Cassino or Scopa and even more similarly to the Egyptian game of Bastra. Pasur is also known by the names Chahâr Barg, Haft Khâj or Haft Va Chahâr, Yâzdah.
Brisca is a popular Spanish card game played by two teams of four with a 40-card Spanish-suited pack or two teams of six using a 48-card pack.
The rules here are based on those of the American Cribbage Congress and apply to two-, three- or four-player games, with details of variations being listed below.
Manille is a French trick-taking card game which uses a 32 card deck. It spread to the rest of France in the early 20th century, but was subsequently checked and reversed by the expansion of Belote. It is still popular in France and the western part of Belgium.
Tablanette, Tablanet, Tabinet or Tablić is a popular fishing-style card game usually played by two players or two teams of two that is popular in a wide area of the Balkans. It is similar to the English game of Cassino.
Bisca is a card game based on the Italian deck.