Batman Province

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Batman Province

Batman ili
Batman in Turkey.svg
Location of Batman Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region Southeast Anatolia
Subregion Mardin
FoundationMay 1990
Provincial seat Batman
Government
   Electoral district Batman
  GovernorHulusi Şahin
Area
  Total4,649 km2 (1,795 sq mi)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total599,103
  Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
   Urban
335.400
Area code(s) 0488
Vehicle registration 72

Batman Province (Turkish : Batman ili, Kurdish : Parêzgeha Êlihê [2] ) is province in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. It was created in May 1990 with the Law No. 3647 taking some parts from the eastern Province of Siirt and some from the southern Province of Mardin. [3] The province's population exceeded 500,000 in 2010. The city of Batman with 460,955 inhabitants, is the provincial capital.

Contents

The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has Kurdish majority. [4] [5] Its current Governor is Hulusi Şahin. [6]

History

The Batman Province contains the strategic Tigris river with fertile lands by its sides, as well as rocky hills with numerous caves providing a natural shelter. Therefore, it was inhabited from prehistoric times, likely from the Neolithic (Paleolithic) period, according to archeological evidence. First documented evidence of settlements in the province dates back to 7th century BC. An artificial "island" was created in this marshy area. It was named Elekhan, and had an independent status for 194 years from 546 BC till the invasion of Alexander the Great in 334 BC. The Batman Province was a religious center in the 4th–6th centuries AD and a part of the Byzantine Empire. In the 11th–12th centuries it was ruled by the Great Seljuq Empire and Artuqids, a part of which was based in the province, in the city of Hasankeyf. The city is a cultural center of the Batman Province and as such was declared as a natural conservation area in 1981. [7]

Around 4th–6th centuries AD the province became an outpost of the Silk Road. It was populated by Assyrian (Non-Syriac) Christians and Armenians, also had a significant presence of Pontic Greeks, Baghdadi Jews. Significant changes in the language and management of the province were brought in 1515 by Mahmoud Pasha Elekhani. It is believed that a variant of his name, Elah, was transformed into Iluh and gave the old name to Batman city. [8] [9] [10]


From July 1987 to October 1997 Batman Province was included in the OHAL state of emergency region. [11]

Development of oil fields resulted in relocation of Turkish people into a mostly Kurd-populated Batman Province. This brought ethnic conflicts which escalated in 1990s. More than 180 civilians were killed in the Batman city area by unidentified gunmen between 1992 and 1993. [12] The province became a stronghold of the Turkish Hezbollah and it was reported that Batman hosted a camp where the militants received military and political training. [13]

Recent individual incidents include the following: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 wounded during clashes in the province on 15 April 2010. [14] One Turkish soldier was killed and 2 injured after a Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) attack on a Turkish military outpost on 7 July 2010. [15] Four Kurdish civilians were killed on 1 August 2010 after their vehicle struck a roadside bomb. [16] Later on 9 August 2010 5 PKK militants were killed in clashes with the Turkish military. [17]

Districts of Batman Batman districts.png
Districts of Batman

Districts

BATDEMO.PNG

The province occupies an area of 4,649 km2 (4,659 according to other source [18] ) and is divided into six districts: Batman (capital, population 324,402 in 2008), Beşiri (32,282), Gercüş (26,111), Hasankeyf (7,412), Kozluk (62,114) and Sason (33,295). [8] [19] There are 270 villages in the province. [20]

Demographics

The population of the province is rapidly growing as a result of the inflow of workforce to the capital. Between 1990 and 2000, its population was rising at a rate of 5% per year. The population was stable in Beşiri and Gercüş, increasing by 1% per year in Kozluk and Sason and decreasing by 3% per year in Hasankeyf. [21] The total population was 608,659 in 2019 with 460,955 people living in the urban areas, mostly in the capital. It was 49.8% female. [22]

Geography

The province lies in the mountainous area with the average elevation of 550 meters which contains several thousands of caves. The tallest mountains are Sason Dağları (2500 m), Meleto (2967 m), Kuşaklı Dağı (1947 m), Avcı Dağı (2121 m), Meydanok Tepesi (2042 m), Kortepe (2082 m) and Raman Dağı (1288 m). Several rivers (Turkish : Çayı) flow through the province, including Tigris, Batman, Sason and Garzan. The 115 km long Batman River flowing approximately from north to south forms a natural border between the Batman Province and Diyarbakır Province lying to the west. The historic Malabadi Bridge (built in 1146–1147) crosses the river near the town of Silvan. The Tigris flows from west to east, merges with the Batman River and exits the province. The Garzan River flowing from north to south enters the Tigris and separates Batman from the Siirt Province lying to the east. [23] The province is also of interest from an archaeological point of view. Sights include the Imam Abdullah Dervish monastery, the bridge of Camiü‘r Rızk and Hasankeyf.

Oil industry

Search for oil in the Batman Province was started in 1935. On 20 April 1940, oil was found at a depth of 1048 meters at the Raman oil field, south-east of Batman, nearby the city. The first experimental well started producing 10 tonnes (about 62 barrels) per day from 6 June 1940.

The field was expanded for commercial production by 1945, but the production was delayed to 1947 by the lack of storage. A small refinery was built at the site with a capacity of 9 tonnes/day by 1947 and by November 1948 a bigger refinery capable of processing up to 200 tonnes/day was built in Batman. Even bigger refinery (330 tonnes/d) was built in Batman by 1955. [24] Several other oil fields were later discovered in the province with the Batı Raman oil field, which produces about 7,000 barrels daily, being the largest oil field in Turkey. [25] [26] A 511 km long oil pipeline was brought in 1967 from Batman to the port city of Dörtyol near the easternmost point of the Mediterranean coast to transport the Batman crude oil. The pipeline has an annual capacity of 3.5 million tonnes and was transporting about 20 million barrels (about 2.7 million tonnes) in the 1990s and about twice less between 2003 and 2007. Another, short (41 km) pipeline connected Batman with Şelmo – the location of the second largest oil field in Turkey. [27] It was transferring between 1.5 and 0.5 million barrels per year in the period 1990–2007. Both pipelines are operated by BOTAŞ. [28] [29]

Oil fields of the Batman Province [25] [24]
NameDiscoveredProduction
started in
Reserves
(million bbl)
Production
(bbl/day, 2007)
Batı Kozluca 197819801381500
Batı Raman 1961196218507000
Dinçer oil field 1988199055400
Garzan oil field 195119561631700
İkiztepe oil field 1988199053400
Raman oil field 194019474004000

Batman dam

The Batman dam construction was started in 1986 and completed in 1999. It has a height of 85 meters and annual power generation capacity of 483 GWh (peak power 198 MW). The associated reservoir has a surface area of 49 km2 and a volume of 1.175 km3. The dam supplies water for the area of 37744 ha. [30]

Famous personalities

See also

Related Research Articles

Batman, Turkey Municipality in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

Batman is a majority Kurdish city in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and the capital of Batman Province. It lies on a plateau, 540 meters above sea level, near the confluence of the Batman River and the Tigris. The Batı Raman oil field, which is the largest oil field in Turkey, is located just outside the city. Batman has a local airport and a military airbase, which was used for transit of aircraft and helicopters in some search and rescue operations during the Gulf War.

Batman River

The Batman River is a major tributary of the Tigris, joining it near the source of Tigris called Dicle River in southeast Turkey. It originates in the Anti-Taurus Mountains and flows approximately from north to south, passing near the city of Batman and forming a natural border between the Batman Province and Diyarbakır Province. The historic Malabadi Bridge crosses the river near the town of Silvan. The region along the Batman River is known for its oil fields. The Batman Dam was built in 1999 in the upstream, together with the associated reservoir and hydroelectric power plant.

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Siirt Province Province of Turkey

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Hasankeyf Place in Batman, Turkey

Hasankeyf was an ancient town and district located along the Tigris River in the Batman Province in southeastern Turkey. It was declared a natural conservation area by Turkey in 1981.

Sason Place in Batman, Turkey

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The Batı Raman oil field (batı meaning west in Turkish) is located in Batman Province, in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. With estimated reserves of 1.85 billion barrels (252×106 tonnes) and a production rate of around 7,500 barrels per day (1,190 m3/d) from 300 wells (as of 2007), it is the largest and most productive oil field in Turkey.

The Raman oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey. It was discovered in 1940 and later developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1948 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Raman oil field are around 400 million barrels (55×106tonnes), and production is centered on 4,000 barrels per day (640 m3/d).

The Garzan oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1947–1951 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1956. The total proven reserves of the Garzan oil field are around 163 million barrels (22.2×106 tonnes), and production is about 1,700 barrels per day (270 m3/d). The structure is a double plunging anticline bordered by a major reverse fault extending along the southern flank. The age of the Garzan formation is cretaceous, consisting of carbonates of a rudist build-up complex. Oil field contains 24 degree API (0.91 g/cm3) oil with a reservoir viscosity of 6.75 cp. Reservoir was initially highly undersaturated lists basic reservoirdata for Garzan.

The Batı Kozluca oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1978 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1980 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Batı Kozluca oil field are around 138 million barrels (18.8×106tonnes), and production is centered on 1,500 barrels per day (240 m3/d).

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Batman Museum archeological museum, open-air museum in Batman, Turkey

Batman Museum is an archaeological museum in the city of Batman in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The museum opened on 12 March 2010 in a free-standing, two-floor building on the southern portion of the Batman Cultural Center site. The museum's collection of 450 items is organized into three exhibition halls, one covering the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods, a second with items from the Ilısu Dam excavations and a third with items from the city of Hasankeyf.

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Coordinates: 38°04′55″N41°24′26″E / 38.08194°N 41.40722°E / 38.08194; 41.40722