Batman Province

Last updated
Batman Province

Batman ili
Batman in Turkey.svg
Location of Batman Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region Southeast Anatolia
Subregion Mardin
FoundationMay 1990
Provincial seat Batman
   Electoral district Batman
  GovernorHulusi Şahin
  Total4,649 km2 (1,795 sq mi)
 (2018) [1]
  Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Area code(s) 0488
Vehicle registration 72

Batman Province (Turkish : Batman ili, Kurdish : Parêzgeha Êlihê [2] ) is province in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. It was created in May 1990 with the Law No. 3647 taking some parts from the eastern Province of Siirt and some from the southern Province of Mardin. [3] The province's population exceeded 500,000 in 2010. The city of Batman with 460,955 inhabitants, is the provincial capital.


The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has Kurdish majority. [4] [5] Its current Governor is Hulusi Şahin. [6]


The Batman Province contains the strategic Tigris river with fertile lands by its sides, as well as rocky hills with numerous caves providing a natural shelter. Therefore, it was inhabited from prehistoric times, likely from the Neolithic (Paleolithic) period, according to archeological evidence. First documented evidence of settlements in the province dates back to 7th century BC. An artificial "island" was created in this marshy area. It was named Elekhan, and had an independent status for 194 years from 546 BC till the invasion of Alexander the Great in 334 BC. The Batman Province was a religious center in the 4th–6th centuries AD and a part of the Byzantine Empire. In the 11th–12th centuries it was ruled by the Great Seljuq Empire and Artuqids, a part of which was based in the province, in the city of Hasankeyf. The city is a cultural center of the Batman Province and as such was declared as a natural conservation area in 1981. [7]

Around 4th–6th centuries AD the province became an outpost of the Silk Road. It was populated by Assyrian (Non-Syriac) Christians and Armenians, also had a significant presence of Pontic Greeks, Baghdadi Jews. Significant changes in the language and management of the province were brought in 1515 by Mahmoud Pasha Elekhani. It is believed that a variant of his name, Elah, was transformed into Iluh and gave the old name to Batman city. [8] [9] [10]

From July 1987 to October 1997 Batman Province was included in the OHAL state of emergency region. [11]

Development of oil fields resulted in relocation of Turkish people into a mostly Kurd-populated Batman Province. This brought ethnic conflicts which escalated in 1990s. More than 180 civilians were killed in the Batman city area by unidentified gunmen between 1992 and 1993. [12] The province became a stronghold of the Turkish Hezbollah and it was reported that Batman hosted a camp where the militants received military and political training. [13]

Recent individual incidents include the following: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 wounded during clashes in the province on 15 April 2010. [14] One Turkish soldier was killed and 2 injured after a Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) attack on a Turkish military outpost on 7 July 2010. [15] Four Kurdish civilians were killed on 1 August 2010 after their vehicle struck a roadside bomb. [16] Later on 9 August 2010 5 PKK militants were killed in clashes with the Turkish military. [17]

Districts of Batman Batman districts.png
Districts of Batman



The province occupies an area of 4,649 km2 (4,659 according to other source [18] ) and is divided into six districts: Batman (capital, population 324,402 in 2008), Beşiri (32,282), Gercüş (26,111), Hasankeyf (7,412), Kozluk (62,114) and Sason (33,295). [8] [19] There are 270 villages in the province. [20]


The population of the province is rapidly growing as a result of the inflow of workforce to the capital. Between 1990 and 2000, its population was rising at a rate of 5% per year. The population was stable in Beşiri and Gercüş, increasing by 1% per year in Kozluk and Sason and decreasing by 3% per year in Hasankeyf. [21] The total population was 608,659 in 2019 with 460,955 people living in the urban areas, mostly in the capital. It was 49.8% female. [22]


The province lies in the mountainous area with the average elevation of 550 meters which contains several thousands of caves. The tallest mountains are Sason Dağları (2500 m), Meleto (2967 m), Kuşaklı Dağı (1947 m), Avcı Dağı (2121 m), Meydanok Tepesi (2042 m), Kortepe (2082 m) and Raman Dağı (1288 m). Several rivers (Turkish : Çayı) flow through the province, including Tigris, Batman, Sason and Garzan. The 115 km long Batman River flowing approximately from north to south forms a natural border between the Batman Province and Diyarbakır Province lying to the west. The historic Malabadi Bridge (built in 1146–1147) crosses the river near the town of Silvan. The Tigris flows from west to east, merges with the Batman River and exits the province. The Garzan River flowing from north to south enters the Tigris and separates Batman from the Siirt Province lying to the east. [23] The province is also of interest from an archaeological point of view. Sights include the Imam Abdullah Dervish monastery, the bridge of Camiü‘r Rızk and Hasankeyf.

Oil industry

Search for oil in the Batman Province was started in 1935. On 20 April 1940, oil was found at a depth of 1048 meters at the Raman oil field, south-east of Batman, nearby the city. The first experimental well started producing 10 tonnes (about 62 barrels) per day from 6 June 1940.

The field was expanded for commercial production by 1945, but the production was delayed to 1947 by the lack of storage. A small refinery was built at the site with a capacity of 9 tonnes/day by 1947 and by November 1948 a bigger refinery capable of processing up to 200 tonnes/day was built in Batman. Even bigger refinery (330 tonnes/d) was built in Batman by 1955. [24] Several other oil fields were later discovered in the province with the Batı Raman oil field, which produces about 7,000 barrels daily, being the largest oil field in Turkey. [25] [26] A 511 km long oil pipeline was brought in 1967 from Batman to the port city of Dörtyol near the easternmost point of the Mediterranean coast to transport the Batman crude oil. The pipeline has an annual capacity of 3.5 million tonnes and was transporting about 20 million barrels (about 2.7 million tonnes) in the 1990s and about twice less between 2003 and 2007. Another, short (41 km) pipeline connected Batman with Şelmo – the location of the second largest oil field in Turkey. [27] It was transferring between 1.5 and 0.5 million barrels per year in the period 1990–2007. Both pipelines are operated by BOTAŞ. [28] [29]

Oil fields of the Batman Province [25] [24]
started in
(million bbl)
(bbl/day, 2007)
Batı Kozluca 197819801381500
Batı Raman 1961196218507000
Dinçer oil field 1988199055400
Garzan oil field 195119561631700
İkiztepe oil field 1988199053400
Raman oil field 194019474004000

Batman dam

The Batman dam construction was started in 1986 and completed in 1999. It has a height of 85 meters and annual power generation capacity of 483 GWh (peak power 198 MW). The associated reservoir has a surface area of 49 km2 and a volume of 1.175 km3. The dam supplies water for the area of 37744 ha. [30]

Famous personalities

See also

Related Research Articles

Batman, Turkey Municipality in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

Batman is a majority Kurdish city in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and the capital of Batman Province. It lies on a plateau, 540 meters above sea level, near the confluence of the Batman River and the Tigris. The Batı Raman oil field, which is the largest oil field in Turkey, is located just outside the city. Batman has a local airport and a military airbase, which was used for transit of aircraft and helicopters in some search and rescue operations during the Gulf War.

Batman River

The Batman River is a major tributary of the Tigris, joining it near the source of Tigris called Dicle River in southeast Turkey. It originates in the Anti-Taurus Mountains and flows approximately from north to south, passing near the city of Batman and forming a natural border between the Batman Province and Diyarbakır Province. The historic Malabadi Bridge crosses the river near the town of Silvan. The region along the Batman River is known for its oil fields. The Batman Dam was built in 1999 in the upstream, together with the associated reservoir and hydroelectric power plant.

Turkish Hezbollah

Turkish Hezbollah (TH), also known as Kurdish Hezbollah or just Hizbullah in Turkey, is a predominantly Kurdish Sunni Islamist militant organization, active against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and the Government of Turkey.

Siirt Municipality in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

Siirt is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province. The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The majority of the city's population is Kurdish although a significant Arab population lives in the town.

Siirt Province Province of Turkey

Siirt Province, is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. The province borders Bitlis to the north, Batman to the west, Mardin to the southwest, Şırnak to the south, and Van to the east. It has an area of 5,406 km² and a total population of 300,695. The provincial capital is the city of Siirt. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. The current Governor of the Siirt province is Ali Fuat Atik.

Hasankeyf Place in Batman, Turkey

Hasankeyf was an ancient town and district located along the Tigris River in the Batman Province in southeastern Turkey. It was declared a natural conservation area by Turkey in 1981.

Sason Place in Batman, Turkey

Sason is a district in the Batman Province of Turkey. It was formerly part of the sanjak of Siirt, which was in Diyarbakır vilayet until 1880 and in Bitlis Vilayet in 1892. Later it became part of Muş sanjak in Bitlis vilayet, and remained part of Muş until 1927. It was one of the districts of Siirt province until 1993. The boundaries of the district varied considerably in time. The current borders are not the same as in the 19th century, when the district of Sasun was situated more to the north.

Silopi Place in Şırnak, Turkey

Silopi is a city and district of Şırnak Province in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, close to the borders of Iraq and Syria. The majority of its people are of ethnic Kurds. The district, composed of Silopi center, three townships with their own municipalities, and 23 villages, has an urban population of 73,400. The mayor Adalet Fidan of the HDP, who was elected in 2019, was deposed the same year and replaced by the sub-governor (kaymakam) Sezer Işiktaş as a "state-appointed caretaker".

Armenian–Kurdish relations Diplomatic relations between Armenian and Kurdish

Armenian–Kurdish relations covers the historical relations between the Kurds and the Armenians.


Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı (TPAO) was founded in 1954 by Law No. 6327 with the responsibility of being involved in hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, production, refinery and marketing activities as Turkey's national company.

Iraq–Turkey relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Iraq and the Republic of Turkey

Iraqi–Turkish relations are foreign relations between Iraq and Turkey. From late 2011 relations between the two countries have undergone strained turbulence. The two countries share a close historical and cultural heritage.

Timeline of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)

This is the timeline of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The Kurdish insurgency is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. The main rebel group is the Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK, which was founded on November 27, 1978, and started a full-scale insurgency on August 15, 1984 when it declared a Kurdish uprising. Apart from some extended ceasefires, the conflict has continued to the present day.

Bengi Yildiz was a Member of Parliament of the Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) for Batman, Turkey.

The Batı Raman oil field (batı meaning west in Turkish) is located in Batman Province, in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. With estimated reserves of 1.85 billion barrels (252×106 tonnes) and a production rate of around 7,500 barrels per day (1,190 m3/d) from 300 wells (as of 2007), it is the largest and most productive oil field in Turkey.

The Raman oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey. It was discovered in 1940 and later developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1948 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Raman oil field are around 400 million barrels (55×106tonnes), and production is centered on 4,000 barrels per day (640 m3/d).

The Garzan oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1947–1951 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1956. The total proven reserves of the Garzan oil field are around 163 million barrels (22.2×106 tonnes), and production is about 1,700 barrels per day (270 m3/d). The structure is a double plunging anticline bordered by a major reverse fault extending along the southern flank. The age of the Garzan formation is cretaceous, consisting of carbonates of a rudist build-up complex. Oil field contains 24 degree API (0.91 g/cm3) oil with a reservoir viscosity of 6.75 cp. Reservoir was initially highly undersaturated lists basic reservoirdata for Garzan.

The Batı Kozluca oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1978 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1980 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Batı Kozluca oil field are around 138 million barrels (18.8×106tonnes), and production is centered on 1,500 barrels per day (240 m3/d).

Batman University

Batman University is one of the 17 new universities established with "Law on Amendments to the Statements Attached to the Law on the Organization of Institutes of Higher Education, to the Statutory Decree on Academic Faculty Members of Institutes of Higher Education, and to the Statutory Decree on General Faculty and Procedure" number 5662 and approved by then President Ahmet Necdet Sezer on May 28, 2007. It is located in Batman, Turkey.

Batman Museum archeological museum, open-air museum in Batman, Turkey

Batman Museum is an archaeological museum in the city of Batman in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The museum opened on 12 March 2010 in a free-standing, two-floor building on the southern portion of the Batman Cultural Center site. The museum's collection of 450 items is organized into three exhibition halls, one covering the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods, a second with items from the Ilısu Dam excavations and a third with items from the city of Hasankeyf.


  1. "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. "Li Êlihê teqîn... kuşti û birîndar heye". Nerina Azad (in Kurdish). 4 October 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  3. Deichmann, Somik V. Lall, Souleymane Coulibaly, Uwe (2007). Urbanization and Productivity: Evidence from Turkish Provinces over the Period. World Bank Publications. p. 7.
  4. Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN   978-0-295-99050-7.
  5. Izreʿel, Shlomo; Drory, Rina (1995). Language and Culture in the Near East. BRILL. p. 244. ISBN   9789004104570.
  6. "T.C. Batman Valiliği". Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  7. Hasankeyf,
  8. 1 2 Batman Archived March 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ,
  9. Batman. Genel Bilgiler,, 18 June 2008 (in Turkish)
  10. Batman. Tarihçe Archived 2011-12-23 at the Wayback Machine ,, 21 February 2007 (in Turkish)
  11. "Case of Dogan and others v. Turkey" (PDF). p. 21. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  12. Jonathan Rugman; Roger Hutchings (13 March 2001). Ataturk's Children. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 55–. ISBN   978-0-8264-5490-4.
  13. Akkoç v. Turkey, Application Nos. 22947/93, 22948/93, Judgement of 10 October 2000 Archived 2 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine , European Court of Human Rights judgment concerning Akkoç v. Turkey case, section II, C
  14. Turkish troop killed in PKK clash [ WORLD BULLETIN- TURKEY NEWS, WORLD NEWS ] Archived 2010-04-19 at the Wayback Machine . (2010-04-16). Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  15. "No Operation". Press TV, Iran. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  16. BDP'lilere mayın tepkisi. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  17. "No Operation". Press TV, Iran. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  18. Türkei, Europa auf einen Blick
  19. Population Statistics [ permanent dead link ], Turkish Statistical Institute
  20. Balaban, Meltem Şenol Risk society and planning: the case of flood disaster management in Turkish cities. PhD Thesis. Graduate School of Natural and Applied sciences, Middle East Technical University 2009, p. 21
  21. The Characteristics Of The Population By Provinces, 2000 Population Census. City and Village Population, Annual Growth Rate of Population, Surface Area and Population Density By Districts.
  22. Population Statistics [ permanent dead link ], Turkish Statistical Institute
  23. Batman. Coğrafya Archived 2012-09-12 at the Wayback Machine ,, 21 February 2007 (in Turkish)
  24. 1 2 History of petroleum Archived 2011-12-23 at the Wayback Machine ,
  25. 1 2 Gengiz Keskin and Cengiz Can. "Upper cretaceous carbonate reservoirs of the Raman Field, Southeast Turkey". Carbonates and Evaporites . 1 (1): 25. doi:10.1007/BF03174401.
  26. Sacaeddin Sahin; et al. (2008). "Bati Raman Field Immiscible CO2 Application: Status Quo and Future Plans" (PDF). SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering. 11 (4): 778–791. doi:10.2118/106575-PA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
  27. Selmo Oil Field Archived March 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , TransAtlantic Petroleum
  28. "Batman-Dörtyol Petrol Boru Hattı (Turkish)". BOTAŞ. Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
  29. International Transport Forum; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (30 April 2009). Intermodal transport: National peer review: Turkey. International Transport Forum. pp. 87, 94. ISBN   978-92-821-0222-0 . Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  30. Batman Dam Archived July 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works

Coordinates: 38°04′55″N41°24′26″E / 38.08194°N 41.40722°E / 38.08194; 41.40722