|Battle of Asseiceira|
|Part of Liberal Wars|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Duke of Terceira||Viscount of Montalegre|
| More than 6,000 infantry|
about 500 cavalry
about 11 cannons
| 5,500 infantry|
|Casualties and losses|
|about 400 dead or wounded|| 2,900 dead or wounded|
The Battle of Asseiceira, fought on 16 May, 1834, was the last and decisive engagement of the Portuguese Civil War, or "War of the Two Brothers", between Dom Pedro, ex-Emperor of Brazil (fighting to restore his daughter Dona Maria da Glória as rightful Queen of Portugal) and the usurper Dom Miguel. Dom Miguel's rebel forces were defeated.
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned briefly over Portugal, where he also became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, and thus a member of the House of Braganza. When their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil.
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Brazil borders every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
Miguel's army, under the command of General Guedes, had been retreating eastward before the advance of Dom Pedro's forces, and had camped in a strong position on the Heights of Asseiceira, a system of hills and valleys about four miles from Tomar. Miguel himself was at Santarém and was not involved in the ensuing battle. Pedro's general, the Duke of Terceira, advanced from Tomar on the morning of the 16th and attacked their position in three columns commanded by Colonels Queirós, Nepomuceno and Vasconcelos.
Luís Vaz Pereira Pinto Guedes, 2nd Viscount of Montalegre, was a Portuguese soldier, born 1770, who served on the absolutist side in Portugal's Liberal Wars.
Tomar, also known in English as Thomar, is a city and a municipality in Santarém District in Portugal. The town proper has a population of about 20,000. The municipality population in 2011 was 40,677, in an area of 351.20 km².
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The Miguelite forces attempted to repel them with artillery bombardment and cavalry charges but the loyalist forces persisted in their attacks and eventually a charge by their own cavalry carried the heights. Many of the enemy were killed or wounded, their guns captured, and some 1400 men taken prisoner. The remainder fled towards Golegã, which was occupied by Terceira the following day. Dom Pedro (already ill with the sickness that would kill him shortly after his final victory) arrived there on the 18th from Cartaxo. Miguel rallied his forces at Évora, but his officers were unwilling to risk a final battle after nearly two years of warfare, and he was presently induced to seek terms of capitulation. The war would finally end ten days later with the signing of the Concession of Evoramonte, where Dom Miguel surrendered and abandoned his claim to the Portuguese throne, being also banished from the kingdom.
Golegã is a small municipality in Santarém District in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 5,913, in an area of 84.32 km².
Cartaxo is a municipality in the district of Santarém in continental Portugal. The population in 2011 was 24,462, in an area of 158.17 km². The urbanized centre of Cartaxo had a population of 9,507 in 2001.
Évora is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 56,596, in an area of 1307.08 km². It is the seat of the Évora District. The present Mayor is Carlos Pinto de Sá of the CDU coalition. The municipal holiday is 29 June.
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