Battle of Burgos

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Battle of Burgos
Part of the Peninsular War
Batalla gamonal.JPG
Battle of Burgos or Gamonal (National Library of Spain)
Date7 November 1808
Location
Gamonal ,near Burgos, Spain
Result French victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg French Empire Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain
Commanders and leaders
Jean-Baptiste Bessières Conde de Belveder
Vicente Genaro de Quesada   White flag icon.svg
Fernando María de Alós
Strength
20,000 infantry
4,000 cavalry
9,000 infantry
Casualties and losses
50 killed
150 wounded
2,000 killed, wounded, or captured

The Battle of Burgos, also known as Battle of Gamonal, was fought on November 10, 1808, during the Peninsular War in the village of Gamonal, near Burgos, Spain. A powerful French army under Marshal Bessières overwhelmed and destroyed the outnumbered Spanish troops under General Belveder, opening central Spain to invasion. [1]

Peninsular War War by Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom against the French Empire (1807–1814)

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, previously its ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.

Burgos Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau. It has about 180,000 inhabitants in the actual city and another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. Burgos was once the capital of the Crown of Castile, and the Burgos Laws or Leyes de Burgos which first governed the behaviour of Spaniards towards the natives of the Americas were promulgated here in 1512.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Spanish history remembers this battle for the vain gallantry of the Guard and Walloon regiments under Vicente Genaro de Quesada. Forming a rearguard for the shattered Spanish lines, these troops repelled repeated charges by General Lasalle's. The cost was high for the Spaniards, with only 74 of the 307 men in the rearguard surviving.

Walloons are a Romance ethnic group native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon. Walloons are a distinctive ethnic community within Belgium. Important historical and anthropological criteria bind Walloons to the French people.

Vicente Genaro de Quesada Spanish general

Vicente Genaro de Quesada was a Spanish military figure. He participated in the Battle of Burgos (1808) during the Peninsular War, leading the Royal Guard and Walloon Guard. Forming a rearguard for the shattered Spanish lines, these troops absorbed repeated charges by General Lasalle's French cavalry without yielding any ground.

It is said that Bessières personally returned Quesada's sword and had his wounds treated in the French field hospital [ citation needed ]. These acts of chivalry became increasingly rare as the Peninsular War dragged on.

Field hospital small mobile medical unit, or mini hospital, that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site

A field hospital is a small mobile medical unit, or mini hospital, that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent facilities. This term is used overwhelmingly with reference to military situations, but may also be used in times of disaster. The concept was inherited from the battlefield and is now applied in case of disasters or major accidents, as well as with traditional military medicine.

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References

Coordinates: 42°21′21″N3°40′05″W / 42.3558°N 3.6681°W / 42.3558; -3.6681

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.