The Battle of Château-Thierry (12 February 1814) saw the Imperial French army commanded by Emperor Napoleon attempt to destroy a Prussian corps led by Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg and an Imperial Russian corps under Fabian Wilhelm von Osten-Sacken. The two Allied corps managed to escape across the Marne River, but suffered considerably heavier losses than the pursuing French. This action occurred during the Six Days' Campaign, a series of victories that Napoleon won over Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher's Army of Silesia. Château-Thierry lies about 75 kilometres (47 mi) northeast of Paris.
The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.
After defeating Napoleon in the Battle of La Rothière, Blücher's army separated from the main Allied army of Austrian Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg. Blücher's troops marched northwest and followed the Marne valley in a thrust toward Paris while Schwarzenberg's army moved west through Troyes. Leaving part of his badly outnumbered army to watch Schwarzenberg's slow advance, Napoleon moved north against Blücher. Catching the Silesian Army badly strung out, Napoleon demolished Zakhar Dmitrievich Olsufiev's Russian corps in the Battle of Champaubert on 10 February. Turning west, the French emperor defeated Sacken and Yorck in the hard-fought Battle of Montmirail on the following day. As the Allies scrambled north toward Château-Thierry's bridge across the Marne, Napoleon launched his army in hot pursuit but failed to annhilate Yorck and Sacken. Napoleon soon found that Blücher was advancing to attack him with two more corps and the Battle of Vauchamps was fought on 14 February.
The Battle of La Rothière was fought on 1 February 1814 between the French Empire and allied army of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and German States previously allies with France. The French were led by Emperor Napoleon and the coalition army was under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. The battle took place in severe weather conditions. The French were defeated but managed to hold until they could retreat under cover of darkness.
Karl Philipp, Fürst zu Schwarzenberg was an Austrian field marshal.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km (93 mi) southeast of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa.
The Allies were jubilant after beating Napoleon in the Battle of La Rothière on 1 February 1814. In particular, Blücher and his generals believed that the war would soon be over.Pleading the difficulty of supplying the combined armies along a single line of communication, Schwarzenberg agreed to allow Blücher's army to operate along a more northerly route. Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia would march west through Troyes along the Seine River, while Blücher would move north to Châlons-sur-Marne and then drive west along the Marne valley toward Meaux. The Russian corps of Peter Wittgenstein and a Cossack scouting force under Alexander Nikitich Seslavin would provide the link between the two armies. One historian estimated that the two Allied armies numbered 200,000 between them, against 70,000 French.
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long (483 mi) river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre. It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the river banks in Paris, lined with top monuments including Notre-Dame, the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre Museum and Musée d'Orsay.
Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France. It is the capital of the department of Marne, despite being only a quarter the size of the city of Reims.
Meaux is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is 41.1 km (25.5 mi) east-northeast of the center of Paris.
The Allies totally lost contact with Napoleon's retreating army. Already on 4 February, Schwarzenberg started to become anxious about his left flank and began pulling Wittgenstein's corps to the south, away from Blücher.On 5 February, Russian General Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly ordered Seslavin's force away to the extreme left flank without notifying Blücher. Over the next few days, the Prussian field marshal mistakenly continued to believe that Seslavin watched the gap on his left flank. At this time, Napoleon began to consider the possibility of moving against Blücher's army. The French emperor calculated that Marshals Claude Perrin Victor and Nicolas Oudinot with 39,000 troops would be able to hold off the cautious Schwarzenberg. Meanwhile, Napoleon gathered a strike force of 20,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry and prepared to march against Blücher.
Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly was a Baltic German Field Marshal and Minister of War of the Russian Empire during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition. Barclay implemented a number of reforms during this time that improved supply system in the army, doubled the number of army troops, and implemented new combat training principles. He was also the Governor-General of Finland.
Marshal of the Empire was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the formerly abolished title of Marshal of France. According to the Sénatus-consulte, a Marshal was a grand officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the Court and to the presidency of an electoral college.
Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio, was a Marshal of France. He is known to have been wounded 34 times in battle. Oudinot is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, Eastern pillar Columns 13, 14.
By 8 February, Blücher's advancing Army of Silesia spread itself out across 44 miles (71 km). Farthest to the west was Sacken's cavalry at Viels-Maisons while his infantry was at Montmirail. The Russian was in pursuit of Marshal Jacques MacDonald's 10,000-man French corps. Also following MacDonald was Yorck's corps which reached Dormans to the northeast of Montmirail. Olsufiev's 4,000-man corps was 12 miles (19 km) east of Sacken at Étoges. Peter Mikhailovich Kaptzevich's Russian corps and Friedrich von Kleist's Prussian corps were 25 miles (40 km) farther east at Châlons-sur-Marne. On 9 February, with everyone marching west, Kaptzevich and Kleist reached Bergères-lès-Vertus, Olsufiev arrived at Champaubert, Sacken got to La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, and Yorck approached Château-Thierry. Sacken had 20,000 soldiers and Yorck's corps numbered 18,000 men while Olsufiev, Kaptzevich and Kleist together counted 19,000 troops.
Viels-Maisons is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Montmirail is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Étienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald, 1st Duke of Taranto was a Marshal of the Empire and military leader during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
On 9 February, Napoleon arrived at Sézanne with the Imperial Guard after a difficult march over muddy roads. French farmers brought their teams of horses to help pull the cannons through the quagmire. That day, Schwarzenberg asked Blücher to reinforce his right wing. Dutifully, the Prussian commander set out on 10 February with Kaptzevich and Kleist, moving southwest toward Sézanne. As the Allies marched, they heard the distant growl of cannons to their right. It was Napoleon's army falling on Olsufiev's outnumbered corps in the Battle of Champaubert. After an obstinate resistance, Olsufiev tried to break out to the east, but he was captured and his corps effectively destroyed.During the fighting, Olsufiev sent several messengers stating that he was under attack, but Blücher ignored them. The 1,500 Russian survivors of the debacle were organized into 3–4 combined battalions. This unlucky outfit would suffer 600 casualties and lose all its remaining cannons at the Battle of Vauchamps on 14 February.
Sézanne is a commune in the Marne department and Grand Est region in north-eastern France. Its inhabitants are called Sézannais.
The Imperial Guard was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time. It acted as his bodyguard and tactical reserve, and he was careful of its use in battle. The Guard was divided into the staff, infantry, cavalry, and artillery regiments, as well as battalions of sappers and marines. The guard itself as a whole distinguished between the experienced veterans and less experienced members by being separated into three sections: the Old Guard, Middle Guard and Young Guard.
The Battle of Champaubert was the opening engagement of the Six Days' Campaign. It was fought between a French army led by Napoleon and a small Russian corps commanded by Lieutenant General Count Zakhar Dmitrievich Olsufiev. After putting up a good fight, the Russian formation was effectively destroyed; the survivors escaped into the woods while Olsufiev became a French prisoner. Champaubert is located in France, 46 kilometres (29 mi) west of Châlons-en-Champagne and 69 kilometres (43 mi) east of Meaux.
On 11 February, Napoleon turned the bulk of his army west toward Montmirail. He hoped to catch and destroy Sacken's corps between his army on the east and MacDonald's corps to the west at Meaux. Sacken's soldiers made a night march east toward Montmirail. Though Yorck urged his ally to retreat toward Château-Thierry, Sacken remained unaware of his danger and determined to fight what he believed was a weak enemy force. In the event, MacDonald had broken the Trilport bridge over the Marne, preventing him from striking Sacken's corps from the west. Delayed by the muddy roads, Yorck's tired troops were approaching Montmirail from the north, but still out of touch with Sacken. Napoleon barely managed to interpose some French soldiers at an important road intersection between the two Allied corps.
In the Battle of Montmirail, Napoleon with 10,500 men and 36 guns faced Sacken's 18,000 Russians at 11:00 am while the vanguard of Yorck's 18,000 Prussians appeared to the north. By 4:00 pm reinforcements raised the French total to 20,000 and Napoleon went over to the attack.During the early afternoon, the two armies engaged a bitter struggle over the village of Marchais-en-Brie south of the Montmirail-Meaux highway while Napoleon tried to break through Sacken's left wing near the highway. Meanwhile, Yorck's troops attacked from the north at 3:30 pm, only to be repulsed. Finally, the French infantry flushed Sacken's men out of Marchais into the open where they were ridden down by French cavalry. Yorck's belated intervention probably saved Sacken's corps, which retreated to the north that evening. Sacken's corps suffered 2,000 killed and wounded, plus 800 soldiers, 13 field guns, and six colors captured. Yorck sustained 900 casualties and French losses were around 2,000 men.
On 11 February, Kaptzevich and Kleist turned around and marched back to Bergères. Blücher authorized Yorck and Sacken to withdraw via Château-Thierry toward Reims where his army would reassemble. MacDonald sent Antoine-Louis Decrest de Saint-Germain with part of his cavalry across the Marne to Coulommiers by a roundabout route. The remainder of his cavalry under Horace Sebastiani was unable to cross at La Ferté-sous-Jouarre because Sacken had broken its bridge. Napoleon launched his troops after the beaten Allies at 9:00 am on 12 February. Marshal Édouard Mortier, Duke of Trévise commanded the pursuit on the main highway while Napoleon personally led another column farther west through Rozoy.The French emperor ordered MacDonald to seize the bridge at Château-Thierry.
At dawn on 12 February, Sacken's corps passed through Yorck's lines near Montfaucon. Sacken dropped off a brigade under General Heidenreich that consisted of the Tambov and Kostroma Regiments.Friedrich von Katzler's advance guard stood at Montfaucon with the 1st and 7th Prussian Brigades and the Reserve cavalry of Georg Ludwig von Wahlen-Jürgass in support. Mortier marched to Fontenelle-en-Brie with the 2nd Old Guard Division under Charles-Joseph Christiani, the 1st Voltiguer Division under Claude Marie Meunier, and the Gardes d'Honneur cavalry. Napoleon had Saint-Germain with 2,400 cavalry and Louis Friant's 1st Old Guard Division. At 1:00 pm, Mortier's advance encountered Katzler's Prussians near Viffort and the Caquerets Hills. Katzler's 1st and 2nd East Prussia Infantry Regiments overlooked a stream. The position was attacked by two battalions of Old Guard Foot Chasseurs and Napoleon's duty squadrons led by Claude-Étienne Guyot. Katzler withdrew when the French began turning his flanks.
Farther along the highway, the French found Heinrich Wilhelm von Horn's 7th Brigade barring their advance. The 2nd Silesian and Leib Grenadier Battalions defended the right flank while the Leib Regiment held the left flank.While the French forces began to deploy in front, a large force of cavalry under Marshal Michel Ney began to maneuver around the Prussian left flank. These were four divisions of elite cavalry under Pierre David de Colbert-Chabanais, Jean-Marie Defrance, Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes, and Louis Marie Levesque de Laferrière. At this time, Napoleon sent 200 grenadiers to seize the hamlet of Petite-Noue. Mortier launched six battalions under Christiani in a frontal attack. Aware that he would have to fight with a river at his back, Yorck ordered his wagon train to cross to the north bank of the Marne.
Yorck ordered Jürgass to move 3,000 Reserve cavalry from the highway to the left flank to counter the French cavalry threat. They were joined by the Brandenberg Hussar Regiment under Friedrich von Sohr. Many of the Prussian cavalrymen were Landwehr - second class soldiers. Jürgass formed his horsemen in two ranks, with the Lithuanian and 1st West Prussian Dragoon Regiments in the first line. There was also a Russian dragoon regiment on hand. Defrance and Laferrière placed the Guard Dragoons in the first line and the Horse Grenadiers, cuirassiers, and horse carabiniers in the second line. As the Prussian front line charged, it was met with a volley of carbine fire from the dragoons. At the same time, the Brandenburg Dragoons charged the 10th Hussars and French dragoons routed the Russian dragoons. Soon there was a large cavalry melee near the Petite-Baloy farm.
The French cavalry prevailed, driving the Prussian first line back into its second line, and causing both to retreat in confusion. The French cavalry seized two cannons and a howitzer. Yorck ordered the 1st and 7th Brigades to retreat, which they did in good order. The 15th Silesian Landwehr Regiment shifted to La Trinit farm on the left flank. Many of its soldiers became the victims of French cavalry later in the day. There was also a Russian jäger battalion near La Trinit farm. Forming the rear guard, the Leib Regiment was cut off by a French dragoon regiment, but it made a bayonet charge and broke free. Two battalions of Old Guard Foot Grenadiers and the duty squadrons pressed back the Prussian right flank under Prince William almost to Château-Thierry. Covering the Allied right flank, Heidenreich formed his two regiments into square and tried to retreat. After his troops fired away all their ammunition, they were overrun. Heidenreich and most of his brigade were captured, along with three cannons.
A force of French cavalry under Louis-Michel Letort de Lorville circled around Nogentel.As the retreating Prussian column emerged from the village Letort's horsemen charged into the Silesian and Leib Grenadier Battalions and the 5th Silesian Regiment, inflicting numerous casualties and capturing two cannons and a howitzer from 6-pounder Battery Nr. 2. As the Prussian columns withdrew within the streets of Château-Thierry, the 2nd Battalions of the 1st and 2nd East Prussian Regiments under Major Stockhausen formed the rear guard. The Leib Fusilier Battalion under Major Holleben guarded the pontoon bridge. Stockhausen's action allowed other units to escape across the bridge, but by the time his 400 soldiers fought their way to the bridge, it had been destroyed. His 400 survivors were compelled to surrender. A Prussian 12-pounder battery firing from the north bank of the Marne prevented pursuit.
Historians David G. Chandler and Francis Loraine Petre stated that the Prussians had 1,250 casualties, the Russians 1,500, and the French 600. The French also captured nine cannons and much baggage and transport.Other authorities put French losses at 400–600, Prussian killed and wounded at 22 officers and 1,229 enlisted men, and Russian losses at 1,200–1,500 soldiers. That evening, the two Allied corps retreated north to Oulchy-la-Ville. Since the French army lacked a bridging train, it took a full day before the Château-Thierry bridge could be rebuilt. When it was finished, Mortier led the divisions of Christiani, Colbert, and Defrance in pursuit of the Allies. They rounded up 300–400 stragglers and found a number of artillery caissons destroyed by the Allies in their hasty retreat.
Napoleon wrote, "My Foot and Horse Guard covered themselves with glory … The enemy seemed struck by a singular terror". However, the emperor was extremely disappointed that he had failed to destroy Sacken and Yorck. MacDonald hardly budged and failed to capture the all-important Château-Thierry bridge. The next day, Yorck's troops marched to Fismes while Sacken moved to Reims. Prince William's brigade observed Soissons. On 12 February, Blücher waited at Vertus for news from Yorck and Sacken. Then the Prussian field marshal decided that Napoleon was retreating. On 13 February, Blücher began pushing west with Kaptzevich and Kleist. Marshal Auguste de Marmont withdrew to Vauchamps where there would be a battle the next day.
The Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube saw an Imperial French army under Napoleon face a much larger Allied army led by Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg during the War of the Sixth Coalition. On the second day of fighting, Emperor Napoleon suddenly realized the long odds against him and hurriedly ordered a retreat. The French were able to disengage and withdraw to the north because of the hesitations of the Austrian Field Marshal Schwarzenberg. This was Napoleon's penultimate battle before his abdication and exile to Elba, the last being the Battle of Saint-Dizier.
The Battle of Brienne saw an Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon attack Prussian and Russian forces commanded by Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. After heavy fighting that went on into the night, the French seized the château, nearly capturing Blücher. However, the French were unable to dislodge the Russians from the town of Brienne-le-Château. Napoleon himself, making his first appearance on a battlefield in 1814, was also nearly captured. Very early the next morning, Blücher's troops quietly abandoned the town and retreated to the south, conceding the field to the French.
The Battle of Craonne was a battle between an Imperial French army under Emperor Napoleon I opposing a combined army of Imperial Russians and Prussians led by Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. The War of the Sixth Coalition engagement began when the bulk of Napoleon's army tried to drive Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov's 22,000 Russians off the Chemin des Dames plateau to the west of Craonne. After a bitter struggle, Napoleon's attacks compelled Vorontsov's force to withdraw, but French casualties exceeded Russian losses. While the battle raged, Blücher's attempt to turn Napoleon's east flank ended in failure due to poor planning.
The Battle of Montereau was fought during the War of the Sixth Coalition between an Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon and a corps of Austrians and Württembergers commanded by Crown Prince Frederick William of Württemberg. While Napoleon's army mauled an Allied army under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, the main Allied army commanded by Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg advanced to a position dangerously close to Paris. Gathering up his outnumbered forces, Napoleon rushed his soldiers south to deal with Schwarzenberg. Hearing of the approach of the French emperor, the Allied commander ordered a withdrawal, but 17 February saw his rear guards overrun or brushed aside.
The Battle of Montmirail was fought between a French force led by Emperor Napoleon and two Allied corps commanded by Fabian Wilhelm von Osten-Sacken and Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg. In hard fighting that lasted until evening, French troops including the Imperial Guard defeated Sacken's Russian soldiers and compelled them to retreat to the north. Part of Yorck's Prussian I Corps tried to intervene in the struggle but it was also driven off. The battle occurred near Montmirail, France during the Six Days Campaign of the Napoleonic Wars. Montmirail is located 51 kilometres (32 mi) east of Meaux.
The Battle of Mormant was fought during the War of the Sixth Coalition between an Imperial French army under Emperor Napoleon I and a division of Russians under Count Peter Petrovich Pahlen. Enveloped by cavalry led by François Étienne de Kellermann and Édouard Jean-Baptiste Milhaud and infantry led by Étienne Maurice Gérard, Pahlen's outnumbered force was nearly destroyed, with only about a third of its soldiers escaping. Later in the day, a French column led by Marshal Claude Perrin Victor encountered an Austrian-Bavarian rearguard under Anton Leonhard von Hardegg and Peter de Lamotte in the Battle of Valjouan. Attacked by French infantry and cavalry, the Allied force was mauled before it withdrew behind the Seine River. The Mormant-Valjouan actions and the Battle of Montereau the following day marked the start of a French counteroffensive intended to drive back Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg's Allied Army of Bohemia. The town of Mormant is located 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Paris.
The Battle of Vauchamps was the final major engagement of the Six Days Campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition. It resulted in a part of the Grande Armée under Napoleon I defeating a superior Prussian and Russian force of the Army of Silesia under Field-marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.
The Six Days Campaign was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.
The Battle of Reims was fought at Reims, France between an Imperial French army commanded by Emperor Napoleon and a combined Russian-Prussian corps led by General Emmanuel de Saint-Priest. On the first day, Saint-Priest's Russians and General Friedrich Wilhelm von Jagow's Prussians easily captured Reims from its French National Guard garrison, capturing or killing more than half of its defenders. On the second day, an overconfident Saint-Priest carelessly deployed his forces west of the city, not grasping that Napoleon was approaching with 20,000 troops. Too late, Saint-Priest realized who he was fighting and tried to organize a retreat. In the battle that followed, the French army struck with crushing force and the Allies were routed with serious losses. During the fighting, Saint-Priest was struck by a howitzer shell and died two weeks later.
The Battle of Fère-Champenoise was fought between two Imperial French corps led by Marshals Auguste de Marmont and Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise and a larger Coalition force composed of cavalry from the Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Württemberg, and Russian Empire. Caught by surprise by Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg's main Coalition army, the forces under Marmont and Mortier were steadily driven back and finally completely routed by aggressive Allied horsemen and gunners, suffering heavy casualties and the loss of most of their artillery. Two divisions of French National Guards under Michel-Marie Pacthod escorting a nearby convoy were also attacked and wiped out in the Battle of Bannes. The battleground was near the town Fère-Champenoise located 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Châlons-en-Champagne.
The Battle of Lübeck took place on 6 November 1806 in Lübeck, Germany between soldiers of the Kingdom of Prussia led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, who were retreating from defeat at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, and troops of the First French Empire under Marshals Murat, Bernadotte, and Soult, who were pursuing them. In this War of the Fourth Coalition action, the French inflicted a severe defeat on the Prussians, driving them from the neutral city. Lübeck is an old Baltic Sea port approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Hamburg.
The Capitulation of Pasewalk on 29 October 1806 resulted in the surrender of Oberst (Colonel) von Hagen's 4,200 Prussian soldiers to an inferior force of two French light cavalry brigades led by Generals of Brigade Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud and Antoine Lasalle. The Prussians were completely demoralized after a two-week-long retreat following their decisive defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Pasewalk is 110 kilometers north of Berlin and about 40 kilometers west of Szczecin (Stettin), Poland.
The Battle of Waren-Nossentin on 1 November 1806 saw soldiers of the Kingdom of Prussia led by August Wilhelm von Pletz and Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg fight a rear guard action against troops of the First French Empire commanded by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte. Though forced to give ground, the Prussians successfully kept the French from inflicting serious loss or cutting off any units in this War of the Fourth Coalition action. Waren lies on the northern end of Lake Müritz, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Rostock. Nossentin is a small village on the Fleesen See about 15 kilometres (9 mi) due west of Waren.
The VI Cavalry Corps of the Grande Armée was the name of a French military formation that had an ephemeral existence during the Napoleonic Wars. The corps was created on 9 February 1814 and François Étienne de Kellermann was appointed as its commander. The corps was formed by combining a newly arrived dragoon division from the Spanish front, a second dragoon division and a light cavalry division made up of hussars and chasseurs à cheval. The latter two divisions included units from the former III Cavalry Corps. Kellermann led the VI Cavalry Corps in actions at Mormant, Troyes, Second Bar-sur-Aube, Laubressel and Saint-Dizier. After Emperor Napoleon abdicated in early April 1814, the corps ceased to exist.
Étienne Pierre Sylvestre Ricard was a prominent French division commander during the 1814 Campaign in Northeast France. In 1791 he joined an infantry regiment and spent several years in Corsica. Transferred to the Army of Italy in 1799, he became an aide-de-camp to Louis-Gabriel Suchet. He fought at Pozzolo in 1800. He became aide-de-camp to Marshal Nicolas Soult in 1805 and was at Austerlitz and Jena where his actions earned a promotion to general of brigade. From 1808 he functioned as Soult's chief of staff during the Peninsular War, serving at Corunna, Braga, First and Second Porto. During this time he sent a letter to Soult's generals asking them if the marshal should assume royal powers in Northern Portugal. When he found out, Napoleon was furious and he sidelined Ricard for two years.
The Battle of Gué-à-Tresmes was fought between 14,500 French troops led by Marshals Auguste de Marmont and Édouard Mortier and 12,000 Prussians commanded by Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf and Friedrich von Katzler. On 28 February the French attacked and drove the Prussians to the north along the west bank of the Ourcq River. That evening and the next day Kleist tried to push the French back while Russian units under Peter Mikhailovich Kaptzevich tried to cross from the east to the west bank of the Ourcq; the Allies were unsuccessful. Gué-à-Tresmes is located where Route D405 crosses the Thérouanne stream about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Meaux.
The First Battle of Bar-sur-Aube was fought during the War of the Sixth Coalition when Marshal Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise's corps of French Imperial Guards defended against an Austrians corps under Ignaz Gyulai and a Württemberger corps led by Crown Prince Frederick William of Württemberg. After holding his main defensive positions in stiff fighting, Mortier withdrew his elite troops during the night and retreated to Troyes. Bar-sur-Aube is located 53 kilometres (33 mi) east of Troyes.
The Battle of Laubressel saw the main Allied army of Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg mount a three-pronged converging attack on the weaker army of Marshal Jacques MacDonald. The French forces under Marshal Nicolas Oudinot bore the brunt of the fighting, in which the Allies tried to turn their left flank. The French abandoned Troyes and retreated west as a result of the action. The village of Laubressel is located 10 kilometres (6 mi) east of Troyes.
The Six Days' Campaign saw four victories by the Imperial French army led by Napoleon over the Army of Silesia commanded by Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. Between 10 and 15 February 1814, the French inflicted losses of at least 14,034 men and 52 guns on the Army of Silesia. A second estimate listed 16,000 casualties and 60 guns. A third estimate reached as high as 20,000 casualties, but a calculation by historian George Nafziger suggested that Blücher may have lost 28,500 soldiers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Château-Thierry (1814) .|